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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"329948\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:12:\"temperblood7\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"422430\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:48:\"Jobs in Port Elizabeth South Africa: Way Forward\";s:11:\"description\";s:103:\"Another would be to consider employment at a number of banking institutions, resorts, restaurants, n...\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:65:\"images/t/3300/jobs-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa-way-forward.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:66:\"images/t2/3300/jobs-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa-way-forward.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:47:\"jobs-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa-way-forward\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"15129\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:81:\"IMMIGRATION AND CANADIAN NATION-BUILDING IN THE TRANSITION TO A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY\";s:11:\"description\";s:1600:\"Although Canada shares with the United States and Australia the tradition of being a Acountry of immigrants, @ its current expansionist immigration policies, and their comparative degree of success, are shaped by context, and by an institutional framework, both of which differ from both other countries in significant ways. These differences include Canada=s development strategy in relation to its much larger American neighbour; its low fertility rates; its close proximity to the U.S. but geographic isolation from all other countries; its post-secondary educational system; its distinctive labour markets and other social institutions which reflect greater emphasis on collective welfare as opposed to American individualism; its dual linguistic structure and the autonomy of Quebec and other provinces; and its multicultural policies as affected by the impact of recent immigration in creating a multi-racial society. These various differences are evolving in ways that reflect both convergence and differentiation. This paper suggests that the pattern of these changes B more than either convergence or differentiation in itself B is creating significant actual and potential difficulties for the continued success of Canadian immigration over time. Canada=s perceived need for high levels of immigration will continue, but its success in integrating these immigrants is becoming more difficult, creating increased strain on the economy and society. This raises significant issues and dilemmas which are likely to become more salient and produce important policy changes in the future.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:98:\"images/t/152/immigration-and-canadian-nation-building-in-the-transition-to-a-knowledge-economy.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:99:\"images/t2/152/immigration-and-canadian-nation-building-in-the-transition-to-a-knowledge-economy.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:81:\"immigration-and-canadian-nation-building-in-the-transition-to-a-knowledge-economy\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"49\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"311590\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:10:\"kayak36fly\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"334412\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:52:\"Animal Conservation Work in South Africa - The Big 5\";s:11:\"description\";s:103:\"For graduates there are particulars of more than 200 Corporates in South Africa offering Graduate Pr...\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:68:\"images/t/3116/animal-conservation-work-in-south-africa-the-big-5.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:69:\"images/t2/3116/animal-conservation-work-in-south-africa-the-big-5.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:50:\"animal-conservation-work-in-south-africa-the-big-5\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87980\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:8:\"margaret\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:50:\"Language Shift and Linguistic Markets in Barcelona\";s:11:\"description\";s:689:\"This research concerns language maintenance and shift by adult speakers of Catalan and Spanish in Barcelona. Data has been collected through personal interviews and questionnaires with the aim of understanding individual sociolinguistic situations and language choices. In this paper language shift behavior by individual speakers is viewed as linguistic mobility. The paper discusses the concept of shift, what kinds of behaviors constitute shift and indications of shift in the present data. Shift behavior is reported by both L1 Catalan speakers and L1 Spanish speakers. The findings are also considered in relationship to the concept of linguistic markets (Bourdieu, 1977, 1982, 1991)\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:67:\"images/t/880/language-shift-and-linguistic-markets-in-barcelona.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:68:\"images/t2/880/language-shift-and-linguistic-markets-in-barcelona.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:50:\"language-shift-and-linguistic-markets-in-barcelona\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"87992\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"pamela\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:67:\"Bilingualism, Language Shift, and Economic Development in India ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:877:\"During the past 500 years, a small group of the world\'s languages have grown immensely in relative size. A much larger group of languages have declined, and many have disappeared altogether. Sociolinguists term such displacement language shift. Economists have shown that language aects a variety of economic outcomes, such as trade, economic growth, and the provision of public goods. This literature treats language as exogenous. Yet, productivity in manufacturing is higher when workers can communicate with each other. Urban residents interact and use markets more than their rural counterparts. Both manufacturing employment and urbanization provide incentives to learn new languages. I develop a model of second language learning and language shift and test it using anew panel data set of Indian districts for 1931 and 1961. My estimations are consistent with the model.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:78:\"images/t/880/bilingualism-language-shift-and-economic-development-in-india.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:79:\"images/t2/880/bilingualism-language-shift-and-economic-development-in-india.