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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4139\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:25:\"Shyness and Social Phobia\";s:11:\"description\";s:1120:\"Most of us know what it is like to feel shy. Although it may seem as if everyone
\nelse in the room is feeling confident, social anxiety is a nearly universal
\nexperience. In a classic study in the 1970s, Philip Zimbardo found that more than
\n80% of people questioned reported that they were shy at some point in their
\nlives, while over 40% described themselves as currently shy. About 4%
\ndescribed themselves as extremely shy in that they felt shy all the time, in all
\nsituations, and with virtually all people. Thus, shyness appears to exist on a
\ncontinuum with most of us feeling shy in some specific situations and a small
\npercentage struggling with severe shyness in all situations. Zimbardo found that
\nstrangers and members of the opposite sex were the most likely people to make
\nus feel shy while close friends and family members were the least likely. The
\nsituations in which people were most likely to experience shyness were being the
\ncenter of attention in a large group (such as giving a speech) or being in social or
\nnew situations. \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:41:\"images/t/42/shyness-and-social-phobia.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:42:\"images/t2/42/shyness-and-social-phobia.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:25:\"shyness-and-social-phobia\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:4:\"2.75\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"4\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4138\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:51:\"Shyness, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Social Phobia\";s:11:\"description\";s:1635:\"Shyness is a problem that is well known to many people. It is that all-too-familiar feeling of
\ndiscomfort, tension, or anxiety that a person may experience when he or she has to interact with
\nother people, or when he or she faces the prospect of doing something in front of others.
\nShyness can be troubling and very uncomfortable. Up to 80% of people report that they were
\nshy at some time in their lives. Forty percent describe themselves as shy now. However, if you
\nthink of yourself as shy, it does not mean you have a problem that requires professional help.
\nMost people feel some discomfort when thinking about social events (parties, for example),
\nwhen preparing to take a social risk (asking someone for a first date), or when called upon to do
\nsomething in front of others (public speaking). However, the typical shy person manages to get
\nalong reasonably well. These situations may not be comfortable and there may be great
\ntemptation to avoid them, but the shy person finds that he or she is still able to tolerate them
\nand to get a great deal of satisfaction out of life.
\nHowever, these feelings can sometimes be severe. If they are sufficiently intense; if the
\nperson avoids doing things that are important to him or her because of these feelings; or if the
\nperson\'s ability to function at home, at school, at work, or in his or her social circle is curtailed by
\nthese feelings, the label of shyness is no longer appropriate. Then mental health professionals
\ncall it social anxiety disorder (it is also known as social phobia).\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:65:\"images/t/42/shyness-social-anxiety-disorder-and-social-phobia.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:66:\"images/t2/42/shyness-social-anxiety-disorder-and-social-phobia.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:49:\"shyness-social-anxiety-disorder-and-social-phobia\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"3\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"1\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"2\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87574\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"harry\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:26:\"Treatment of social phobia\";s:11:\"description\";s:742:\"Social phobia (or social anxiety disorder) manifests as a marked and persistent fear of negative evaluation in social or performance situations.The epidemiology, diagnosis and psychopathology are reviewed, including clinical presentation, cultural aspects and the differences between agoraphobia and social phobia. Behavioral treatments, including graded self-exposure and cognitive restructuring, are considered. A cognitive model of the maintenance of social phobia is discussed. It is hypothesized that attentional shifting towards imagery, safety behaviors and \'post-mortem\' analyzes play a key role in symptom maintenance. The implications of this for treatment are described, and guidelines for pharmacological treatment are summarized.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:43:\"images/t/876/treatment-of-social-phobia.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:44:\"images/t2/876/treatment-of-social-phobia.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:26:\"treatment-of-social-phobia\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4140\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:44:\"Social Phobia and Excessive Shyness in Teens\";s:11:\"description\";s:1704:\"Studies show that 40 percent of Americans consider
\nthemselves shy. Teens seem especially prone to feeling shy or
\nself-conscious because of all of the physical and emotional
\nchanges that occur during adolescence. Teens are often
\nreluctant to be the center of attention, especially those who
\nare a little shyer than some of their peers. Most teens find it
\nstressful to ask someone on a date, talk in front of a group, or
\nsit at a lunch table with people they don’t know well; however,
\nmost find a way to cope. As a matter of fact, a little anxiety in
\nthese circumstances is completely normal. But for some teens,
\nresponding to a question in class, giving a presentation, or
\neven talking at the lunch table may cause a surge of anxiety.
