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A STUDY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES, FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUCCESS AND SOME SELECTED VARIABLES

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ gender and intelligence types, the relationship between particular intelligence types and students’ success in grammar, listening and writing in English as a foreign language and the relationship between parental education and students’ types of intelligences. Preparatory class students (n=144) attending Erciyes University’s School of Foreign Languages participated in the study and the data was collected through the Multiple Intelligences Inventory for Adults. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test analysis, correlation analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Analysis of the data revealed no significant gender differences in the intelligence types held by the participants except for that between gender and linguistic intelligence which was positive. Negative but significant relationships were found between success in students’ test scores in grammar and bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, and intrapersonal intelligences whereas the relationship between musical intelligence and writing was found to be significant and positive. Finally, no significant relationship was found between parental education and students’ intelligence types.
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by saad C. on May 11th, 2010 at 03:50 am
A very good paper. Thanks a lot.
by raeza on August 04th, 2010 at 07:18 am
like this one. and thanks for posting it..!,
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E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama





2009, 5 (2):110-122
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education



Articles /Makaleler
ISSN: 1304-9496

http://eku.comu.edu.tr/index/5/2/asaricaoglu_aarikan.pdf


A STUDY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES,
FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUCCESS AND SOME
SELECTED VARIABLES


(ZEKA TÜRLER , Ö?RENC LER N YABANCI D L BA?ARILARI VE
SEÇ LM ? DE? ?KENLER ÜZER NE B R ÇALI?MA)


Aysel SARICAO?LU1
Arda ARIKAN2

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ gender and intelligence
types, the relationship between particular intelligence types and students’ success in grammar,
listening and writing in English as a foreign language and the relationship between parental education
and students’ types of intelligences. Preparatory class students (n=144) attending Erciyes University’s
School of Foreign Languages participated in the study and the data was collected through the Multiple
Intelligences Inventory for Adults. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test analysis,
correlation analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data.
Analysis of the data revealed no significant gender differences in the intelligence types held by the
participants except for that between gender and linguistic intelligence which was positive. Negative
but significant relationships were found between success in students’ test scores in grammar and
bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, and intrapersonal intelligences whereas the relationship between musical
intelligence and writing was found to be significant and positive. Finally, no significant relationship
was found between parental education and students’ intelligence types.

Keywords: Multiple intelligences, intelligence, success, gender, parental education

ÖZ
Bu çal??man?n amac? cinsiyet ile ö?rencilerin zekâ türleri aras?nda, belirli zekâ türleri ile ö?rencilerin
ngilizce dilbilgisi, dinleme ve yazma ba?ar?lar? aras?nda ve ö?rencilerin zekâ türleri ile anne ve
babalar?n?n e?itim seviyeleri aras?nda bir ili?ki olup olmad???n? ara?t?rmakt?r. Erciyes Üniversitesi
Yabanc? Diller Yüksekokulu’nda ö?renim gören 144 haz?rl?k s?n?f? ö?rencisi çal??mada yer alm?? ve
veri toplama arac? olarak Yeti?kinler için Çoklu Zekâ Envanter’i kullan?lm?? ve veriler tan?mlay?c?
istatistikler, ba??ms?z örneklem t-testi, korelasyon katsay?s? ve tek yönlü varyans analizi (ANOVA)
teknikleri ile analiz edilmi?tir. Çal??man?n sonuçlar?na göre, k?z ve erkek ö?renciler aras?nda zekâ
türleri aç?s?ndan anlaml? bir ili?ki bulunmamaktad?r. Cinsiyet ile dilsel zekâ aras?nda pozitif bir ili?ki
oldu?u ortaya ç?km??t?r. Bedensel-duyusal, uzaysal ve bireysel-içedönük zekâ ile dilbilgisi aras?nda
olumsuz ama anlaml? bir ili?ki ç?karken, müziksel zekâ ile yazma becerisi aras?ndaki ili?ki olumlu ve
anlaml?d?r. Son olarak, anne ve baban?n e?itim seviyelerinin ö?rencilerin zekâ türleri üzerinde
etkisinin olmad??? saptanm??t?r.

Anahtar kelimeler; Çoklu zeka, zeka, ba?ar?, cinsiyet, aile, e?itim

1 Ins., Erciyes University, School of Foreign Languages. E-mail: ayselsaricaoglu111@gmail.com
2 Asst. Prof. Dr., Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, Dept. of Foreign Language Teaching. E-
mail: ardaari@gmail.com
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


Sar?cao?lu & Ar?kan





E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

2009, 5 (2): 110-122


INTRODUCTION



MI Theory: the Construct and its Components

Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory (MIT) grew out of the work of
Howard Gardner who challenged the too narrowly defined intelligence with
his proposal of basic human intelligence types (linguistic, logical-
mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and
intrapersonal). Although originally started as 7 intelligences, an eighth
intelligence “naturalistic intelligence” has been added to the list and now there
is the possibility of a ninth intelligence “emotional intelligence” (Armstrong,
2001; Fogarty and Stoehr, 2008) or “spiritual intelligence” (Albert and Reed,
2008). MI, as a theoretical construct, suggests that intelligence should be
determined by measuring one’s capacity for solving problems and fashioning
products in a context-rich and naturalistic setting. Chen and Gardner (2005:
79) describe the types of intelligences as the following;

