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\nmethods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into
\na viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now
\navailable for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene prod-
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\ninserts, RNA interference and aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as
\nresult of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their
\ntargets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifi cations and delivery systems to main-
\ntain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the
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It plays an important role in the success of any drug. Pulmonary drug delivery systems allow administration of drugs directly to lungs via nasal or oral route and give site specific local and systemic effect. An effective pulmonary drug delivery system offers minimal side effects by reducing dose size and enabling site specific effect. A variety of diseases requiring these delivery systems are asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and congestion. Traditionally, it has been used only for respiratory diseases, but today, it is also being used for insulin delivery to diabetic patients. Several devices being used for pulmonary drug delivery include nebulizers, dry powder inhalers and metered-dose inhalers. 3M Taper Dry Powder Inhaler marketed by 3M Healthcare Ltd. is a branded dry powder inhaler able to deliver drug range up to 1miligram. 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