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UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"42109\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"heidi\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:51:\"The Challenges of Environmental Problems in Nigeria\";s:11:\"description\";s:1424:\"Nigeria has a total land area of 983,213 km2 occupied by about 120 Million people: The interaction of these millions of people with their environment has left indelible mark on the landscape. Urbanization, deforestation, desertification, over population and all kinds of pollution are some of the resultant effects of man\'s interaction with his environment. These changes occur as the people attempt to acquire their seemingly endless desire for food, shelter, recreation and infrastructural facilities. Though these wants and desires contribute to the development of the country, the unwise use of the land and its resources produce negative impacts on the environment. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established to control the Nigerian Environment, its resources exploitation and management. But field observation revealed that environmental degradation is growing at a rate worse than the pre FEPA period. Solution to these problems require going beyond the strategies and objectives of FEPA. Environmental protection techniques should be indigenized. It should be written and delivered in Nigerian languages. The design should take cognizance of the deferent ecological zone in the country and the people should be the agents. For an enduring legacy, Environmental Educational (which should include environmental protection techniques) should be included in primary and post primary school curricula.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:68:\"images/t/422/the-challenges-of-environmental-problems-in-nigeria.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:69:\"images/t2/422/the-challenges-of-environmental-problems-in-nigeria.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:51:\"the-challenges-of-environmental-problems-in-nigeria\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"5\";s:6:\"rating\";s:7:\"2.33333\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"3\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"186540\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:12:\"Shomik Gupta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:82:\"http://wwfindia.org/about_wwf/priority_species/asian_elephant/conservation_issues/\";s:5:\"title\";s:52:\"Environmental Protection in India - Need of the Hour\";s:11:\"description\";s:307:\"Mother Earth houses a diverse range of flora and fauna. The existence of various species of animals, mammals, insects, reptiles and birds make Earth an extremely beautiful planet. It is unfortunate that the reckless behavior of mankind has led to various problems in the effective working of the eco-system.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:68:\"images/t/1866/environmental-protection-in-india-need-of-the-hour.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:69:\"images/t2/1866/environmental-protection-in-india-need-of-the-hour.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:50:\"environmental-protection-in-india-need-of-the-hour\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"2\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"42136\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:10:\"aleksander\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:47:\"CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN BANGLADESH by\";s:11:\"description\";s:1827:\"Bangladesh is basically a riverien country in the tropical zone having highly fertile delta soil. Its economy is mainly based on agriculture. It is one of the most thickly populated countries of the world having 768 persons per sq. km. Natural calamities like floods, locally originated tornadoes and cyclones are regular features affecting the population and habitats in the rural areas. High growth of population increase the habitats are diminishing the plants and trees in the rural areas particularly to meet their requirement of fuel substitute for cooking, in brick fields and other small industries. Increasing need of wood for the population for transports, roads, bridges and homesteads add to the degradation of environment. Bangladesh had agro-based industries till the 1970 mostly like jute mills, sugar mills, cotton spinning mills, etc. Only the sugar mills sporadically situated in the north and north-western part of Bangladesh, had localized pollution problems with its wastes. The recent growth of garment industries with its backward linkage sectors composite textile mills (including dying printing and finishing units), and leather processing units (under SMEs) use substantial quantities of highly toxic wastes, dyes and chemicals. Some of these industries are situated close to the river having access for the disposal of their toxic wastes whereas tanneries and some other textile finishing units, situated in the land locked areas posing increasing pollution problems to their surrounding Some government owned large industries like urea fertilizer, pulp and paper etc are creating more pollution problem by their gaseous emission and untreated effluent discharge to the adjoining rivers threatening the aquatic animals and human lives as rural people and animals drink this water for their livelihood\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:64:\"images/t/422/current-environmental-problems-in-bangladesh-by.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:65:\"images/t2/422/current-environmental-problems-in-bangladesh-by.