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# A SIMPLE FIELD TEST TO DETECT QUININE IN URINE

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In field tests we have examined men in groups to correspond with the number of tubes in the rack used, giving them serial numbers and collecting urine simultaneously from all in small wide-mouthed bottles. Approximately one (1) to two (2) ml. of urine is used for a test. To this is added five (5) to ten (10) drops of our reagent. An immediate turbidity which appears on slight agitation is an indication of quinine. This will intensify on standing.
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A SIMPLE FIELD TEST TO DETECT QUININE IN URINE

BY COLONEL VIRGIL H. CORNELL, Medical Corps, U. S. Army AND
CAPTAIN SIDNEY KAYE, Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army

NEW reagent is described
Another series of six subjects was
which has been found to be
studied, who had taken the full pro-
Amarkedly sensitive in the de- phylactic dose (45 grains of quinine)
tection of quinine. The use of this
over a period of three days.. The urine
reagent has proven of value as a field
output was positive for quinine in all
test in establishing the presence of
six cases up to the 46th hour. There-
minute amounts of quinine directly in
after, one after the other showed nega-
urine without prior extraction. Large
tive quinine, until the last one also
numbers of men may be checked in a
was negative at the fiftieth hour.
very short time with a minimum of
A third series of fifty men was
assistance and equipment.
studied, twenty-five of whom had not
A comparative study was made of
had quinine for at least 50 hours and
the various alkaloidal precipitants which
twenty-five of whom were each given
were reactive with quinine; of these it
a 5-grain tablet. All twenty-five ab-
was found that Mayer's reagent and
stainers proved negative on test. The
Tanret's reagent were most sensitive.
twenty-five, who- had taken the quinine
Our reagent is four times more sensi-
were tested two hours after ingestion.
tive than Tanret's reagent and twelve
Twenty-one showed heavy, positive re-
times more sensitive than Mayer's re-
actions. The four negative were tested
agent for the detection of quinine in
each successive hour. One became posi-
urine, as determined by tests on de-
tive the third hour. The other three
creasing concentrations. It is sensitive
showed a positive reaction on the
to one (I) gamma (one-thousandth
fourth hour. This would indicate that
of a milligram) in I ml. of urine.
these four men had a slower rate of
A five-gram tablet was ingested by
absorption since all tablets came from
each of twelve subjects and the quinine
the same lot.
output followed and tested with Tan-
The reaction between the reagent
ret's, Mayer's, and Kaye's reagent,
and quinine is rapid, forming an im-
every hour.
mediate turbidity which varies with

the concentration of quinine present. In

Number of hours positive
the presence of very. minute amounts
Reagent
after ingestion of quinine
of quinine, it would be well either to

allow the solution to stand awhile after
Tanret's
30
which an intensification may be ob-
Mayer's
20
served, or to bring the solution to a
Kaye's
36
slight boil and then observe turbidity

on cooling.
* From the Puerto Rican Department Labora-

tory, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

133

134
The Military Surgeon-August, 1943

The following substances, however,
2.o gm. potassium iodide
interfere with this reaction: atropine,
2o.o ml. glacial acetic acid
cocaine, strychnine; albumin, and ata-
Distilled water, sufficient to make 60
brine. The alkaloids would be uncom-
ml.
mon and unlikely to be found in tests
These chemicals may be mixed in
of field troops. Albumin may be more
any order and are shaken or stirred
frequently encountered and its presence
into complete solution. This reagent
may give false .positives. In a suspected
is quite stable but should be kept in
false positive, a simple differentiation
a brown bottle.
may be made by heating the tube with

a portable alcohol lamp. The quinine
PROCEDURE
precipitate will dissolve when heated
In field tests we have examined men
and reappear when cooled. The albumin
in groups to correspond with the num -
precipitate will intensify when heated
ber of tubes in the rack used, giving
and persist. The few cases with albu-
them serial numbers and collecting
min will not interfere when large
urine simultaneously from all in small
groups are checked where the majority
wide-mouthed bottles. Approximately
are either positive or negative. Since
one (1) to two (2) ml. of urine is
atabrine and quinine are both anti-
used for a test. To this is added five
malarial agents and the purpose of this
(5) to ten (10) drops of our reagent.
field test is to recognize the presence
An immediate turbidity which appears
or absence of such reagents, there is
on slight agitation is an indication of
no need for differentiating between
quinine. This will intensify on standing.
them. However, the sensitivity of this

reagent is not sufficiently great so as
SUMMARY
to identify small amounts of atabrine
1. A procedure is described for the
present in urine. The sensitivity for
detection of quinine in urine, using a
atabrine in urine is 25 gamma per ml.
new and very sensitive reagent.
of urine
2. This test is both rapid and sim-

ple, using a minimum of equipment
PREPARATION OF REAGENT
and may be used to check large num-

bers of troops in the field.
3.0 gm. red mercuric iodide

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