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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"372921\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:8:\"bestsmtb\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"7439\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:74:\" Financial Markets and Institutions, Abridged Edition, 8E, Jeff Madura, TB\";s:11:\"description\";s:7450:\"---------------------------------------------------------\nMy email is:\nMy email is:\nMy website:\nMy website:\n---------------------------------------------------------\n567 . Financial Reporting and Analysis, 4th Edition, Lawrence Revsine, Daniel W. Collins, Bruce Johnson, Fred Mittelstaedt, McGraw-hill, SM+TB\n568 . Financial Reporting and Analysis: Using Financial Accounting Information, 10th Edition, Charles H. Gibson, CENGAGE, SM+IM+TB\n569 . Financial Reporting and Analysis: Using Financial Accounting Information, 11th Edition, Charles H. Gibson, CENGAGE, SM+TB\n570 . Financial Reporting and Analysis: Using Financial Accounting Information, 12th Edition, Charles H. Gibson, CENGAGE, SM+TB\n571 . Financial Reporting Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation: A Strategic Perspective, 6/E, Stickney, Brown, Wahlen, SM\n572 . Financial Reporting, Financial Statement Analysis and Valuation: A Strategic Perspective, 7th Edition, James M. Wahlen, Stephen P. Baginski, Mark Bradshaw, CENGAGE, ISM+Mass Stove Co Best Case+Mass Stove Co Most Likely Case+Mass Stove Co Worst Case+Datasets+Datasets Solution\n573 . Financial Reporting, Financial Statement Analysis and Valuation: A Strategic Perspective, 7th Edition, James M. Wahlen, Stephen P. Baginski, Mark Bradshaw, ISBN-10: 0324789416, ISBN-13: 9780324789416, CENGAGE, SM\n574 . Financial Reporting, Financial Statement Analysis, and Valuation: A Strategic Perspective, 6th Edition, Clyde P. Stickney, Paul Brown, James M. Wahlen, CENGAGE, ISM\n575 . Financial Statement Analysis and Valuation, 2nd edition, Peter D. Easton, Mary Lea McAnally, Patricia M. Fairfield, Xiao-Jun Zhang, Robert F. Halsey, CAMBRIDE UNIVERSITY PRESS, SM\n576 . Financial Statement Analysis, 10th Edition, K.R. Subramanyam, John J. Wild, McGraw-hill (2009), SM+TB\n577 . Finite Element Analysis Theory and Application with ANSYS, 3rd Edition, Saeed Moaveni, PRENTIC HALL, (MOST COMPLETE) ISM\n578 . Finite Math with Applications, 9th Edition, Margaret L. Lial, Thomas W. Hungerford, John Holcomb, PEARSON, EXCEL MANUAL+ISM+TB\n579 . Finite Mathematics for Business, Economics, Life Sciences and Social Sciences, 12th Editioin, Raymond A. Barnett, Michael R. Ziegler, Karl E. Byleen, PEARSON, ISM+TB\n580 . Finite Mathematics with Applications, 10th Edition, Margaret L. Lial, Thomas W. Hungerford, John Holcomb, PEARSON, ISM+TB\n581 . Finite Mathematics, 9th Edition, Margaret L. Lial, Raymond N. Greenwell, Nathan P. Ritchey, PEARSON, IM+TB\n582 . Fit and Well Alternate Edition: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, 9th Edition, Thomas D. Fahey, Paul M. Insel, Walton T. Roth, McGraw-hill(2011), TB\n583 . Fit and Well, 2nd Canadian Edition, Thomas Fahey, Paul M. Insel, Walton (tom) T. Roth Ilsa Wong, McGraw-hill(©2010), TB \n584 . Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition, Frank M. White, ISBN-10: 0073529346, ISBN-13: 9780073529349, Mcgraw-hill(©2011), SM\n585 . Focus on Personal Finance, 3rd Edition, Jack R. Kapoor, Les R. Dlabay, Robert J. Hughes, ISBN-10: 0073382426, ISBN-13: 9780073382425, McGraw-hill(©2010), SM\n586 . Forensic Accounting, 1st Edition, Hopwood, ISBN 0073526851, Mcgraw-hill, TB \n587 . Forensic Accounting, 1st Edition, William Hopwood, GEORGE RICHARD YOUNG, Jay Leiner, Mcgraw-hill(2008), ISM+TB\n588 . Foundations in Microbiology, 7th Edition, Kathleen Park Talaro, ISBN-10: 0077260570, ISBN-13: 9780077260576, McGraw-hill(©2009), TB\n589 . Foundations in Strategic Management, 5th Edition, Jeffrey S. Harrison, Caron H. St. John, CENGAGE, IM+TB\n590 . Foundations of Astrophysics, 1st Edition, Barbara Ryden, Bradley M. Peterson, ISBN-10: 0321595580, ISBN-13: 9780321595584, Addison-Wesley(PEARSON), ISM\n591 . Foundations of Astrophysics, Barbara Ryden, Bradley M. Peterson, Addison-Wesley(PEARSON), ISM\n592 . Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience, 8th Edition, Neil R. Carlson, PEARSON, IM+TB\n593 . Foundations of Finance: Logic and Practice of Financial Management, 6th Edition, Arthur J. Keown, John H. Martin, John W. Petty, David F Scott, PRENTICE HALL, IM with SOLUTIONS+TB \n594 . Foundations of Finance: Logic and Practice of Financial Management, 6th Edition, Keown, Martin, Petty, IM+TB\n595 . Foundations of Financial Management with Time Value of Money card, 14th Edition, Stanley B. Block, Geoffrey A. Hirt, Bartley Danielsen, ISBN-10: 007745443X , ISBN-13: 9780077454432, McGraw-hill(©2011), SM\n596 . Foundations of Financial Management, 13th Edition, Stanley B. Block, Geoffrey A. Hirt, Bartley Danielsen, McGraw-hill(2009), SM+TB\n597 . Foundations of Financial Management, 14th Edition, Stanley B. Block, Geoffrey A. Hirt, Bartley Danielsen, ISBN-10: 0073530727, ISBN-13: 9780073530727, Mcgraw-hill(©2011), SM\n598 . Foundations of Financial Management, 14th Edition, Stanley B. Block, Geoffrey A. Hirt, Bartley Danielsen, ISBN-10: 0073530727, ISBN-13: 9780073530727, McGraw-hill(©2011), TB\n599 . Foundations of Financial Markets and Institutions, 4th Edition, Frank J. Fabozzi, Franco P. Modigliani, Frank J. Jones, PRENTICE HALL, IM+TB\n600 . Foundations of Geometry, 1st Edition, Gerard A. Venema, PEARSON, IM\n601 . Foundations of Marketing, 4th Edition, William M. Pride, O. C. Ferrell, CENGAGE, TB\n602 . Foundations of Marketing, 4th Edition, William M. Pride, O. C. Ferrell, CENGAGE, TB\n603 . Fox and McDonald\'s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, Philip J. Pritchard, WILEY(November 2010, ©2011), SM\n604 . Fraud Examination, 3rd Edition, W. Steve Albrecht, Conan C. Albrecht, Chad O. Albrecht, Mark F. Zimbelman, CENGAGE, SM+TB \n605 . Fundamental Accounting Principles, 19th Edition, John J Wild, Ken Shaw, Barbara Chiappetta, ISBN-13: 9780073379548, ISBN-10: 0073379549, McGrw-hill(©2009), SM+TB\n606 . Fundamental Financial Accounting Concepts, 6th Edition, Thomas P Edmonds, Frances M McNair, Philip R Olds, McGraw-hill(2008), TB\n607 . Fundamentals of Advanced Accounting, 1st Edition, Paul M. Fischer, William J. Taylor, Rita H. Cheng, CENGAGE, SM+Solutions Transparency Masters+Solutions to Appendix 2+TB\n608 . Fundamentals of Advanced Accounting, 1st Edition, Paul M. Fischer, William J. Taylor, Rita H. Cheng, CENGAGE, TB\n609 . Fundamentals of Advanced Accounting, 3rd Edition, Joe Ben Hoyle, Thomas Schaefer, Timothy Doupnik, Mcgraw-hill, SM+TB \n610 . Fundamentals of Advanced Accounting, 4th Edition, Hoyle, ISBN 0078136636, McGrawhill, TB\n611 . Fundamentals of Advanced Accounting, 4th Edition, Joe Ben Hoyle, Thomas Schaefer, Timothy Doupnik, McGraw-hill (2010), SM\n612 . Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition, Frederic H. Martini, Judi L. Nath, Benjamin Cummings(PEARSON), TB \n613 . Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 1st Edition, Jonathan Berk, Peter DeMarzo, Jarrad Harford, PRENTICE HALL, SM+TB \n614 . Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 1st Edition, Robert Parrino, David S. Kidwell, WILEY(September 2008, ©2009), SM\n615 . Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 1st Edition, Robert Parrino, David S. Kidwell, WILEY(September 2008, ©2009), TB\n616 . Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 6th Edition, Richard A Brealey, Stewart C Myers, Alan J. Marcus, McGraw-hill(2009), SM+MINI CASE SM+TB\n617 . Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 7th CANADIAN Edition, Stephen A. Ross, Randolph W. Westerfield Bradford, D. Jordan Gordon S. Roberts, ISBN: 9780070919891, 0070919895, McGraw-hill(© 2010), TB \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:87:\"images/t/3730/financial-markets-and-institutions-abridged-edition-8e-jeff-madura-tb.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:88:\"images/t2/3730/financial-markets-and-institutions-abridged-edition-8e-jeff-madura-tb.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:69:\"financial-markets-and-institutions-abridged-edition-8e-jeff-madura-tb\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"34\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"563008\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"ijret\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"566473\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:16:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:115:\"IJRET - A NOVEL APPROACH FOR HIGH SPEED CONVOLUTION OF FINITE AND INFINITE LENGTH SEQUENCES USING VEDIC MATHEMATICS\";s:11:\"description\";s:1424:\"Digital signal processing, Digital control systems, Telecommunication, Audio and Video processing are important applications in\nVLSI. Design and implementation of DSP systems with advances in VLSI demands low power, efficiency in energy, portability,\nreliability and miniaturization. In digital signal processing, linear-time invariant systems are important sub-class of systems and are\nthe heart and soul of DSP.