A free publication from:A basic illustrated timeline of the styles of Period EnglishAntiques. From the Tudor's to the Edwardian Days.1485-1918Furniture Period: Tudor1485-1565Styles & Inﬂuences: English Renaissance, Gothic, Italianate, FlemishPeriod King/Queen: Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, MaryWhen King Henry VII came to the throne 1485, the event signiﬁed the end of the Middle (Medieval) ages. It marked a brighter new era for England and the historic beginning of the English Renaissance. Tudor Furniture Characteristics• Made of Oak, heavy, strong, detailed and uncomfortable furniture.• Similar to medieval and gothic furniture periods preceding it. • Often decorated with tapestries, embroidery, carpets, and fabrics.• Very rare as only a few rich people in the 1500's could afford such luxuries. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: Jacobean 1603-1645Styles & Inﬂuences: English Renaissance, Gothic, Italianate, FlemishPeriod King/Queen: James I, Charles IAfter having difﬁculties working with Walnut, the Jacobean period saw a move back to Oak. Not as square as previous Oak pieces they remained inward looking, without not fully embracing exotic inﬂuences, and its ornamentation became less prominent, more ordered and uniform, this was the last era of wax based ﬁnishes. Jacobean Furniture Characteristics• Relief carvings of geometric or ﬂoral motifs• Solid and sturdy, made of Oak.• Inﬂuenced many early American pilgrims. • Accentuated mouldings used to divide areas into geometric shapes• The wax used to preserve the pieces has built up an aged dark oak lustre. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: The Commonwealth (Puritan) 1649-1660Styles & Inﬂuences: English Renaissance, Gothic, Italianate, FlemishPeriod King/Queen: Oliver Cromwell After England breaks out into civil war, leadership is overturned marking a new era, 'The Commonwealth' producing Cromwellian or puritan furniture. This era stands alone in the history of English furniture, moving away from the the Gothic styles we begin to see more ancient and classical forms of decoration, although the period continues to differ from foreign inﬂuences.Puritan Furniture Characteristics• Wood carving and upholstery was rarely used.• Sharp, angular, a simple practical styling.ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.1649-1685Furniture Period: The Restoration period (Carolean) Styles & Inﬂuences: Baroque, Dutch, Flemish, FrenchPeriod King/Queen: Charles II, James IIThe Carolean or Restoration period brought the traditional aspects of English furniture back in line with European styles. It was also during this era that the ancient art of 'French polishing,' was beginning to be experimented with. It would be another 100 years before the process was mastered.Restoration Furniture Characteristics• Restoration furniture was decorative and colourful. • Veneer and marquetry made advancements to produce detailed designs.•In addition to walnut and oak there was also used olive, white cedar, kingwood, and coromandel among others. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: William & Mary 1688-1702Styles & Inﬂuences: Baroque, Dutch, Flemish, FrenchPeriod King/Queen: William III, Mary IIPrevious eras saw dark, Gothic, primitive and uncomfortable furniture, The William and Mary period gave us bright insight into what was ahead for English furniture. Great numbers of French and Dutch refugee's came to England, many of them working in the furniture industry. They brought with them many new techniques that continued to increase the standards of English furniture.William and Mary Furniture Characteristicsª Oak, declined as Walnut was used widely, Mahogany made its ﬁrst appearance.• There was also use of kingwood and amboyna for inlay work and ebony• A lot of Dutch and French inﬂuences.• Standards improve as we see a greater number of these antiques today.Furniture Period: Queen Anne 1702-1714Styles & Inﬂuences: Baroque, Dutch, Flemish, FrenchPeriod King/Queen: AnneBy now, English craftsmen have mastered foreign techniques and adapted them to their own. English furniture is now developing a distinct style and can be compared at par with Italian and French furniture styles.Queen Anne Furniture Characteristics• Working class people are now more able to own furniture.• Walnut now the wood of choice.• A small amount of Queen Anne furniture was painted white and gilded.• Furniture design is more thought out as the pieces become lighter. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: Georgian 1714-1820Styles & Inﬂuences: Palladian, Rococo, French, Gothic, Chinese, Neo-ClassicalPeriod King/Queen: George I, George II, George IIIA big change began in this era, the introduction of Mahogany. It would later replace Walnut as the wood of choice. 'Geargian' furniture consisted of a wide variety of styles including Adam, Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton.Georgian Furniture Characteristics• The beginning of Mahogany and Architectural inﬂuence.• Consisted of a wide variety of styles. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: Regency 1820-1837Styles & Inﬂuences: Egyptian and GreekPeriod King/Queen: George IV, William IVFinally, the long awaited mastering of the technique to apply Shellac to wood, 'French polishing.' Now furniture is coated with smooth surfaces and intricate veneers are laid. A striking vibrant display of colours are introduced as knowledge of a variety of wood increases.Regency Furniture Characteristics• Plain, slender, elegant lines.• Mahogany is continued to be used along with Rosewood and Zebrawood.• Elaborate inlaid marquetry. ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.Furniture Period: Victorian 1837-1901Styles & Inﬂuences: Eclectic, Revivalist, Gothic Period King/Queen: Victoria The straight and smooth lines of the Regency period were opposed with a more oval and circular style. Mass produced furniture had taken a new level and the Victorian style was rapidly welcomed into the homes of many. Later in the period the demands of mass market would have a negative effect on the quality of the furniture being produced.Victorian Furniture Characteristics• Oak makes a nationalist comeback for its Englishness.• Mahogany and Rosewood mostly used.• Japanese design shows inﬂuence in ebony ﬁnishes.ptoone.com Copyright © 2007.