An Error Was Encountered

Error Number: 1054

Unknown column 'cache_on' in 'field list'

UPDATE `aff_pdf_cache` SET `cache` = 'a:10:{i:0;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"2222\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:64:\"Effect of diet on the fatty acid pattern of milk from dairy cows\";s:11:\"description\";s:1602:\"Twelve dairy cows 130 days in milk were sorted by milk production and body weight and assigned to three feeding regimens in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design, in order to study the effects of diet on milk fatty acid (FA) composition. The cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of corn silage (60%) and concentrate (40%) on dry matter basis, or grazed pasture, without (P) or with 5 kg·d-1 concentrate as a supplement (SP). Supplemented grazing dairy cows produced significantly more milk than the cows on the TMR and P diets (P < 0.05). The supplementation of grazing dairy cows with a low fat concentrate did not significantly affect the milk fat FA profile. The pasture diet, with a supplement or not, decreased the concentration of saturated FA (P < 0.05) and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA (P < 0.05), of milk fat as compared to the TMR diet. The reduction in medium-chain FA was offset in large part by increases in long-chain FA (mainly oleic acid). The concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (P < 0.05) and trans-vaccenic acid were higher (P < 0.05) in the milk fat from the grazing cows. The results showed substantial variation among individual cows within treatments on milk fat content of CLA. Significant correlations were found for individual cow\'s milk fat CLA content across diets. Overall, this study indicates that the concentration of CLA in milk fat is enhanced by the dietary intake of pasture and that moderate low fat concentrate supplementation of grazing dairy cows increases performance without compromising the FA profile of milk fat.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:80:\"images/t/23/effect-of-diet-on-the-fatty-acid-pattern-of-milk-from-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:81:\"images/t2/23/effect-of-diet-on-the-fatty-acid-pattern-of-milk-from-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:64:\"effect-of-diet-on-the-fatty-acid-pattern-of-milk-from-dairy-cows\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"8\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"3\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"4\";}i:1;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"2485\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:63:\"Serum Retinol and Beta-Carotene Concentrations in US Dairy Cows\";s:11:\"description\";s:1638:\"Beta-carotene is a carotinoid present naturally in plant tissue. In un-supplemented
\nherbivore diets it serves as the primary source of vitamin A activity. In most modern
\nlivestock diets, however, vitamin A is added as a supplement, usually in the form of
\nretinyl acetate. This raises the question of the role of beta-carotene in dairy cow diets in
\nwhich adequate vitamin A has been added as a supplement.
\nThere is some evidence that beta-carotene may have nutritional roles in addition to being
\na precursor for vitamin A. Specifically, dietary beta-carotene may benefit animal health
\nand performance by serving as an antioxidant, enhancing immune function, and by
\npromoting steroidogenesis, the latter especially within the corpus luteum. The strength of
\nevidence supporting the importance of these functions in cattle is variable (Weiss, 1998).
\nStudies with dairy cattle have revealed either positive or no effects of supplemental beta-
\ncarotene on reproduction and mammary gland health (Weiss, 1998). From a recent study
\n(Arechiga et al., 1998) designed to test effects of beta-carotene in cattle under heat stress,
\na significant increase in milk production of cows supplemented with 400 mg/day beta-
\ncarotene was reported in each of three experiments, regardless of ambient temperature.
