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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"35923\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"katja\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:62:\"Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment\";s:11:\"description\";s:2081:\"The First Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." This language restricts government both more and less than it would if it were applied literally. It restricts government more in that it applies not only to Congress, but to all branches of the federal government, and to all branches of state and local government. It restricts government less in that it provides no protection to some types of speech and only limited protection to others. This report provides an overview of the major exceptions to the First Amendment—of the ways that the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantee of freedom of speech and press to provide no protection or only limited protection for some types of speech. For example, the Court has decided that the First Amendment provides no protection to obscenity, child pornography, or speech that constitutes "advocacy of the use of force or of law violation ... where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action." The Court has also decided that the First Amendment provides less than full protection to commercial speech, defamation (libel and slander), speech that may be harmful to children, speech broadcast on radio and television, and public employees\' speech. Even speech that enjoys the most extensive First Amendment protection may be subject to "regulations of the time, place, and manner of expression which are content-neutral, are narrowly tailored to serve a significant government interest, and leave open ample alternative channels of communication." Furthermore, even speech that enjoys the most extensive First Amendment protection may be restricted on the basis of its content if the restriction passes "strict scrutiny" (i.e., if the government shows that the restriction serves "to promote a compelling interest" and is "the least restrictive means to further the articulated interest").\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:78:\"images/t/360/freedom-of-speech-and-press-exceptions-to-the-first-amendment.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:79:\"images/t2/360/freedom-of-speech-and-press-exceptions-to-the-first-amendment.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:61:\"freedom-of-speech-and-press-exceptions-to-the-first-amendment\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"39\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"35925\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:9:\"christian\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:65:\"First Amendment Schools: Educating for Freedom and Responsibility\";s:11:\"description\";s:981:\"First Amendment Schools: Educating for Freedom and Responsibility, co-sponsored by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) and the First Amendment Center, is a nationwide initiative designed to help schools model and teach the rights and responsibilities that flow from the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The project has four goals: 1. Provide guidelines for applying the First Amendment principles in schools. 2. Establish project schools in every region of the nation. 3. Promote curriculum reforms that deepen teaching about the First Amendment. 4. Educate school leaders, teachers, parents, students, community members and school board members about the meaning and significance of First Amendment principles and ideals. The First Amendment Schools project serves as a national resource for all schools—K-12, public and private—interested in affirming First Amendment principles and putting them into action in their school communities.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:81:\"images/t/360/first-amendment-schools-educating-for-freedom-and-responsibility.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:82:\"images/t2/360/first-amendment-schools-educating-for-freedom-and-responsibility.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:64:\"first-amendment-schools-educating-for-freedom-and-responsibility\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"35927\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"danae\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:68:\"Churches as First Amendment Institutions: Of Sovereignty and Spheres\";s:11:\"description\";s:2170:\"This Article offers a novel way of approaching the role of churches and other religious entities within the framework of the First Amendment. Beyond that, it offers a broader organizing structure for the legal treatment of "First Amendment institutions" — entities whose fundamental role in shaping and contributing to public discourse entitles them to substantial autonomy in organizing and regulating themselves. Drawing on the work of the neo-Calvinist writer Abraham Kuyper, it encourages us to think about churches, and other First Amendment entities, as "sovereign spheres": non-state institutions whose authority is ultimately coequal to that of the state. Under this model, a variety of spheres, including churches and other non-state institutions, enjoy substantial legal autonomy to carry out their sovereign purposes. The state is limited in its authority to intervene in these spheres. However, a sphere sovereignty conception of the legal order retains a vital role for the state, which mediates between the spheres and ensures that they do not abuse their power with respect to the individuals subject to their authority. The Article provides a detailed introduction to both the general field of First Amendment institutionalism and the conception of sphere sovereignty offered by Kuyper. It argues that when these two seemingly disparate projects meet, the combination offers a richer understanding of our constitutional structure and the role of First Amendment institutions within it. It also argues that sphere sovereignty is closely related to many aspects of our existing constitutional history and to constitutional thought about the relationship between the state and non-state associations more generally. Finally, it offers a number of applications of this approach to current church-state doctrine, demonstrating that a sphere sovereignty-oriented approach to the treatment of churches as First Amendment institutions offers a legitimate, consistent, and conceptually and doctrinally valuable way of resolving some of the most pressing issues in the law of church and state.