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McGRAW-HILL
5 Steps to a 5
AP Physics B and C

Other books in McGraw-Hill’s 5 Steps to a 5 Series include:
AP Biology
AP Calculus AB
AP Chemistry
AP English Language
AP English Literature
AP Microeconomics/Macroeconomics
AP Psychology
AP Spanish Language
AP Statistics
AP U.S. Government and Politics
AP U.S. History
AP World History
Writing the AP English Essay

McGRAW-HILL
5 Steps to a 5
AP Physics B and C
Greg Jacobs and Josh Schulman
MCGRAW-HILL
New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the
United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part
of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a
database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

0-07-146055-1

The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-143713-4.

All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after
every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit
of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations
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special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training
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TERMS OF USE

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DOI: 10.1036/0071460551

For more information about this title, click here
Contents
(Entries preceded by a C! are of special relevance for Physics C students; those preceded
by a B! are relevant for Physics B students)
Preface: How to Approach Your Physics Course / xi
Ignore Your Grade / xi
Don’t Bang Your Head Against a Brick Wall / xi
Work With Other People / xii
Ask Questions When Appropriate / xii
Keep an Even Temper / xii
Don’t Cram / xii
Never Forget, Physics Is “Phun” / xiii
Acknowledgments / xv
PART I
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
Welcome! / 3
Why This Book? / 3
Organization of the Book / 3
Introduction to the Five-Step Program / 4
Three Approaches to Preparing for the AP Physics Exam / 4
Calendar for Each Plan / 6
Introduction to the Graphics Used in This Book / 9
PART II
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
ABOUT THE AP PHYSICS EXAM
Background of the Advanced Placement Program / 13
Who Writes the AP Physics Exam? / 13
The AP Grades and Who Receives Them / 13
What’s the Difference Between Physics B and Physics C? / 13
Reasons for Taking the AP Physics Exam / 14
Questions Frequently Asked About the AP Physics Exam / 14
Getting Started: The Diagnostic Exam / 18
Answers and Explanations / 24
PART III
PHYSICS-SPECIFIC
TEST-TAKING ADVICE

Chapter A
Memorizing Equations in the Shower / 31
Chapter B
How to Approach the
Multiple-Choice Section / 37

v

vi • Contents
Chapter C
How to Approach the Free-Response Section / 45
Chapter D
Lab Questions / 49
Chapter E
Extra Review of Fundamental Topics / 53
PART IV
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Chapter 1
A Bit About Vectors / 65
Scalars / 65
Vector Basics / 65
Graphic Representation of Vectors / 66
Vector Components / 66
Adding and Subtracting Vectors / 67
Practice Problems / 70
Solutions to Practice Problems / 71
Chapter 2
Free-Body Diagrams and Equilibrium / 72
What Is a Free-Body Diagram? / 72
Equilibrium / 73
Normal Force / 75
Tension / 76
Friction / 78
Inclined Planes / 81
Torque / 82
Practice Problems / 84
Solutions to Practice Problems / 85
Rapid Review / 86
Chapter 3
Kinematics / 87
Velocity, Acceleration, and Displacement / 87
Fundamental Kinematics Equations / 88
Kinematics Problem Solving / 89
Freefall / 90
Projectile Motion / 92
Motion Graphs / 94
Practice Problems / 96
Solutions to Practice Problems / 97
Rapid Review / 98
Chapter 4
Newton’s Second Law, Fnet = ma / 99
The Four-Step Problem-Solving Process / 99
Only NET Force Equals ma / 100
Fnet on Inclines / 101
Fnet for a Pulley / 103
Newton’s Third Law / 105
Solution to Example Problem / 105
Practice Problems / 106
Solutions to Practice Problems / 108
Rapid Review / 108
Chapter 5
Momentum / 109
Momentum and Impulse / 109
Conservation of Momentum / 111

