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A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP COMMUNICATION AND REAL-TIME POSITIONING ASSOCIATED WiMAX AND WiFi WITH MANET

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The conventional Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes without any infrastructure supporting. But, emergent traffic such as real-time positioning by using wireless infrastructure is indeed required. Therefore, a deployment for mobile ad hoc network would associate WiMax with WiFi which is called 802.16e MANET Environment in this paper. Based on the 802.16e MANET environment, we propose a novel Hierarchical Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (H-MAODV) in supporting multicast traffic rather than multiple unicast. The proposed H-MAODV scheme can avoid significant number of route discovery cost by using various bounded wireless coverage areas. On the other hand, Two-Points Positioning (TPP) is researched for improving conventional triangulation method of GPS from more than three points. By using proposed multicast service for H-MAODV applying in our deployed 802.16e MANET environment, emergent traffic for real-time positioning would be delivered out immediately. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast service for group communication in H-MAODV has the scalability advantage comparing with conventional MANET framework. Through deployed 802.16e MANET environment, proposed positioning technology for TPP outperforms conventional triangulation method of GPS. Moreover, a case study for the WiMax-technology including with the proposed TPP fitted in future 802.16e metropolitan network environment shows a better successful positioning ratio (SPR) than GPS-technology based on various impact factors especially considering in climate and metropolitan coverage area. Mathematical analysis also defines a new weather factor to research the relations in between various climates and non-line-of sight (NLOS) wave (i.e., interference of future metropolitan building coverage area). The case study for the simulation result presents a good integration of WiMax-technology and GPS-technology in future metropolitan positioning which is also proved a similar result to match the theoretical analysis.
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ISSN: 2231-184X

Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 73-118 (June 2011)


A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP
COMMUNICATION AND REAL-TIME POSITIONING
ASSOCIATED WiMAX AND WiFi WITH MANET
Chun-Shian Tsai
Received December 19, 2010
Abstract
The conventional Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes
without any infrastructure supporting. But, emergent traffic such as real-time
positioning by using wireless infrastructure is indeed required. Therefore, a


deployment for mobile ad hoc network would associate WiMax with WiFi which is
called 802.16e MANET Environment in this paper. Based on the 802.16e MANET
environment, we propose a novel Hierarchical Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance
Vector Routing protocol (H-MAODV) in supporting multicast traffic rather than
multiple unicast. The proposed H-MAODV scheme can avoid significant number of
route discovery cost by using various bounded wireless coverage areas. On the other
hand, Two-Points Positioning (TPP) is researched for improving conventional
triangulation method of GPS from more than three points. By using proposed
multicast service for H-MAODV applying in our deployed 802.16e MANET
environment, emergent traffic for real-time positioning would be delivered out
immediately. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast service for group
communication in H-MAODV has the scalability advantage comparing with
conventional MANET framework. Through deployed 802.16e MANET environment,
proposed positioning technology for TPP outperforms conventional triangulation
method of GPS. Moreover, a case study for the WiMax-technology including with the
proposed TPP fitted in future 802.16e metropolitan network environment shows a
better successful positioning ratio (SPR) than GPS-technology based on various
impact factors especially considering in climate and metropolitan coverage area.
Mathematical analysis also defines a new weather factor to research the relations in
between various climates and non-line-of sight (NLOS) wave (i.e., interference of
future metropolitan building coverage area). The case study for the simulation result
presents a good integration of WiMax-technology and GPS-technology in future
metropolitan positioning which is also proved a similar result to match the theoretical
analysis.



Keywords and phrases: mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), 802.16e, WiMax, multicast,
real-time positioning.