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:47:\"current-environmental-problems-in-bangladesh-by\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"4\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"42307\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"simone\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:66:\"POLITICAL ECONOMY AND ETHICS OF ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:1150:\"Klaus Topfer, the executive director of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) was quoted by Andersen (2000) that \'the cost of environmental degradation are enormous\'. Such costs include the economic, political, social and environmental cost of environmental degradation (both natural and man-made) occurring in the different regions of the world. Environmental degradation problems such as pollution, erosion (soil erosion, coastal and river erosion), gas flaring and oil spillage, acidification and flooding are occurring at rampant rate and with varying degree of impacts in many parts of Nigeria. For example the tropical rainforest (TRF) destruction has imperiled the forested regions near the equator with countries such as Nigeria facing huge soil loss, siltation of rivers and streams, loss of biodiversity etc. Nigeria, particularly the southern region have very sensitive soils and the region is classified as a potentially problem area which acidification is likely to become a problem. Acidification may cause much damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem e.g. the soil and vegetation which forms the base resources .\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:79:\"images/t/424/political-economy-and-ethics-of-ecological-problems-in-nigeria.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:80:\"images/t2/424/political-economy-and-ethics-of-ecological-problems-in-nigeria.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:62:\"political-economy-and-ethics-of-ecological-problems-in-nigeria\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"22\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"3\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"2\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"571097\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:11:\"terronaruka\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"613213\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:81:\"Are Herbal Medicines Effective In Treating Underweight Problems In Men And Women?\";s:11:\"description\";s:372:\"Ayurveda is the way of treatment for holistic health. What the ancients knew, modern science is rediscovering and there is a renewed interest in this system the world over. Science has yet to understand how herbs work together but Ayurveda has it all well defined when it comes to combining herbs to either synergistically improve the efficacy or nullify any side effects.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:98:\"images/t/5711/are-herbal-medicines-effective-in-treating-underweight-problems-in-men-and-women.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:99:\"images/t2/5711/are-herbal-medicines-effective-in-treating-underweight-problems-in-men-and-women.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:80:\"are-herbal-medicines-effective-in-treating-underweight-problems-in-men-and-women\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"15\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"42107\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:5:\"karin\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:63:\"Brief on Environmental Problems of the Marine and Coastal areas\";s:11:\"description\";s:1308:\"Pakistan is located at the gateway of the Persian Gulf. It is close to Iran, Oman, India and the land-locked central Asian countries. Pakistan is thus providing a good opportunity to benefit from its geo-strategic position. However, the increasing levels in the coastal regions and degradation of marine resources of the country are emerging as important environmental threats need immediate action. Pakistan has a coastline about 990 km along with adjacent coastal zone of 240,000 square km in the Northern Arabian Sea, which can be explored and developed into new ports, tourist resorts and industrial sites. It comprises of two distinct units, the passive margin of Sindh which stretches over 370 km and the active margin of the Balochistan coast which stretches over 760 km. Pakistan occupies a very important position on the vital trade and oil supply routes from the Persian Gulf to Pakistan\'s location is also not far from the Red Sea. This geographical location provides an opportunity to Pakistan to dominate the crucial stretches and vital routes across the Arabian Sea. There are rich living and non living resources in the coastal zone of Pakistan. The living resources include mangrove forests along Sindh and Balochistan Coast with Indus Delta harboring 6th largest mangrove forest of the world\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:80:\"images/t/422/brief-on-environmental-problems-of-the-marine-and-coastal-areas.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:81:\"images/t2/422/brief-on-environmental-problems-of-the-marine-and-coastal-areas.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:63:\"brief-on-environmental-problems-of-the-marine-and-coastal-areas\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"5\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"42129\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:4:\"frej\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:69:\"China\'s Energy and Environmental Problems and Policies by Gregory ...