\nThis condition is called social phobia.
\nSocial phobia is more than just normal shyness or the
\nawkward feelings most people have from time to time. Social
\nphobia is extreme shyness accompanied by anxiety that
\ncauses people to avoid doing things they might otherwise
\nenjoy. The problem with social phobia, like most other
\nphobias, is the fear that a person feels is usually way out of
\nproportion to any actual danger that the situation presents.
\nPeople who feel too anxious to talk because of social
\nphobia or extreme shyness do have completely normal
\nconversations with the people they’re comfortable with (such
\nas parents, siblings, or a best friend) or in certain places (like
\nhome). But other situations cause them such extreme
\ndiscomfort that they may not be able to bring themselves to
\ntalk at all.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:60:\"images/t/42/social-phobia-and-excessive-shyness-in-teens.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:61:\"images/t2/42/social-phobia-and-excessive-shyness-in-teens.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:44:\"social-phobia-and-excessive-shyness-in-teens\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:3:\"1.5\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"2\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87583\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"emily\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:41:\"Assessment and Treatment of Social Phobia\";s:11:\"description\";s:947:\"Social phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by heightened fear and avoidance of one or more social or performance situations, including public speaking, meeting new people, eating or writing in front of others, and attending social gatherings. People with social phobia are typically anxious about the possibility that others will evaluate them negatively and/or notice symptoms of their anxiety. Social phobia affects up to 13% of individuals at sometime in their lives and is usually associated with at least moderate functional impairment. Research on the nature and treatment of social phobia has increased dramatically over the past decade. As with many of the anxiety disorders, sensitive assessment instruments and effective treatments now exist for people suffering from heightened social anxiety. Typical assessment strategies include clinical interviews, behavioral assessments, monitoring diaries, and self-report questionnaires.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:58:\"images/t/876/assessment-and-treatment-of-social-phobia.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:59:\"images/t2/876/assessment-and-treatment-of-social-phobia.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:41:\"assessment-and-treatment-of-social-phobia\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"9\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"5\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"1\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4125\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:94:\"Cognitive-behavioral therapy in social phobia Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social\";s:11:\"description\";s:1228:\"This article is a review of relevant aspects of social phobia and the stages of treatment within cognitive-behavioral therapy
\nin children and adolescents, as well as in adults. Method: A review of the literature published on the treatment of social phobia using
\ncognitive-behavioral treatments was performed using the Medline database. Results: A review of the literature suggests that social
\nphobia is a chronic and prevalent condition, characterized by social inhibition and excessive shyness. Diagnosis and treatment of the
\ndisorder are usually determined by distress level and functional impairment. Population studies indicate that lifetime prevalence rates for
\nsocial phobia range from 2.5 to 13.3%. The main techniques used in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia are described and
\nexemplified in a case report. Conclusions: There is a general consensus in the literature that cognitive-behavioral therapy is efficacious
\nin the treatment of youth and adults with social phobia. Because of the early onset associated with social phobia, the identification of
\nchildren at high risk for the development of social phobia should be prioritized in future investigations\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:110:\"images/t/42/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-social-phobia-terapia-cognitivo-comportamental-da-fobia-social.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:111:\"images/t2/42/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-social-phobia-terapia-cognitivo-comportamental-da-fobia-social.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:94:\"cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-social-phobia-terapia-cognitivo-comportamental-da-fobia-social\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"6\";s:6:\"rating\";s:3:\"2.5\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"4\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4127\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:62:\"Relationship between adult social phobia and childhood anxiety\";s:11:\"description\";s:1246:\"Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumas and the presence of childhood anxiety
\ndisorders in adult patients with social phobia and investigate their influence on the presentation of the disorder.
\nMethods: Twenty-four adult patients with social phobia were asked about the presence of trauma before the
\nage of 16. The K-SADS-E and the DICA-P interviews were used to assess these patients regarding childhood
\nanxiety disorders.