\nOther recent information from in vitro studies suggests that beta-carotene may stimulate
\nthe production of progesterone from the corpus luteum (Arikan and Rodway, 2000),
\nalthough the results appear variable (O’Shaughnessy and Wathes, 1988).\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:79:\"images/t/25/serum-retinol-and-beta-carotene-concentrations-in-us-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:80:\"images/t2/25/serum-retinol-and-beta-carotene-concentrations-in-us-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:63:\"serum-retinol-and-beta-carotene-concentrations-in-us-dairy-cows\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"10\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"3\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"4\";}i:2;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"2592\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:56:\"The electronic nose applied to dairy products : a review\";s:11:\"description\";s:1914:\"The state-of-the-art and current trends in the development of “aroma” analysis with electronic noses are reviewed with special reference to
\nof signal drift, the influence of humidity and temperature. New promising and reproducible sensor manufacturing techniques are being
\nimplemented, e.g. electro-spray for QMB sensor production. The development of more selective and sensitive sensors, especially of QMB
\nand conducting polymer (CP) type, should improve their applicability. Interesting novel sampling techniques, such as SPME or SBSE,
\noffer more possibilities for the analysis of semi-volatile compounds which are generally more odoriferous. However, standard calibration
\nprocedures and reference materials are not yet available. Although they are normally less powerful than human noses, electronic noses offer
\nsome significant advantages in the analysis of volatiles, for example, in instrumental classifications based on hedonic or sensory analyses
\nand in potentially automated on-line monitoring of volatiles. Several groups have explored the application of different electronic noses in
\nthe investigation of various aspects of dairy products. The present review includes as examples the evaluation of Swiss and Cheddar cheese
\naroma, the assessment of the ripening of Pecorino Toscano cheese (ewe’s), the detection of mould in Parmesan cheese, the classification of
\nmilk by trademark, by fat level and by preservation process, the classification and the quantification of off-flavours in milk, the evaluation
\nof Maillard reactions during heating processes in block-milk, as well as the identification of single strains of disinfectant–resistant bacteria
\nin mixed cultures in milk.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:70:\"images/t/26/the-electronic-nose-applied-to-dairy-products-a-review.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:71:\"images/t2/26/the-electronic-nose-applied-to-dairy-products-a-review.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:54:\"the-electronic-nose-applied-to-dairy-products-a-review\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"12\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"1\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"1\";}i:3;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"3760\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:160:\"Influence of high environmental temperatures and evaporative cooling on some physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters in high-yielding dairy cows\";s:11:\"description\";s:2284:\"The objective of this study was to ascertain if regular cooling by sprinkling could influence the heat
\nstress in high-yielding dairy cows and which of monitored parameters are suitable heat stress indicators. ?e scheme
\nof experiment included a week acclimatization, progressive rise of air temperatures, hot period (HP), progressive fall
\nof air temperatures, cool period (CP) and the same cycle with water evaporative cooling by sprinkler (HPC – hot
\nperiod with cooling). High ambient temperatures caused homeostasis disturbance, a significant increase (P < 0.05)
\nin rectal temperature (from 37.3 to 39.3°C), respiration (from 28 to 81 breath/min) and pulse rate (from 64 to
\n81 pulse/min). ?e hematocrite value and erythrocyte number rose significantly at the beginning of HP, from
\n32.48 to 41.6 l/l and from 6.84 to 8.18 T/l, respectively (P < 0.05). In addition, total protein values increased from
\n68.95 to 76.75 g/l in HP (P < 0.05). ?en their gradual decrease occurred, caused by their enhanced utilization
\nfor gluconeogenesis, as confirmed by significant urea increase. In HP urea levels rose from 4.08 to 4.84 mmol/l
\n(P < 0.05). ?e hemoconcentration caused a significant increase in glucose (from 2.898 to 3.35 mmol/l, P < 0.05),
\nand then a quick decrease to 2.91 mmol/l occurred (P < 0.05). Glucose concentration changes had the opposite
\ncourse than urea concentration changes. Cooling by sprinklers (HPC) improved some physiological and hemato-
\nlogical parameters, but not the biochemical parameters. ?e respiratory and pulse rate rose significantly as in HP
\n(P < 0.05), to 30 breath/min and 68 pulse/min, but rectal temperature increased only slightly to 38.1°C. A decrease
\nin glucose concentration occurred again at the beginning of HPC (2.82 mmol/l) and there was no significant dif-
\nference between levels at the beginning of HP and HPC. ?e significant urea growth occurred (P < 0.05), when
\ncomparing urea levels in CP (4.08 to 4.84 mmol/l) and in HPC (6.56 to 6.45 mmol/l). We recommend rectal
\ntemperature measurement for a general condition check. A comparison of total protein and urea levels can be used
\nto judge the metabolic situation.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:175:\"images/t/38/influence-of-high-environmental-temperatures-and-evaporative-cooling-on-some-physiological-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-high-yielding-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:176:\"images/t2/38/influence-of-high-environmental-temperatures-and-evaporative-cooling-on-some-physiological-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-high-yielding-dairy-cows.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:159:\"influence-of-high-environmental-temperatures-and-evaporative-cooling-on-some-physiological-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-high-yielding-dairy-cows\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"10\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"2\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"1\";}i:4;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"4237\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:89:\"Effect of Grinding High Moisture Corn on Its Utilization by Dairy Cows Fed Alfalfa Silage\";s:11:\"description\";s:1154:\"Alfalfa silage (AS) is one of the forages most
\ncommonly fed to dairy cows. However, during ensiling
\n50 to 60% of its CP is converted to NPN.
