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\n-1-
\nPapp E.K, Papavramides T. C. “The Economics of the ATM Regulation in EU. The impact of the Single European Sky”
\nConference on Air Traffic Management (ATM) Economics, Belgrade, 10 Sep. 2009
\nThe Economics of the ATM Regulation in EU.
\nThe impact of the Single European Sky.
\nEmese K. Papp
\n1
\n, Thanos C. Papavramides
\n2
\n1 Student, BKF Budapest College of Communications, Business and Management of
\nOrganizations.e.k.papp@gmail.com, http://www.bkf.hu/en/
\n2
\nEUROCONTROL Organisation, Rue de la Fuse 96, 1130 Brussels,
\nthanos.papavramides@eurocontrol.int
\nAbstract1
\n\"...by thinking and trying, it [regulation] can be made to make more of a difference-or, more importantly, a better
\ndifference.\"[14] Starting in April 2004 the European Commission (EC) with the Council and the European Parliament
\nhave been gradually introducing a set of regulations establishing the “Single European Sky” (SES) in EU. This has
\nput the Air Navigation Services (or ATM) provision to a category of business for which the Member States (MS) had
\nto implement a separation of the provision of service from its regulation and allow service provision to develop under
\nspecific rules[1]. To supervise the correct application of the new regulations the Member States had to establish
\nNational Supervisory Authorities (NSAs)[1]. Although one may argue that these type of regulatory tasks have been
\nexecuted in the past by competent State’s Authorities as part of their obligations to ICAO Convention and SARPS, in
\npractice States had to establish new or enforce existing institutions and organizations to cope with the those new
\nobligations[2]. This inevitably impacted the cost of regulation. The paper introduces a model for regulation of Air
\nNavigation Services, inspired by the High Level Group Report (2007) to address the role and the multiple functions
\nof the NSA. It has been observed that the SES regulations inevitably generate a cost but as the regulations allow
\ndifferent choices, states have followed a diversified path in recovering this cost. The paper stipulates and introduces
\nprinciples regarding the fair handling and recovery of this cost. In addition other ways are proposed in an effort to
\nrationalize the cost and minimize the impact on the market without compromising the effectiveness of the regulation
\nin particular regarding safety and security. The case of “many NSAs” functioning in a FAB environment is also
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    \nmalicious actors to launch exploits toward computer networks, to commit cyber-crime and to
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    \nanonymous market accommodating large institutions and their brokers. Using several
    \nalternative metrics for market quality and estimation methodology accounting for fixed
    \nfirm effects and endogeneity in explanatory variables, our results contradict previous
    \nresearch, which mostly supports the drive for opacity. We find that when limit orders
    \nare public, spreads fall, volatility increases and volume increases. The effects differ
    \nacross market capitalization segments. The current policy of the Korean Stock
    \nExchange to publicly display the 10 best orders, including broker identity and trades is
    \nprovisionally best practice, as it promotes higher traded volume.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:149:\"images/t/90/the-public-limit-order-book-of-the-korea-exchange-market-capitalization-dependent-endogenous-effects-on-spreads-volatility-and-volume.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:150:\"images/t2/90/the-public-limit-order-book-of-the-korea-exchange-market-capitalization-dependent-endogenous-effects-on-spreads-volatility-and-volume.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:133:\"the-public-limit-order-book-of-the-korea-exchange-market-capitalization-dependent-endogenous-effects-on-spreads-volatility-and-volume\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"36\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"10594\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:114:\"The Perils of Free Cash Flow, Avoidance of Outside Monitoring, and the Exploitation of the Internal Capital Market\";s:11:\"description\";s:1448:\"All diversified firms are not created equal. Size matters when it comes to the functioning of corporate internal capital markets and the value of corporate diversification. The “diversification discount” is largely driven by mid-sized conglomerates with annual revenues of $20 to $400 million. These conglomerates experience an average discount of 18% and significantly cross-subsidize their business units. By comparison, small and large conglomerates suffer lesser discounts of 5% and 3%, respectively. This paper argues that the differences in excess
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