\nIn many application areas, linear and circular convolution are fundamental computations. Convolution with very long sequences is\noften required. Discrete linear convolution of two finite-length and infinite length sequences using circular convolution on for\nOverlap-Add and Overlap-Save methods can be computed. In real-time signal processing, circular convolution is much more\neffective than linear convolution. Circular convolution is simpler to compute and produces less output samples compared to linear\nconvolution. Also linear convolution can be computed from circular convolution. In this paper, both linear, circular convolutions are\nperformed using vedic multiplier architecture based on vertical and cross wise algorithm of Urdhva-Tiryabhyam. The implementation\nuses hierarchical design approach which leads to improvement in computational speed, power reduction, minimization in hardware\nresources and area. Coding is done using Verilog HDL. Simulation and synthesis are performed using Xilinx FPGA.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:118:\"images/t/5631/ijret-a-novel-approach-for-high-speed-convolution-of-finite-and-infinite-length-sequences-using-vedi.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:119:\"images/t2/5631/ijret-a-novel-approach-for-high-speed-convolution-of-finite-and-infinite-length-sequences-using-vedi.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:100:\"ijret-a-novel-approach-for-high-speed-convolution-of-finite-and-infinite-length-sequences-using-vedi\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"7\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"5183\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:109:\"THE MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGHER MATHEMATICS AND A COMPLETE COGNITIVE THEORY FOR MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION\";s:11:\"description\";s:1036:\"The psychology of mathematical education to date has been mainly concerned
\nwith the learning processes of children and the methods necessary to educate
\nthem in current mathematical theories. There have been far fewer studies of
\ncognitive development at higher levels, with implications that cut two ways. On
\nthe one hand, the lack of knowledge of cognitive processes at more advanced
\nstages of education can lead to weaknesses in the teaching of mathematics at
\ncollege and university. On the other hand, the lack of study at this level has
\nseverely hampered the development of a complete cognitive theory of
\nmathematical education by excluding the rich and varied examples of more
\nsophisticated mathematical thinking. This lack of understanding of higher
\nmathematical thinking has another serious implication: because the thinking
\nprocesses of professional mathematicians are not well understood, this impairs
\nour understanding of the nature of mathematics itself.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:125:\"images/t/52/the-mutual-relationship-between-higher-mathematics-and-a-complete-cognitive-theory-for-mathematical-education.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:126:\"images/t2/52/the-mutual-relationship-between-higher-mathematics-and-a-complete-cognitive-theory-for-mathematical-education.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:109:\"the-mutual-relationship-between-higher-mathematics-and-a-complete-cognitive-theory-for-mathematical-education\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"5\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"6259\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:107:\"The Classroom Environment and Students\' Reports of Avoidance Strategies in Mathematics: A Multimethod Study\";s:11:\"description\";s:1054:\"The relation between the learning environment (e.g., students’ perceptions of the classroom goal structure