\nResults: Twelve (50%) patients reported a history of trauma before the age of 16. The presence of trauma did
\nnot influence the presentation of the disorder. Seventy-five percent of patients had a history of anxiety disorders
\nin childhood. Patients with a history of at least 2 childhood anxiety disorders had an increased lifetime prevalence
\nof major depression (10 vs. 3; p=.04) and family history of psychiatric disorders (13 vs. 6; p=.02).
\nConclusion: Anxiety disorder in childhood is associated with family history of psychiatric disorders. The presence
\nof more than one diagnosis of anxiety disorder in childhood can be considered a risk factor for the development
\nof depression in adult patients with social phobia.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:78:\"images/t/42/relationship-between-adult-social-phobia-and-childhood-anxiety.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:79:\"images/t2/42/relationship-between-adult-social-phobia-and-childhood-anxiety.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:62:\"relationship-between-adult-social-phobia-and-childhood-anxiety\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"4\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"2\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"1\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4129\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:13:\"Social Phobia\";s:11:\"description\";s:794:\"A phobia is basically a fear. We all have fears about things such as heights and spiders but,
\nfor most of us, they do not interfere with the way we lead our lives. These fears are only
\ncalled phobias when they interfere with things we would otherwise enjoy or do easily.
\nMany of us get worried before meeting new people, but we find that once we are with them,
\nwe can cope and even enjoy the situation. However, some of us become very anxious about
\nthese situations. At best, we cannot enjoy them and, at worst, we may have to avoid them
\naltogether. This is what doctors and psychologists call social phobia.
\nThis leaflet describes what it feels like to have a social phobia, how you can help yourself,
\nand what other kinds of help are available.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:29:\"images/t/42/social-phobia.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:30:\"images/t2/42/social-phobia.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:13:\"social-phobia\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"5\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87591\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"bellino\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:66:\"SOCIAL PHOBIA: AETIOLOGY, COURSE AND TREATMENT WITH ENDOSCOPIC ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:883:\"The purpose of this study was to explore the development and course of social phobia by analyzing qualitatively all the textual material obtained about the persons with treatment-resistant social phobia who, during the years 1995-2000, underwent a surgical procedure called endoscopic sympathetic block (ESB) to alleviate their phobic symptoms. In the other part of this study, the effect of this surgical procedure on social phobia was assessed quantitatively. The qualitative part of the study was based on the phenomenologic-existential philosophy and the principles of grounded theory. The qualitative analysis revealed four kinds of parenthood in the families of socially phobic persons: a violent, alcoholic type, a dominant type with high demands, a negligent type and a good enough type. A "vicious circle of social phobia" was formulated as a substantial category.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:77:\"images/t/876/social-phobia-aetiology-course-and-treatment-with-endoscopic.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:78:\"images/t2/876/social-phobia-aetiology-course-and-treatment-with-endoscopic.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:60:\"social-phobia-aetiology-course-and-treatment-with-endoscopic\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"78\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87631\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:4:\"joel\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:70:\"Clinical features and treatment response in social phobia: axis II ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:1158:\"The aim of the present study was twofold. First, we studied the differential demographic and clinical features regarding social phobia subtype and axis II comorbidity. Second, we studied the role of social phobia subtype and axis II comorbidity in treatment effectiveness. The sample included 28 patients diagnosed of social phobia (DSM-IV, APA, 1994). We divided the sample attending to social phobia subtype and axis II comorbidity. When we compared the groups, we did not find significant differences in demographic variables. However, we found differences regarding clinical variables: Patients with generalized social phobia were more impaired than patients with circumscribed social phobia; patients with axis II comorbidity were also more impaired than patients without axis II comorbidity. All patients were treated with a group cognitive-behavioral program, adapted from Heimberg, Juster, Hope & Mattia (1995). There were no differences in effectiveness regarding the different sub-samples. However, some of the clinical differences found at the pre-treatment regarding some clinical variables disappeared after the termination of the treatment.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:82:\"images/t/877/clinical-features-and-treatment-response-in-social-phobia-axis-ii.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:83:\"images/t2/877/clinical-features-and-treatment-response-in-social-phobia-axis-ii.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:65:\"clinical-features-and-treatment-response-in-social-phobia-axis-ii\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 12:27:06' WHERE `aff_id` = '1725'