Pioneer Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Technology
Volume ..., Number ..., 2011, Pages ...
This paper is available online at http://www.pspchv.com/content_PJCSET.html

A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP
COMMUNICATION AND REAL-TIME POSITIONING
ASSOCIATED WiMAX AND WiFi WITH MANET
CHUN-SHIAN TSAI
Networking Protocol Research Group Laboratory
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Chung Chou Institute of Technology, Taiwan
e-mail:cstsai@dragon.ccut.edu.tw
Abstract
The conventional Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is composed of
mobile nodes without any infrastructure supporting. But, emergent traffic
such as real-time positioning by using wireless infrastructure is indeed
required. Therefore, a deployment for mobile ad hoc network would
associate WiMax with WiFi which is called 802.16e MANET
Environment in this paper. Based on the 802.16e MANET environment,
we propose a novel Hierarchical Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance
Vector Routing protocol (H-MAODV) in supporting multicast traffic
rather than multiple unicast. The proposed H-MAODV scheme can avoid
significant number of route discovery cost by using various bounded
wireless coverage areas. On the other hand, Two-Points Positioning (TPP)
is researched for improving conventional triangulation method of GPS
from more than three points. By using proposed multicast service for H-
MAODV applying in our deployed 802.16e MANET environment,
emergent traffic for real-time positioning would be delivered out
immediately. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast service for
group communication in H-MAODV has the scalability advantage
comparing with conventional MANET framework. Through deployed
802.16e MANET environment, proposed positioning technology for TPP
Received December 19, 2010.
Keywords and phrases: mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), 802.16e, WiMax, multicast, real-
time positioning.
(c) 2011 Pioneer Scientific Publisher

2
CHUN-SHIAN TSAI
outperforms conventional triangulation method of GPS. Moreover, a case
study for the WiMax-technology including with the proposed TPP fitted in
future 802.16e metropolitan network environment shows a better
successful positioning ratio (SPR) than GPS-technology based on various
impact factors especially considering in climate and metropolitan coverage
area. Mathematical analysis also defines a new weather factor to research
the relations in between various climates and non-line-of sight (NLOS)
wave (i.e., interference of future metropolitan building coverage area).
The case study for the simulation result presents a good integration of
WiMax-technology
and
GPS-technology
in
future
metropolitan
positioning which is also proved a similar result to match the theoretical
analysis.
1. Introduction
Since their emergence in the 1970s, wireless networks have become increasingly
popular in the computing industry [1]. There are currently two variations of mobile
wireless networks. The first type of mobile wireless networks is well known as the
infrastructure-based network. As a mobile node travels out of range of one base
station and into the range of another, a "handoff" occurs from the old base station to
the new, and the mobile is able to continue communication seamlessly throughout
these network devices. Typical applications of this type of network include office
wireless local area networks (WLAN [2]). The second type of mobile wireless
networks is without infrastructure-based network, commonly known as Mobile
Ad Hoc Network (MANET). Ad hoc networks via multi-hop routing have been
considered for emergent communication without wired infrastructure. All nodes of
ad hoc networks are capable of movement and can be connected dynamically in an
arbitrary manner. Nodes of these networks function as routers which discover and
maintain routers to other nodes in the network.
A large variety of applications utilizing ad hoc networks will demand features
such as real-time, high-availability, and even instantaneous high-bandwidth in some
cases. For example, disaster positioning for real-time data transmission of mobile
users, teleconferencing in which part of or all of the participants are mobile users in
different wireless access networks, distributed games for mobile users, and large
amount of multimedia data for the transmission of live video. While offering
important rapid deployment and cost benefits on it, the traditional "flat" multi-hop
routing approach does not scale well, i.e., Gupta and Kumar [3] proved that
throughput decreases and delay increases as the number of mobile nodes in the
system becomes large. This situation is called a scalability problem in this paper.


A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP ...
3
This motivates consideration of better performance to assist ad hoc network, possibly
based on associated hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks such as WiMax [4,
5] and WiFi [6] with MANET [7-10] which is namely 802.16e MANET
Environment in this paper.
As illustrated in Figure 1, MANET associated with hierarchical wireless
infrastructure consists of a gateway (GW) and forwarding routers (FR) that connect
to the gateway via a high-speed wireless link. The GW and FR can be recommended
as an 802.16e base station (BS) and subscriber stations (SS), respectively. The
ad hoc nodes can connect to 802.16e network device via access router (AR) or direct
routing via BS. For the 802.16e MANET environment, multicast routing protocols
play an important role in ad hoc wireless networks to provide this communication. It
is always advantageous to use multicast rather than multiple unicast, especially in the
ad hoc environment, where bandwidth comes at a premium.