\nand teachers’ instructional discourse) and students’ reported use of avoidance strategies (selfhandicapping,
\navoidance of help seeking) and preference to avoid novelty in mathematics was examined.
\nQuantitative analyses indicated that students’ reports of avoidance behaviors varied significantly among
\nclassrooms. A perceived emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom was positively related to lower
\nreports of avoidance. Qualitative analyses revealed that teachers in high-mastery/low-avoidance and
\nlow-mastery/high-avoidance classrooms used distinctively different patterns of instructional and motivational
\ndiscourse. High incidence of motivational support was uniquely characteristic of high-mastery/
\nlow-avoidance classrooms, suggesting that mastery goals may include an affective component. Implications
\nof the results for both theory and practice are discussed.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:121:\"images/t/63/the-classroom-environment-and-students-reports-of-avoidance-strategies-in-mathematics-a-multimethod-study.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:122:\"images/t2/63/the-classroom-environment-and-students-reports-of-avoidance-strategies-in-mathematics-a-multimethod-study.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:105:\"the-classroom-environment-and-students-reports-of-avoidance-strategies-in-mathematics-a-multimethod-study\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"19\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"6301\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:77:\"Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis\";s:11:\"description\";s:1961:\"A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the
\nunderrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing
\nresearch attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement,
\nattitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are
\nclosely related to cultural variations in opportunity structures for girls and women. We meta-analyzed 2
\nmajor international data sets, the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and the
\nProgramme for International Student Assessment, representing 493,495 students 14–16 years of age, to
\nestimate the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect across 69
\nnations throughout the world. Consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis, all of the mean effect
\nsizes in mathematics achievement were very small (d  0.15); however, national effect sizes showed
\nconsiderable variability (ds0.42 to 0.40). Despite gender similarities in achievement, boys reported
\nmore positive math attitudes and affect (ds  0.10 to 0.33); national effect sizes ranged from d0.61
\nto 0.89. In contrast to those of previous tests of the gender stratification hypothesis, our results point to
\nspecific domains of gender equity responsible for gender gaps in math. Gender equity in school
\nenrollment, women’s share of research jobs, and women’s parliamentary representation were the most
\npowerful predictors of cross-national variability in gender gaps in math. Results are situated within the
\ncontext of existing research demonstrating apparently paradoxical effects of societal gender equity and
\nhighlight the significance of increasing girls’ and women’s agency cross-nationally.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:92:\"images/t/64/cross-national-patterns-of-gender-differences-in-mathematics-a-meta-analysis.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:93:\"images/t2/64/cross-national-patterns-of-gender-differences-in-mathematics-a-meta-analysis.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:76:\"cross-national-patterns-of-gender-differences-in-mathematics-a-meta-analysis\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"25\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"6993\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:79:\"Calculation of Overhead Transmission Line Impedances A Finite Element Approach\";s:11:\"description\";s:697:\"In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) is used to
\ncalculate the frequency dependent series impedance matrix of an
\noverhead transmission line. A novel approach is proposed, leading from
\nFEM results to the direct computation of the symmetrical components
\nimpedance matrix of any single or double circuit transmission line.