\";s:11:\"description\";s:419:\"This paper describes China\'s energy and environmental degradation problems in terms of air pollution, water pollution, CO 2 emission and shortage of energy. It discusses the laws, agencies established and policies introduced to solve the energy-environment problems as well as the practical difficulties in the implementation of government environmental policies. Finally it presents three major issues to be resolved. \";s:5:\"thumb\";s:82:\"images/t/422/china-s-energy-and-environmental-problems-and-policies-by-gregory.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:83:\"images/t2/422/china-s-energy-and-environmental-problems-and-policies-by-gregory.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:65:\"china-s-energy-and-environmental-problems-and-policies-by-gregory\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"18\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"7223\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"bizmana\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1471\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:128:\"Consideration of Environmental Factors in Transportation Planning: Review and Analysis of Current Policies, Practices and Trends\";s:11:\"description\";s:1146:\"A growing number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) are considering environmental factors in a more systematic way earlier in the transportation planning process, recognizing that there are benefits to be gained from better decisions, which reduce potential public controversy and result in shorter times to project implementation. This paper reviews current trends and practices for considering environmental factors in transportation planning at a systems level, in state DOTs and MPOs. The study is based on a review of the literature, and a survey and case studies of state DOTs and MPOs. The study results indicate that there are various levels of ongoing activity for considering environmental factors in planning in different agencies around the country. Agencies tend to place different emphases on various environmental factors depending on their unique set of needs. And while they are making gradual progress, several agencies identify competing priorities and the lack of appropriate planning tools as obstacles to considering environmental factors in transportation planning.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:142:\"images/t/73/consideration-of-environmental-factors-in-transportation-planning-review-and-analysis-of-current-policies-practices-and-trends.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:143:\"images/t2/73/consideration-of-environmental-factors-in-transportation-planning-review-and-analysis-of-current-policies-practices-and-trends.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:126:\"consideration-of-environmental-factors-in-transportation-planning-review-and-analysis-of-current-policies-practices-and-trends\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"21\";s:6:\"rating\";s:3:\"1.4\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"5\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"120205\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"atsushi\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:38:\"Practical Problems In Transfer Pricing\";s:11:\"description\";s:369:\"\n

  1. PRACTICAL PROBLEMS IN TRANSFER PRICING By NEERU AHUJA DELOITTE HASKINS & SELLS November’ 2003
  2. Contents
    • Definition of Transfer Pricing
    • Operational Difficulties
      • Determination of Arm’s Length Price (ALP)?
      • Associated Enterprise
      • Databases…\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:83:\"data/thumb/Practical-Problems-In-Transfer-Pricing-Presentation-Transcript-14852.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:84:\"data/thumb2/Practical-Problems-In-Transfer-Pricing-Presentation-Transcript-14852.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:38:\"practical-problems-in-transfer-pricing\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"17\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:6:\"565589\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:12:\"journals.ats\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:6:\"622984\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:255:\"Due to the advances in human civilization, problems in science and engineering are becoming more complicated than ever before. To solve these complicated problems, grid computing becomes a popular tool. a grid environment collects, integrates, and uses he\";s:11:\"description\";s:647:\"Due to the advances in human civilization, problems in science and engineering are becoming more complicated than ever\nbefore. To solve these complicated problems, grid computing becomes a popular tool. a grid environment collects, integrates, and uses\nheterogeneous or homogeneous resources scattered around the globe by a high-speed network. Scheduling problems are at the heart of\nany Grid-like computational system. a good scheduling algorithm can assign jobs to resources efficiently and can balance the system\nload. in this paper we survey three algorithms for grid scheduling and compare benefit and disadvantages of their based on makespan\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:118:\"images/t/5656/due-to-the-advances-in-human-civilization-problems-in-science-and-engineering-are-becoming-more-comp.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:119:\"images/t2/5656/due-to-the-advances-in-human-civilization-problems-in-science-and-engineering-are-becoming-more-comp.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:100:\"due-to-the-advances-in-human-civilization-problems-in-science-and-engineering-are-becoming-more-comp\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"5\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-28 08:57:15' WHERE `aff_id` = '198801'