Figure 1. Hierarchical Ad Hoc network architecture.
Current approaches used for ad hoc multicast routing protocols can be classified
into two types based on the multicast topology: tree-based and mesh-based. In tree-
based multicast routing protocols [11-17], there exists only a single path between a
source-receiver pair, whereas in mesh-based multicast routing protocols [18-22],
there may be more than one path between a source-receiver pair. Tree-based
multicast protocols are more efficient compared to mesh-based multicast protocols,
but mesh-based multicast protocols are robust due to the availability of multiple
paths between the source and receivers. Both tree-based and mesh-based methods
have all the same scalability problems which contain degrading throughput,
increasing transmission delay, packet loss, and routing overhead as rapidly increased
mobile users in traditional ad hoc network environment. Moreover, if we imagine


4
CHUN-SHIAN TSAI
each of hierarchical nodes to be regarded as a part of ad hoc networks, the
conventional ad hoc multicast routing protocols cannot fit into well. A broadcast
storm would fall in the whole 802.16e MANET environment and the problem will be
detailed in Section 3.
In order to design a suitable multicast service for 802.16e MANET environment,
a novel multicast routing protocol namely Hierarchical Multicast Ad hoc On-
Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (H-MAODV) is proposed in this paper.
For the proposed H-MAODV scheme, we mainly focus on an efficient tree-based
multicast topology and the adopted wireless infrastructure including with WiMax
and WiFi can be regarded as a part of ad hoc nodes. On the design of the H-MAODV
scheme, a simple cluster-based algorithm presented in a bounded area based on
various wireless technologies is designed to prevent a broadcast storm from route
discovery cycle. Moreover, through the design of the multicast service for H-
MAODV, a novel positioning technology namely Two-Points Positioning (TPP) is
proposed to be fitted in a real-time group communications for 802.16e MANET
environment in this paper. The proposed TPP technology can reduce the number of
positioning points to lead a higher successful positioning ratio than conventional
triangulation method of GPS in 802.16e MANET environment. For instance in
emergent traffic, significant number of data for live video and important positioning
information for people in emergent environment can be forwarded out immediately
by adopting H-MAODV scheme associated with 802.16e MANET environment.
In conventional positioning technology, Triangulation Method [23, 24] is a well
known technology from GPS [25, 26] concept. Various weather factors and non-line-
of sight (NLOS) wave (i.e., metropolitan coverage areas) should interfere with GPS-
satellite signal receiving. The Successful Positioning Ratio (SPR) of GPS is therefore
low in unfavorable weather or large metropolitan building coverage area. In this
paper, a case study for the integration of WiMax-technology and GPS-technology is
investigated in the future metropolitan positioning environment. The WiMax-
technology including with TPP rules is appropriately applied in case of metropolitan
coverage area, and the GPS-technology with triangulation method is appropriately
applied in the outside metropolitan coverage area. Simulated results demonstrate the
scalability advantages of our proposed H-MAODV scheme significantly reduce
broadcast messages, transmission delay and packet loss, and also improve the
throughput in hierarchical ad hoc network by associating with wireless
infrastructures. A real-time positioning through group communication can also be
simulated well by adopting our proposed TPP method. Theoretical analysis in a