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:61:\"bilingualism-language-shift-and-economic-development-in-india\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"40\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"10934\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:82:\"Effects of Financial Autarky and Integration: The Case of the South Africa Embargo\";s:11:\"description\";s:937:\"The economic embargo imposed on South Africa between 1985 and 1993 brought the country closer to financial isolation. This paper interprets the imposition and removal of the embargo as financial autarky and financial integration \'natural experiments\', and studies the effects on the economy. The aggregate data indicate a decrease in the levels and growth rates of investment, capital, and output during the embargo period relative to the pre-embargo and post-embargo periods. To further rationalize the findings in the aggregate data, we calibrate a neoclassical growth model to the South African economy. During the transition to steady-state, we model the embargo by limiting the country\'s ability to borrow for a period corresponding to the duration of the embargo. The derived dynamics for investment, capital, and output support the view of a positive (negative) link between financial integration (isolation) and economic growth.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:98:\"images/t/110/effects-of-financial-autarky-and-integration-the-case-of-the-south-africa-embargo.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:99:\"images/t2/110/effects-of-financial-autarky-and-integration-the-case-of-the-south-africa-embargo.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:81:\"effects-of-financial-autarky-and-integration-the-case-of-the-south-africa-embargo\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"33\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"88599\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"anssi\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:63:\"Language Planning and Policy in Latin America: Ecuador, Mexico,\";s:11:\"description\";s:831:\"this latest addition to the Language Planning and Policy series represents a vital and increasingly relevant look at the state of language in an increasingly important part of the world. The current role of Spanish in the world, as the second most spoken language behind Chinese (p. 122), and its future as an increasingly influential language, makes this a timely and relevant piece. Hopefully, it will pave the way for more specific studies on these countries and their indigenous languages as well as raise awareness of the current state of affairs. The tone of these monographs favors more proactive exertion on promoting indigenous language education, but as Gynan eloquently states, "after all, language planners can only hope to harness and ride sociolinguistic forces of bilingualism, not change their direction" \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:77:\"images/t/886/language-planning-and-policy-in-latin-america-ecuador-mexico.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:78:\"images/t2/886/language-planning-and-policy-in-latin-america-ecuador-mexico.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:60:\"language-planning-and-policy-in-latin-america-ecuador-mexico\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"4\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"77541\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"hanno\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:64:\"David Levey 2008: Language Change and Variation in Gibraltar ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:228:\"David Levey 2008: Language Change and Variation in Gibraltar. Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. xxii + 192 pp. ISBN 978 90 272 1862 9 M. A book review. Reviewed by Teresa Turell Universitat Pompeu Fabra\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:76:\"images/t/776/david-levey-2008-language-change-and-variation-in-gibraltar.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:77:\"images/t2/776/david-levey-2008-language-change-and-variation-in-gibraltar.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:59:\"david-levey-2008-language-change-and-variation-in-gibraltar\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"7\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"515535\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:11:\"testbanksys\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"612303\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:102:\"Testbank For Human Relations in Organizations Applications and Skill Building 8th Edition by Lussier I\";s:11:\"description\";s:102:\"Testbank For Human Relations in Organizations Applications and Skill Building 8th Edition by Lussier I\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:107:\"images/t/5156/human-relations-in-organizations-applications-and-skill-building-8th-edition-by-lussier-i.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:108:\"images/t2/5156/human-relations-in-organizations-applications-and-skill-building-8th-edition-by-lussier-i.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:89:\"human-relations-in-organizations-applications-and-skill-building-8th-edition-by-lussier-i\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"88181\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"theodor\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:69:\"Home Language Shift and Its Implications for Language Planning in ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:814:\"In this paper, drawing upon the empirical data, we attempt to apply the theoretical framework of prestige and image LP to examine the status of Chinese in a Singaporean context. Through a correlative analysis of childrenís language use and the familyís socio-economic status, we found that the Chinese language (CL) gradually lost its prestige in Singaporeís society in general, and in particular it has lost ground to English in what Bourdieu terms as ëlinguistic capital.í We argue that the future success of language policy in term of Chinese language maintenance, by and large, depends upon whether and how its prestige and image are being promoted. Our analysis therefore contributes to alternative vistas on the understanding of the official discourse towards language issues in a multicultural society.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:82:\"images/t/882/home-language-shift-and-its-implications-for-language-planning-in.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:83:\"images/t2/882/home-language-shift-and-its-implications-for-language-planning-in.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:65:\"home-language-shift-and-its-implications-for-language-planning-in\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"16\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 08:56:45' WHERE `aff_id` = '147540'