\nSynchronization of energy fermentation and CP
\ndegradation in the rumen may improve the efficiency of
\nutilization of the NPN for microbial protein synthesis
\n(MPS) and reduce the need for dietary RUP. Because
\nof the structure of its starch granule (McAllister et al.
\n1993), corn is not extensively degraded in the rumen.
\nProcessing of corn improves its digestibility in the
\nrumen and the intestine (Owens et al. 1986). Ensiling
\nof high moisture corn is one of the methods used to
\nincrease corn digestibility (Hale 1973). Grinding of
\nensiled high moisture corn may have an additive effect
\non digestibility. Our objective was to determine if
\ngrinding high moisture corn would improve its utilization
\nin lactating dairy cows by increasing ruminal MPS and
\nreducing the need for RUP. Therefore, milk yield
\nshould increase, and response to RUP decrease, with
\nthe feeding of ground high moisture corn.
\n\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:105:\"images/t/43/effect-of-grinding-high-moisture-corn-on-its-utilization-by-dairy-cows-fed-alfalfa-silage.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:106:\"images/t2/43/effect-of-grinding-high-moisture-corn-on-its-utilization-by-dairy-cows-fed-alfalfa-silage.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:89:\"effect-of-grinding-high-moisture-corn-on-its-utilization-by-dairy-cows-fed-alfalfa-silage\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"3\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:5;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:4:\"9152\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"shinta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:3:\"377\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:70:\"An Analysis of Policy Alternatives to the Dairy Price Support Program\";s:11:\"description\";s:1040:\"This paper investigates the impacts of alternative federal dairy policies on the U.S. dairy
\nsector. In addition to the current dairy pnce support program, five alternatives are
\ninvestigated: (I) immediate deregulation, (2) gradual deregulation, (3) target price-deficiency
\npayment program without supply control, (4) target pnce-deficiency payment program with
\nsupply control, and (5) mandatory supply control. An econometric model of the national dairy
\nindustry is used to simulate quarterly equilibrium pnce and quantity values at the farm and
\nwholesale levels for each policy over the penod 1980-90. Consumers are better off under
\nboth immediate and gradual deregulation, as well as the target pnce-deficiency payment
\nscenarios because prices are lower, enabling them to consume more dairy products. Farmers,
\nas a group, are better off under the two target price-deficiency payment program and supply
\ncontrol scenarios, where milk pnces and producer surplus are highest.
\n\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:85:\"images/t/92/an-analysis-of-policy-alternatives-to-the-dairy-price-support-program.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:86:\"images/t2/92/an-analysis-of-policy-alternatives-to-the-dairy-price-support-program.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:69:\"an-analysis-of-policy-alternatives-to-the-dairy-price-support-program\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"13\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:6;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"11056\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:65:\"Ranking Dairy Cows for Future Profitability and Culling Decisions\";s:11:\"description\";s:549:\"This paper describes a Microsoft Excel based computer program that calculates the future value, or retention pay off (RPO$), for cows in a herd to support culling decisions. The RPO$ is the extra profit expected from keeping the cow until the optimal time of her replacement compared to immediately replacing her with a replacement heifer. Cows with an RPO$ less than $0 should be culled and replaced. The program currently functions as an add-on to PCDART. The RPO$ are illustrated for the cows at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:82:\"images/t/111/ranking-dairy-cows-for-future-profitability-and-culling-decisions.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:83:\"images/t2/111/ranking-dairy-cows-for-future-profitability-and-culling-decisions.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:65:\"ranking-dairy-cows-for-future-profitability-and-culling-decisions\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"18\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"5\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"3\";}i:7;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"19195\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:7:\"samanta\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"1916\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:93:\"Effect of Business and Dairy Herd Management Practices on the Variable Cost of Producing Milk\";s:11:\"description\";s:1224:\"A Cobb-Douglas-type function was used to study the effect of several business and dairy herd factors on the variable cost of production per 45.4 kg milk in 410 New