Contents • vii
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions / 111
Two-Dimensional Collisions / 112
Practice Problems / 113
Solutions to Practice Problems / 114
Rapid Review / 115
Chapter 6
Energy Conservation / 116
Kinetic Energy and the Work–Energy Theorem / 116
Potential Energy / 118
Conservation of Energy: Problem-Solving Approach / 118
Springs / 120
Power / 121
C!
Potential Energy vs. Displacement Graphs / 121
Practice Problems / 123
Solutions to Practice Problems / 124
Rapid Review / 124
Chapter 7
Gravitation and Circular Motion / 125
Velocity and Acceleration in Circular Motion / 125
Centripetal Forces / 126
Mass on a String / 127
Car on a Curve / 128
Newton’s Law of Gravitation / 129
C!
Kepler’s Laws / 130
Practice Problems / 132
Solutions to Practice Problems / 133
Rapid Review / 134
Chapter 8
Advanced Rotational Motion / 135
C!
Rotational Kinematics / 135
C!
Moment of Inertia / 137
C!
Newton’s Second Law for Rotation / 138
C!
Rotational Kinetic Energy / 139
C!
Angular Momentum and Its Conservation / 140
C!
Practice Problems / 142
C!
Solutions to Practice Problems / 143
C!
Rapid Review / 144
Chapter 9
Simple Harmonic Motion / 145
Amplitude, Period, and Frequency / 145
Vibrating Mass on a Spring / 146
Simple Pendulums / 148
C!
The Sinusoidal Nature of SHM / 150
Practice Problems / 151
Solutions to Practice Problems / 151
Rapid Review / 152
Chapter 10
Thermodynamics / 153
B!
Heat, Temperature, and Power / 153
B!
Thermal Expansion / 155
B!
Ideal Gas Law / 155
B!
Kinetic Theory of Gases / 156
B!
First Law of Thermodynamics / 157

viii • Contents
B!
PV Diagrams / 158
B!
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / 162
B!
Entropy / 164
B!
Practice Problems / 164
B!
Solutions to Practice Problems / 165
B!
Rapid Review / 166
Chapter 11
Fluid Mechanics / 167
B!
Pressure and Density / 167
B!
Pressure in a Static Fluid Column / 168
B!
Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle / 170
B!
Pascal’s Principle / 171
B!
Flowing Fluids / 172
B!
Practice Problems / 175
B!
Solutions to Practice Problems / 176
B!
Rapid Review / 177
Chapter 12
Electrostatics / 178
Electric Charge / 178
Electric Fields / 179
Force of an Electric Field / 180
Electric Potential / 181
Special Geometries for Electrostatics / 184
C!
Gauss’s Law / 188
Practice Problems / 189
Solutions to Practice Problems / 190
Rapid Review / 191
Chapter 13
Circuits / 192
Current / 192
Resistance and Ohm’s Law / 193
Resistors in Series and in Parallel / 194
The V-I-R Chart / 196
Kirchoff’s Laws / 198
Circuits from an Experimental Point of View / 201
RC Circuits: Steady-State Behavior / 202
C!
RC Circuits: Transitional Behavior / 204
Practice Problems / 206
Solutions to Practice Problems / 207
Rapid Review / 208
Chapter 14
Magnetism / 210
Magnetic Fields / 210
Long, Straight Current-Carrying Wires / 212
Moving Charged Particles / 213
Mass Spectrometry / 216
C!
Important Consequences of Biot–Savart and Ampere’s Law / 217
B! C!
Induced EMF / 218
C!
Inductors in Circuits / 222
Practice Problems / 225
Solutions to Practice Problems / 226
Rapid Review / 226

Contents • ix
Chapter 15
Waves / 228
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves / 228
Interference / 230
Standing Waves / 231
Doppler Effect / 234
Electromagnetic Waves / 235
C!
Maxwell’s Equations / 235
B!
Single and Double Slits / 236
Index of Refraction / 238
Thin Films / 239
Practice Problems / 241
Solutions to Practice Problems / 242
Rapid Review / 243
Chapter 16
Optics / 244
B!
Snell’s Law / 244
B!
Mirrors / 246
B!
Lenses / 249
B!
Practice Problems / 251
B!
Solutions to Practice Problems / 253
B!
Rapid Review / 254
Chapter 17
Atomic and Nuclear Physics / 255
B!
Subatomic Particles / 255
B!
The Electron-Volt / 256
B!
Energy Levels in an Atom / 256
B!
Momentum of a Photon / 259
B!
de Broglie Wavelength / 259
B!
Three Types of Nuclear Decay Processes / 260
B!
E = mc2 / 262
B!
Practice Problems / 262
B!
Solutions to Practice Problems / 263
B!
Rapid Review / 264
Chapter 18
Intensive Review of Special Topics / 265
Tension Problems / 265
Electric and Magnetic Fields / 270
Inclined Planes / 272
Motion Graphs / 276
Simple Circuits / 279
PART V
PRACTICE EXAMS AND SOLUTIONS
Physics B Practice Exam—Multiple Choice / 285
Physics B Practice Exam—Free Response / 298
Physics B Practice Exam—Multiple-Choice Solutions / 302
Physics B Practice Exam—Free-Response Solutions / 308
Physics C—Mechanics Practice Exam—Multiple Choice / 313
Physics C—Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam—
Multiple Choice / 322
Physics C—Mechanics Practice Exam—Free Response / 331
Physics C—Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam—
Free Response / 334

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