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\nand manufacture of food products. They can be classified as thermal (specific heat,
\nthermal conductivity, and diffusivity), optical (color, gloss, and translucency), electrical
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\nmeasurement methods allow computation of these properties, which can provide
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\nmanufactured foods. Mathematical models have been fitted to data as a function of one
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\nother food characteristics. Most engineering properties are significantly altered by the
\nstructural differences between foods. Several microscopy, scanning, and spectrometric
\ntechnologies permit close visualization of changes in structure at different levels
\nwithout intrusion. Microstructure studies have increased understanding of several
\nchanges detected in foods resulting from treatment in emerging and conventional unit
\noperations, by relating these changes to engineering property characterization data and
\nmodels. In the future, structure–property modeling could lead to the synthetic
\nproduction of natural materials with improved characteristics, provided advances in
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\ntive spillovers across jurisdictions. If spillovers are symmetric, the non-
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