York State dairy herds. The model used was a recursive system of equations with milk sold per cow per year and total variable cost associated with milk production as endogenous variables. Solutions were obtained using the two-stage least squares procedure. Relationships were essentially linear between variable production cost per 45.4 kg of milk and average age of the herd, percent days in milk, average age at first calving, average body weight, average days dry, fat test, and kilograms of concentrates fed. For average days open, herd size, number of cows per worker, tillable acres per cow, percent cows leaving the herd, and capital investment per cow, relationships were curvilinear. A lower variable production cost was associated with those herds having fewer days open, younger age at first calving, higher percent days in milk, lower percent cows leaving the herd, and heavier cows. Average body weight of all cows, average days dry, cows per worker, and tillable acres per cow had very little relationship with the variable production cost.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:110:\"images/t/192/effect-of-business-and-dairy-herd-management-practices-on-the-variable-cost-of-producing-milk.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:111:\"images/t2/192/effect-of-business-and-dairy-herd-management-practices-on-the-variable-cost-of-producing-milk.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:93:\"effect-of-business-and-dairy-herd-management-practices-on-the-variable-cost-of-producing-milk\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"9\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:8;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"26426\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"monkey\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:4:\"3327\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:65:\"Considerations in designing a dairy industry development strategy\";s:11:\"description\";s:459:\"A generic process for designing a DDS (dairy development strategy) that creates growth
\nopportunities for small holder dairy farmers is a focus of this workshop. There are formal
\nand informal markets for the milk produced by small holders. An effective DDS needs to
\nseek the inclusion of small holders in the formal marketing channels. But it also needs to
\nrecognise that informal markets also offer opportunities for market development\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:82:\"images/t/265/considerations-in-designing-a-dairy-industry-development-strategy.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:83:\"images/t2/265/considerations-in-designing-a-dairy-industry-development-strategy.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:65:\"considerations-in-designing-a-dairy-industry-development-strategy\";s:5:\"pages\";s:1:\"6\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}i:9;O:8:\"stdClass\":13:{s:2:\"id\";s:5:\"34031\";s:6:\"status\";s:8:\"verified\";s:11:\"author_name\";s:6:\"lantos\";s:9:\"author_id\";s:1:\"0\";s:14:\"author_website\";s:0:\"\";s:5:\"title\";s:60:\"A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef and Dairy Industries\";s:11:\"description\";s:1549:\"The Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness at Duke University conducted this analysis on behalf of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) to examine the beef and dairy industries in the United States. Cattle raising contributes significantly to global greenhouse emissions. Although estimates are rough at best, the global livestock sector including cattle production is thought to be responsible for a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources. Some researchers have even suggested that, if deforestation for feed crops is included, livestock\'s share of these emissions may be even higher than the share from transport sources (Steinfeld et al., 2006). Other environmental consequences, including crop displacement, water pollution, and pressure on water supplies, are direct effects of cattle raising or indirect effects of feed production that supports those cattle. The contribution of beef production to greenhouse gas emissions can be divided into the following four basic categories, with estimates of each category\'s portion: 1) the energy inputs that go into fertilizer production for feed crops, 14%; 2) energy used by heavy equipment in food crops and general farm production, 14%; 3) off-gassing from manure and cattle\'s digestion process, called enteric fermentation (belching), 32%; and 4) foregone carbon storage on lands devoted to feed crops, 40%. Thus, the primary ways in which livestock contribute to greenhouse gas emissions are related to feed issues and manure management.\";s:5:\"thumb\";s:76:\"images/t/341/a-value-chain-analysis-of-the-u-s-beef-and-dairy-industries.jpg\";s:6:\"thumb2\";s:77:\"images/t2/341/a-value-chain-analysis-of-the-u-s-beef-and-dairy-industries.jpg\";s:9:\"permalink\";s:59:\"a-value-chain-analysis-of-the-u-s-beef-and-dairy-industries\";s:5:\"pages\";s:2:\"55\";s:6:\"rating\";s:1:\"0\";s:5:\"voter\";s:1:\"0\";}}', `cache_on` = '2015-02-27 20:58:39' WHERE `aff_id` = '1058366'