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:84:\"images/t/360/churches-as-first-amendment-institutions-of-sovereignty-and-spheres.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:85:\"images/t2/360/churches-as-first-amendment-institutions-of-sovereignty-and-spheres.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:67:\"churches-as-first-amendment-institutions-of-sovereignty-and-spheres\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"54\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"113745\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:9:\"sebastian\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:60:\"No Way to Treat a First Lady: A Novel by Christopher Buckley\";s:11:\"description\";s:230:\"\n

  1. No Way to Treat a First Lady: A Novel\n by Christopher Buckley\n\n\n\n\n Very Enjoyable\n\n\nChristopher Buckley is not so much a novelist as a free-ranging satirist\nlooking for targets. In…\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:99:\"data/thumb/No-Way-to-Treat-a-First-Lady-A-Novel-by-Christopher-Buckley-Document-Transcript-2366.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:100:\"data/thumb2/No-Way-to-Treat-a-First-Lady-A-Novel-by-Christopher-Buckley-Document-Transcript-2366.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:59:\"no-way-to-treat-a-first-lady-a-novel-by-christopher-buckley\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"127788\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"harumi\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:36:\"First Amendment: Freedom of Religion\";s:11:\"description\";s:208:\"\n
    1. The First Amendment: Freedom of Religion
      • “And these signs shall follow them that believe; in my name they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take…\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:80:\"data/thumb/First-Amendment-Freedom-of-Religion-Presentation-Transcript-39143.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:81:\"data/thumb2/First-Amendment-Freedom-of-Religion-Presentation-Transcript-39143.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:35:\"first-amendment-freedom-of-religion\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"19\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"35494\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:10:\"franciszka\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:69:\"Reading First Coaching: A Guide for Coaches and Reading First Leaders\";s:11:\"description\";s:1385:\"Educators today are continuously searching for tools for excellence. Systemwide aspects of school improvement include: accountability through testing; data inspection by faculties to look for weakness in student understanding; increased professional development opportunities. These efforts help to inform faculty teams of student progress at an aggregate level. Yet we know that the difference in student learning is made in the individual classrooms and that teachers are a key change agent in this process. In the past, the improvement of student performance and teaching practices has often been left to short-term inservice development and teacher ingenuity. Consequently, teachers have been exposed to new approaches, attempted to become sufficiently comfortable with them, and implement them in the classroom without support. Two of the biggest flaws in this thinking are: (a) the absence of follow-up, which Michael Fullan calls the "greatest single problem in contemporary professional development" (as cited in Leggett & Hoyle, 1987, p. 16) , and (b) the rarity of classroom support (in the form of another educational professional) to encourage and assist teachers with the implementation new approaches. Consequently, teachers encounter great ideas and acknowledge the need for implementation, but often continue using the techniques that are familiar to them\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:85:\"images/t/355/reading-first-coaching-a-guide-for-coaches-and-reading-first-leaders.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:86:\"images/t2/355/reading-first-coaching-a-guide-for-coaches-and-reading-first-leaders.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:68:\"reading-first-coaching-a-guide-for-coaches-and-reading-first-leaders\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"36\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"35920\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:4:\"tero\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:15:\"FIRST AMENDMENT\";s:11:\"description\";s:1193:\"Madison\'s original proposal for a bill of rights provision concerning religion read: \'\'The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretence, infringed.\'\'1The language was altered in the House to read: \'\'Congress shall make no law establishing religion, or to prevent the free exercise thereof, or to infringe the rights of conscience.\'\'2In the Senate, the section adopted read: \'\'Congress shall make no law establishing articles of faith, or a mode of worship, or prohibiting the free exercise of religion, ...\'\'3 It was in the conference committee of the two bodies, chaired by Madison, that the present language was written with its somewhamore indefinite \'\'respecting\'\' phraseology.4Debate in Congress lends little assistance in interpreting the religion clauses; Madison\'s position, as well as that of Jefferson, who influenced him, is fairly clear,5but the intent, insofar as there was one, of the others in Congress who voted for the language and those in the States who voted to ratify is subject to speculation.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:32:\"images/t/360/first-amendment.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:33:\"images/t2/360/first-amendment.