\nResults show excellent agreement with those obtained by classical
\ncomputation methods. Test cases examined include impedance
\ncalculations in the presence of certain terrain irregularities in the line
\nneighborhood, such as line by a mountain side of variable slope, line
\ninside a canyon or line near a water region.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:94:\"images/t/70/calculation-of-overhead-transmission-line-impedances-a-finite-element-approach.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:95:\"images/t2/70/calculation-of-overhead-transmission-line-impedances-a-finite-element-approach.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:78:\"calculation-of-overhead-transmission-line-impedances-a-finite-element-approach\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"7\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"10188\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:2:\"na\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:25:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:39:\"HKAL Pure Mathematics - Useful Formulae\";s:11:\"description\";s:39:\"Pure Mathematics %u2013 Useful Formulae\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:54:\"images/t/102/hkal-pure-mathematics-useful-formulae.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:55:\"images/t2/102/hkal-pure-mathematics-useful-formulae.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:37:\"hkal-pure-mathematics-useful-formulae\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"3\";s:6:\"rating\";s:3:\"4.5\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"2\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"12237\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:73:\"Using TIMSS to Analyze Correlates of Performance Variation in Mathematics\";s:11:\"description\";s:1038:\"International comparisons of average student performance are widely discussed by policymakers and the press and have had a powerful influence on educational debate and policy in the U.S. In an era when traditional norm-referenced reporting of student performance has gone out of favor, \"country norms\" have become increasingly important. International comparisons are widely used to indicate the degree of success of U.S. education and the levels of performance to which this country should aspire. To some degree, international comparisons play the role that trends in the performance of U.S. students played a decade or more ago: they serve as a central indicator of student achievement, providing a framework for understanding U.S. performance and an impetus for education reform. The publication of the results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) since 1996 (Beaton, et al., 1996a, 1996b; Mullis, et al., 1997, 1998) has increased further the prominence of international comparisons in the U.S. debate.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:90:\"images/t/123/using-timss-to-analyze-correlates-of-performance-variation-in-mathematics.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:91:\"images/t2/123/using-timss-to-analyze-correlates-of-performance-variation-in-mathematics.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:73:\"using-timss-to-analyze-correlates-of-performance-variation-in-mathematics\";s:5:\"pages\";s:3:\"150\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"30717\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:4:\"Dior\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:13:\"mathematics 3\";s:11:\"description\";s:45:\"mathematics, the domain functions, integrals,\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:30:\"images/t/308/mathematics-3.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:31:\"images/t2/308/mathematics-3.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:13:\"mathematics-3\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"1\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"43330\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"holly\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:70:\"NOTES ON THE AESTHETIC DIMENSION OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION Nathalie ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:1209:\"Some of the most important changes in mathematics education over the past century have evolved in response to perceptions of the unacceptable differences between mathematics, as conceived of and practiced by research mathematicians, and school mathematics, which is embodied in textbooks and classrooms. For example, Pólya\'s work inspired many mathematics educators to lessen the gap between mathematics and school mathematics by infusing the latter with "problem solving," which Pólya saw as the defining activity of the research mathematician. A few decades after that, Brown and Walters persuasively argued that posing problems was just as important-and sometimes more so—as solving problems, and called for increased opportunities for student problem posing. Both activities (posing and solving problems) were meant to attenuate differences, but they also offered an attractive humanistic dimension to the world of the mathematics learner. Of course, there remain many differences between mathematics and school mathematics that few would ever consider eliminating—for example, no one has ever suggested that students should publish new research results or review articles for publication.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:83:\"images/t/434/notes-on-the-aesthetic-dimension-of-mathematics-education-nathalie.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:84:\"images/t2/434/notes-on-the-aesthetic-dimension-of-mathematics-education-nathalie.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:66:\"notes-on-the-aesthetic-dimension-of-mathematics-education-nathalie\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"6\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 07:26:54' WHERE `aff_id` = '1002186'