A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP ...
5
positioning case study proposes a new defined weather factor to research a
relationship in between various climates and metropolitan buildings in order to
compare WiMax-technology and GPS-technology. Lastly, simulation for positioning
in case study shows high positioning ratio and similar result of theoretical analysis in
a future integrated positioning research.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. First of all, we make a brief survey
of the conventional multicast routing protocols for MANET and positioning
technology for GPS in Section 2. The Hierarchical Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector Routing protocol (H-MAODV) associated the construction of the
multicast tree (M-Tree) with cache is presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents Two-
Points Positioning (TPP) in higher successful positioning ratio than conventional
triangulation method of GPS. Section 5 presents a case study for future metropolitan
positioning in the integration of WiMax-technology and GPS-technology. Section 6
concludes this paper.
2. Related Work
2.1. Conventional MANET technologies
Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV [27, 28]) routing protocol uses an
on-demand approach for finding routes, that is, a route is established only when it is
required by a source node for transmitting data packets. The source node and the
intermediate nodes store the next-hop information corresponding to each flow for
data packet transmission. Route discovery for the source node floods the Route
Request (RREQ) packet in the network when a route is not available for the desired
destination. It may obtain multiple routes to different destinations from a single
RREQ. A node updates its path information only if the destination sequence number
of the current packet received is greater than the last one.
Multicast Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) routing protocol
[17] is an extension of the AODV protocol. MAODV uses the notion of a group
leader which updates the sequence number of the group periodically and broadcasts
it using group hellos (GRPHs). The group leader is typically the first node to join the
group. Nodes which wish to join the group, if they have the address of the group
leader then unicast a route request (RREQ), otherwise broadcast a RREQ packet for
route discovery. The RREQ is answered with a route reply (RREP) by a member of
the multicast group. This RREP, containing the distance of the replying node from
the group leader and the current sequence number of the multicast group, is unicast
to the requesting node. The receiver node selects the most recent and the shortest


6
CHUN-SHIAN TSAI
path from all the RREPs it receives and sends a multicast activation (MACT)
message. MACT confirms to the intermediate relaying nodes that they are part of the
tree.
One of the advantages of MAODV is the integration of unicast and multicast
into a unified framework. Thus, information gleaned during unicast route discovery
can be used in the multicast route discovery and vice versa. The disadvantage stems
from its route discovery cycle which brings a series problem in broadcast storm. To
solve this drawback, the Multicast Routing Protocol based on Zone Routing (MZR
[12]) was proposed. The MZR has two parts to it: (1) a proactive protocol runs inside
each zone, maintaining an up-to-date zone routing table at each table, and (2) a
reactive multicast tree creation is initiated when a source needs to send multicast data
to its group members. For case (1), each mobile node participating in an ad hoc
network constructs a zone around itself with a pre-configured zone radius. A simple
distance vector protocol is implemented for creating zones and for maintaining a
zone routing table at each node. For case (2), a multicast source initiates the creation
of a multicast data delivery tree. The tree creation is done in a two-stage process. The
source initially forms the tree inside its zone and then tries to extend the tree to the
entire network.
2.2. Conventional hierarchical technologies
Dependable and scalable multicast routing protocol is required for large mobile
ad hoc networks, even though network size and node mobility continue to increase.
However, the data packet delivery becomes less dependable due to radio interference
and frequent route breaks as the hop count between the source node and the multicast
group member increases. In order to mitigate the overhead to forward data packets
and provide dependable data packet delivery to multicast group member, Yamamoto
et al. [29] proposed an adaptive inter-cluster data forwarding configuration
mechanism for a HIerarchical Multicast routing PROtocol (HIMPRO) in large
mobile ad hoc networks. HIMPRO introduces the inter-cluster group mesh structure
based on their defined autonomous clustering proposal. The HIMPRO determines
one or more next-forwarding clusters, to which each clusterhead should forward data
packets, from all of the neighboring clusters over the mesh link by estimating
clusters to which data packets have been already forwarded from the upstream
cluster. As a result, since the proposed mechanism efficiently forwards data packets
over the mesh link, the high data packet delivery can be achieved and the overhead
to forward data packets can be mitigated. On the other hand, Chaker et al. [30]
considered a dense ad hoc network with multicast type of traffic handling using a