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:15:\"first-amendment\";s:5:\"pages\";s:3:\"264\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"145198\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:13:\"omarnixon1025\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:5:\"33284\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:76:\"Only the First Take a look at Is Hard: What to Be expecting at an STD Clinic\";s:11:\"description\";s:3019:\"Like anything else in existence, items arrive with strings connected-it\'s not all enjoyment and video games. (Intercourse, however, is the closest matter to entertaining and video games that you can get!) Choosing to have sex is a large phase, but now that you\'ve taken it you have to also consider duty for your well being and the wellbeing of your companion. The very best way to deal with this accountability head-on is to get to an STD clinic.\n\nIt might be challenging to wrap your head close to, but with your choice to have intercourse you\'ve stepped into the grown-up world. The national average is that seven out of ten teens have sex by their 19th birthday. That is a ton of men and women running around not knowing what is anticipated of them. Consider cost of your sexual wellbeing correct now-in the commencing. Aren\'t there are bunch of points you\'d like to do before you have kids? Hopefully, you have desires that go far over and above dirty diapers.\n\nLet\'s get some specifics straight ahead of we continue: There are in excess of twenty five different Sexually Transmitted Conditions and 19,000,000 Americans will catch a person of them this calendar year on your own! A different frightening fact is that STD\'s are the most typical infectious illness in the U.S. You could think you are \"acquiring lucky,\" but that luck will end in a heartbeat if you catch an STD.\n\nThe considered of visiting an STD clinic could be a frightening a single, but it shouldn\'t be. Their staffs are generally incredibly nice and understanding, and they pay out further awareness to individuals new to the procedure. The subsequent is a checklist of just SOME of the hazards of possessing sexual relations, at any age, and what to be expecting if they test for them.\n\nHerpes\nIf you discover any fever blisters or chilly sores around your mouth (not too essential) or on your personal elements (Extremely critical) it is recommended you have testing performed. The check consists of taking a way of life from 1 of the blisters. The typical strategy for herpes testing is painless swabbing.\n\nHIV/AIDS\nThis STD is nevertheless a large difficulty in The united states. It is a ailment that is usually deadly as it continues to break down the body\'s immune process. There are above one,000,000 folks dwelling with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. these days and it is approximated that there are an extra 250,000 who may possibly be infected but unaware of it. Just one more cause why testing is so vital. Testing to diagnose HIV is made up of a blood check.\n\nHPV/Genital Warts\nNot a very photo. Indicators consist of flesh-coloured bumps or warts all around the privates. There are some varieties of genital warts that can bring about cervical cancer in ladies. This is why early detection and therapy are so vital. The check is made up of a visual inspection.\n\nIf you are starting to have sex regularly, or if you have had intercourse even one particular time, a pay a visit to to an STD clinic really should be in your around potential. \n\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:93:\"images/t/1452/only-the-first-take-a-look-at-is-hard-what-to-be-expecting-at-an-std-clinic.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:94:\"images/t2/1452/only-the-first-take-a-look-at-is-hard-what-to-be-expecting-at-an-std-clinic.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:75:\"only-the-first-take-a-look-at-is-hard-what-to-be-expecting-at-an-std-clinic\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"319418\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:11:\"bing1950483\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"108909\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:52:\"First-Use-A-Clean-Backgrounds_-To-Preserve-The-Ori14\";s:11:\"description\";s:81:\"the cropped frame, then usually the best print layout with this picture right \n \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:69:\"images/t/3195/first-use-a-clean-backgrounds-to-preserve-the-ori14.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:70:\"images/t2/3195/first-use-a-clean-backgrounds-to-preserve-the-ori14.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:51:\"first-use-a-clean-backgrounds-to-preserve-the-ori14\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"9\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"527158\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:14:\"roger roberson\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"393031\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:43:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:21:\"Good Deeds, Bad Deeds\";s:11:\"description\";s:661:\"Many people believe in God, life after death, and a heaven. They also believe they will arrive at heaven if their good deeds outweigh their bad. The problem with this thinking is that man’s concept of “good” and “bad” is based entirely upon one’s own personal opinion. Therefore, what seems to be good to one person may be bad to another. Not everyone sees good and bad the same, notably those of different societies, cultures or ethnic groups. And so the first question that must be answered is, who decides which deeds are good and which are bad. You? Me? Our society? … or laws as determined by governments?\n\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:38:\"images/t/5272/good-deeds-bad-deeds.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:39:\"images/t2/5272/good-deeds-bad-deeds.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:20:\"good-deeds-bad-deeds\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"4\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 14:17:50' WHERE `aff_id` = '1776810'