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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"496089\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"amanag\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"586640\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:117:\"Agriculture and Forestry Machinery Market - Global Industry Analysis, Growth, Size, Trends and Forecast (2013 - 2019)\";s:11:\"description\";s:689:\"Agriculture is undoubtedly one of the ground-breaking revolutions in the history of the world. With the passage of time, and improvement in applied technology, machineries have become an indispensable part of agriculture and forestry. \n\nA large variety of equipments like bed-tillers, harrows, cultivators, sprayers, rotators, de-stoners, drillers, tractors etc. are extensively used in agriculture, while forestry equipments include chain-saws, harvesters, trailers, winches, chippers, and skidder cranes. These machineries and equipments help to increase work efficiency and precision.\n\nBrowse full report at: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/agriculture-forestry-machinery.html\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:118:\"images/t/4961/agriculture-and-forestry-machinery-market-global-industry-analysis-growth-size-trends-and-forecast-2.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:119:\"images/t2/4961/agriculture-and-forestry-machinery-market-global-industry-analysis-growth-size-trends-and-forecast-2.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:100:\"agriculture-and-forestry-machinery-market-global-industry-analysis-growth-size-trends-and-forecast-2\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"4\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"75675\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:4:\"IsMe\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:78:\"TITANIC STATES? IMPACTS AND RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE PACIEIC ISLANDS\";s:11:\"description\";s:3:\":-)\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:94:\"images/t/757/titanic-states-impacts-and-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-pacieic-islands.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:95:\"images/t2/757/titanic-states-impacts-and-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-pacieic-islands.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:77:\"titanic-states-impacts-and-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-pacieic-islands\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"18\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"549632\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:14:\"impactjournals\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"620332\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:103:\"UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION MECHANISMS IN AGRICULTURE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A REVIEW PAPER\";s:11:\"description\";s:970:\"Agricultural sectors in Sub-Saharan African, which have economies largely based on weather-sensitive agricultural production, are particularly vulnerable to climate change. This vulnerability has been demonstrated by the devastating effects of recent flooding and the various prolonged droughts of the twenty-first century. Thus, for many Sub Saharan African countries that are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, identifying different adaptation options to climatic variation is crucial in designing appropriate coping strategies. Adaptation at the farmer level requires three basic steps: detecting a shift in one’s external environment, determining that it would favor a change in behavior, and undertaking that change. Therefore, understanding these events is important for decision making for climate change adaptation investment priorities which could yield high returns. Climate Change, Adaptation Mechanisms, Agriculture, Sub-Saharan Africa\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:118:\"images/t/5497/understanding-climate-change-adaptation-mechanisms-in-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-pap.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:119:\"images/t2/5497/understanding-climate-change-adaptation-mechanisms-in-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-pap.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:100:\"understanding-climate-change-adaptation-mechanisms-in-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-pap\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4209\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:93:\"Effects of global climate change on disease epidemics and social instability around the world\";s:11:\"description\";s:1852:\"The impact of climate change on health status is different in developing versus industrialized
\ncountries. In developing countries, rising temperatures and humidity have facilitated the spread of
\nmany vector borne infectious diseases including malaria, dengue and encephalitis. The increasing
\nprevalence of and mortality from these infectious diseases has had several negative consequences:
\ndecreasing economic productivity, increasing medical costs, and taxing already tenuous health care
\nsystems in poor countries. The rising frequency of extreme climatic events such as floods and
\ndroughts, render developing countries with increasingly less time to recover.
\nIndustrialized countries also face challenges from increasing climate changes. Epidemiologi-
\ncal studies conducted in industrialized countries have shown that climate-mediated air pollution
\nhas had a substantial impact among people with asthma, chronic bronchitis, allergies, and heart
\nconditions. Populations in industrialized countries are also vulnerable to temperature-related
\nmortality. Finally, as climate changes precipitate the spread of infectious diseases in the developing
\nworld, the ease of international travel facilitates further spread of these diseases to the developed
\nworld.