A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP ...
7
hierarchical routing with clustering. In the work [30], they investigate the scaling of
throughput capacity versus the number of nodes and destinations, and construct an
elementary spatial-temporal routing scheme that achieves the throughput capacity of
a dense ad hoc wireless network with high probability as the number of nodes
increases. Although these works seem to provide higher data delivery for a dense
case, the communication between clusters would occur from scalable problem which
presented by Gupta and Kumar [3].
Based on the above considerations, Zhao et al. [31] proposed a self-organizing
hierarchical ad hoc wireless networks with improved scaling properties and
integration with the wired devices. The scalability properties of the hierarchical are
studied further in terms of the achievable system capacity as a function of the
relative densities of sensor nodes, forwarding nodes and access points. It is shown
that the capacity of the hierarchical network may be scalable if the number of
forwarding nodes and access points are increased in the right proportions. In this
paper, we will consider the design of the tree-based multicast routing protocol and
integrate on 802.16e and 802.11 wireless infrastructures to solve the scalability
problem as large number of ad hoc nodes increase and ad hoc network environment
is becoming large.
2.3. Conventional triangulation method
Global Positioning System (GPS) [25, 26] is a satellite positioning system and
has been widely applied around the world. The conventional triangulation method is
set from GPS technology. The main concept of triangulation method is presented as
follows. When a GPS receiver receives signals from more than 3 satellites, it sets the
satellite as the center of a circle, and uses the arrival time to obtain the distance
between the satellite and GPS receiver as the radius. After determining over 3 circles
in the area, it uses the triangulation technology to find the intersecting points of the
circles. Figure 2 shows the conventional triangulation method. For example, GPS
receiver receives signal from satellite A, the distance between them can be evaluated
as a radius to draw first circle. For the same way, second circle for a distance of
radius between the GPS receiver and satellite B can be found. But, there are two
ambiguous points should be further confirmed. The philosophy of triangulation
method is to use a third-intersected point between GPS receiver and satellite C to
solve the problem of the uncertain coordinate point. By using the third circle, it
exists only one intersected point so that an accurate positioning procedure can be
completed.


8
CHUN-SHIAN TSAI

Figure 2. The conventional triangulation method from GPS technology.
For the conventional triangulation method, the positioning procedure needs at
least three reference points. The drawback for the ad hoc network is in which the
connection among mobile nodes cannot be easily established, unless the number of
mobile nodes can be with high density. To achieve high dense mode, the hardware
cost would increase in providing large number of mobile nodes. Moreover, it is also
difficult for real-time and disaster positioning for MANET environment. In this
paper, we would also try to consider another future requirement when wireless
devices are becoming cheap and hot. That is if the wireless infrastructure is required,
then a novel application for multicast service would be attached to an emergent or
real-time disaster positioning technology. In next section, we first present a suitable
multicast routing protocol in the deployed 802.16e MANET environment. Section 4
presents a disaster positioning technology applied on group communication. Section
5 researches a case study for an integration of wireless positioning technologies
considering in different impact factors.
3. Hierarchical Multicast AODV (H-MAODV)
In conventional MANET, some disadvantage emerges such as low bandwidth,
high transmission delay, packet loss and connected disruption. To make up a
deficiency, a framework for 802.16e MANET including with wireless infrastructure
is proposed. Although supporting a networking deployment of 802.16e MANET, it is
not still addressed well as fitting from conventional multicast routing protocol such
as a well-known scheme in MAODV. Because the MAODV scheme is based upon


A NOVEL MULTICAST DESIGNING FOR GROUP ...
9
AODV to do multicast service, we need presenting a critical problem for unicast
version of AODV. As illustrated in Figure 3, one source wants to find a destination
(receiver) and then the procedure for route discovery begins if the 802.16e wireless
infrastructure is regarded as a part of ad hoc nodes. The source first broadcasts a
route request (RREQ) message to one of destinations. On receiving the RREQ
message, the BS continuously broadcasts it to the whole network. Once there are
multiple sources want to send data for different destinations, the broadcast storm
would be filled in whole 802.16e MANET environment. Thus, we think that a more
suitable multicast routing protocol needs to be further researched in the 802.16e
MANET environment which is namely Hierarchical Multicast Ad Hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector Routing Protocol (H-MAODV) in this paper.


Figure 3. Broadcast storm for AODV in the 802.16e MANET environment.
3.1. Basic idea
The basic idea of H-MAODV is to deploy a three-tier wireless infrastructure so
that group members of flat ad hoc network can keep group communication along
with the created multicast tree (M-Tree) in the wireless infrastructure. Each link is
thus bi-directional. In order to make H-MAODV work properly, data structure for
M-tree must be addressed in a cache. In the following, we present the data structure
for creating and maintaining of the M-Tree in wireless network infrastructure.


Document Outline

  • Abstract Pages 73-118
  • CSE03-201012012_C.-S._Tsai-Proofs

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