\nImportantly, when the pathogens of disease adapt to the new environments, the interaction
\nbetween climate change and disease poses a serious threat to international health. As such, the
\ninternational community must be cooperative and vigilant. Countries must be willing to
\ncommunicate so that they may learn from each other’s experiences. Also, resource-poor countries
\nrequire support and assistance as they attempt to control the impact of climate change and disease
\nepidemics.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:109:\"images/t/43/effects-of-global-climate-change-on-disease-epidemics-and-social-instability-around-the-world.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:110:\"images/t2/43/effects-of-global-climate-change-on-disease-epidemics-and-social-instability-around-the-world.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:93:\"effects-of-global-climate-change-on-disease-epidemics-and-social-instability-around-the-world\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"13\";s:6:\"rating\";s:7:\"2.23077\";s:5:\"voter\";s:2:\"13\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"548757\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:14:\"impactjournals\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"620332\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:89:\"ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION STRATEGIE CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA\";s:11:\"description\";s:1254:\"Forest cover in Cross River State (7,920km2) decreased by 12% from 1991 to 2000 and a further 15% from 2001 to 2008. The State Government then resolved to manage her forest estate for Carbon Concession, removed revenue targets from forest exploitation, placed an indefinite moratorium on logging and set up an Anti-Deforestation Task Force. Climate change caused a land slide disaster at Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary in 2012. Ecological restoration and climate change mitigation programmes were undertaken in 2009. Two million polythene bags were distributed to individuals, communities and forest officers to raise tree seedlings. A total of 2,041,000 seedlings of indigenous tree species were raised between 2009 and 2012 and 10% or 204,000 were planted in 30 communities across the state. The mean survival rate after one year was 74%. The wetter southern part had a higher survival rate of seedlings than the drier northern part of the state. Challenges included bush burning, illegal farming, inadequate funds and lack of vehicles. Opportunities included a strong political will of the state government and the conservation culture of the people. It was recommended that awareness raising and sourcing for new funders be embarked upon. \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:106:\"images/t/5488/ecological-restoration-and-climate-change-mitigation-strategie-cross-river-state-nigeria.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:107:\"images/t2/5488/ecological-restoration-and-climate-change-mitigation-strategie-cross-river-state-nigeria.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:88:\"ecological-restoration-and-climate-change-mitigation-strategie-cross-river-state-nigeria\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"6\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"548928\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:14:\"impactjournals\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"620332\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:32:\"FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE\";s:11:\"description\";s:3518:\"Food security refers to the availability of food and one\'s access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantially for the past several decades. \nIn 2006, MSNBC reported that globally, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who is undernourished - the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished. According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China, the world\'s most populous country, is suffering from an obesity epidemic. In India, the second-most populous country in the world, 30 million people have been added to the ranks of the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46% of children are underweight. \nIn developing countries, often 70% or more of the population lives in rural areas. In that context, agricultural development among smallholder farmers and landless people provides a livelihood for people allowing them the opportunity to stay in their communities. In many areas of the world, land ownership is not available, thus, people who want or need to farm to make a living have little incentive to improve the land. \nClimate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. \nThe low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. \nClimate change may affect the food security system in many ways.\n• Climate change will act as a multiplier of existing threats to food security: By 2050, the risk of hunger is projected to increase by 10 – 20 %, and child malnutrition is anticipated to be 20 % higher compared to a no-climate change scenario.\n• Achieving food security under a changing climate requires substantial increases in food production on the one hand, as well as improved access to adequate and nutritious food and capacities to cope with the risks posed by climate change on the other hand.\n• Governments must be assisted in enhancing food production and access, scaling up social protection systems and improving their ability to prepare for and respond to disasters.\n• Community-based development processes need to be fostered in order to enable the poorest and most vulnerable to build sustainable and climate resilient livelihoods and move out of chronic poverty and food insecurity.\n• The humanitarian community must get prepared for more extreme weather events and protecting the already food insecure better by strengthening both crisis response and crisis prevention.\n\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:50:\"images/t/5490/food-security-and-climate-change.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:51:\"images/t2/5490/food-security-and-climate-change.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:32:\"food-security-and-climate-change\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"429179\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:14:\"SUMIKO camacho\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:46:\"http://www.thefinalrace.net/climatechange.html\";s:5:\"title\";s:26:\"Malaria and Climate Change\";s:11:\"description\";s:26:\"Malaria and Climate Change\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:44:\"images/t/4292/malaria-and-climate-change.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:45:\"images/t2/4292/malaria-and-climate-change.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:26:\"malaria-and-climate-change\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"3\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"9120\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:75:\"Paying the Premium: Insurance as a Risk Management Tool for Climate Change\";s:11:\"description\";s:610:\"Climate change is projected to exacerbate the intensity, and
\nfrequency, of weather-related hazards such as storms and
\ndroughts (IPCC, 2007). These climatic changes are likely to
\nintensify the growth in economic damages from extreme
\nweather events seen over the past two decades (Munich Re
\nGroup 2008) and suffered primarily by developing countries
\nleast able to cope with them. Absent effective risk reduction
\nstrategies and activities, climate-related disasters could
\nseverely undermine the ability of regions and nations to meet
\nbasic development goals. \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:89:\"images/t/92/paying-the-premium-insurance-as-a-risk-management-tool-for-climate-change.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:90:\"images/t2/92/paying-the-premium-insurance-as-a-risk-management-tool-for-climate-change.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:73:\"paying-the-premium-insurance-as-a-risk-management-tool-for-climate-change\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"15\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"76858\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:15:\"durhamenergycdt\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:5:\"11180\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:35:\"Manchester Climate Change DIrectory\";s:11:\"description\";s:221:\"DIrectory of Climate Change and Energy Experiments in Manchester, UK. Captured in a 28 case studies covering governance, energy, community, transport and the built environment responses to the urban low energy imperative.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:52:\"images/t/769/manchester-climate-change-directory.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:53:\"images/t2/769/manchester-climate-change-directory.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:35:\"manchester-climate-change-directory\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"36\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"107313\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"susanna\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:61:\"An overview of Climate Change - Alan Hopkins (GES Consulting)\";s:11:\"description\";s:62:\"An overview of Climate Change - Alan Hopkins (GES Consulting) \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:102:\"data/thumb/An-overview-of-Climate-Change-Alan-Hopkins-GES-Consulting-Presentation-Transcript-33373.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:103:\"data/thumb2/An-overview-of-Climate-Change-Alan-Hopkins-GES-Consulting-Presentation-Transcript-33373.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:57:\"an-overview-of-climate-change-alan-hopkins-ges-consulting\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"21\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 19:35:23' WHERE `aff_id` = '1299641'