1. Linguistic intelligence, describes the ability to perceive and generate
spoken and written language,
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence, involves the ability to appreciate
and utilize numerical, abstract, and logical reasoning to solve
problems,
3. Musical intelligence, entails the ability to create, communicate, and
understand meanings made out of sound,
4. Spatial intelligence, refers to the ability to perceive, modify,
transform, and create visual and/or spatial images,
5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, deals with the ability to use all or part
of one’s body to solve problems or fashion products,
6. Naturalistic intelligence, concerns the ability to distinguish among
critical features of the natural environment,
7. Interpersonal intelligence, describes the ability to recognize,
appreciate and contend with the feelings, beliefs, and intentions of
other people,
8. Intrapersonal intelligence, involves the ability to understand oneself
including emotions, desires, strengths, and vulnerabilities and to use
such information effectively in regulating one’s own life.

MIT is proposed and put into practice in a way to call for an alternative
classroom design to traditional classroom setting. It has been embraced by the
teachers in need of an educational program which addresses a variety of ways
people learn (Shore, 2004). In order to explain why MI is an effective way of
teaching and why it can overcome some of our problems in education, Moran,
Kornhaber and Gardner (2006: 23) give the following example;

Think of LEGO building blocks. If we have only one kind of block to
play with, we can build only a limited range of structures. If we have a
number of different block shapes that can interconnect to create a variety
111
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


A study of multiple intelligences, foreign language
success and some selected variables

of patterns and structures, we can accomplish more nuanced and complex
designs. The eight or nine intelligences work the same way.

In support of the quotation above, Nolen (2003: 119) suggests that the
presentation of foreign language teaching material should engage all or most
of the intelligences due to the fact that each of the intelligences is potentially
available in every learner. Hence, employing MI does not necessarily mean
designing a lesson in nine different ways so that all students can access
classroom materials prepared separately for each and all of the intelligence
types. Instead, materials should allow students with different intelligence types
to interact with each other and to develop the intelligences in which they are
less strong (Moran, Kornhaber and Gardner, 2006; Heacox, 2002).
Poole’s (2000: 532) clear description of an MI classroom seems to be
helpful in understanding the potential of the theory in practice. In an
integrated and cooperative MI classroom, the teacher employs non-traditional
approaches to construction of meaning through a flexible but careful planning.
The small social groups and learner-centered activities enable the students to
share information and get a better understanding of what is learnt. In such a
relaxed and non-threatening learning environment that is characterized by
contextual clues, learners receive comprehensible input by working
collaboratively. These characteristics of an MI classroom, as described by
Poole, lead the researcher to the conclusion that MIT is inclusive of many
familiar approaches such as whole language, cooperative learning, and other
appropriate pedagogies that take children beyond the limits of rote learning
(2000: 540).
Classroom research has reported that MIT is a promising theoretical
construct which can foster students’ learning. Haley’s (2004: 171) research on
the ways teachers apply MIT in foreign and second language classrooms
showed that students in experimental groups outperformed those in control
groups while developing a high degree of satisfaction and positive attitude
toward the content. Emig (1997: 50) associates MIT with “magic” since it is
highly advantageous for both students and teachers because students feel more
competent and confident in an MI-based classroom. Similarly, in agreement
with Emig (1997) and Haley (2004), Hamurlu (2007) found that MIT-based
instruction increased students’ achievement in English classes and had
positive effect on students’ attitudes towards English.
Assessment and evaluation of the instruments designed specifically for
intelligence types have also drawn attention. With such an aim, McMahon
and Rose (2004) evaluated the reliability of the Teele’s (2000) Inventory of
Multiple Intelligences (TIMI) and investigated the relationship between
intellectual preferences and reading achievement. Their results revealed that
the instrument does not provide consistent measurement and needs further
development and refinement (2004: 48) although relationship was found
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Sar?cao?lu & Ar?kan





E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

2009, 5 (2): 110-122

between reading comprehension and logical-mathematical intelligence.
Research has also shed light on the effect of MI activities on a diverse group
of students’ learning of another language. Noble (2004: 205) claimed that one
of the greatest challenges for teachers today is to provide curriculum which
effectively caters to the needs of diverse groups students and “…the MI
framework was providing more options for children who were not
academically or linguistically strong in English to demonstrate their
knowledge.” Shearer (2004) investigated three interrelated propositions about
a reliable and valid assessment for multiple intelligences, MI-inspired
instruction and curriculum and the use of strength-based learning activities and
concluded that MI profiles of students may be used by students and teachers
alike to further students’ educational agendas because they serve as the basis
for personalized educational planning.
Researchers have investigated the relationship between gender and MI
of specific learners. With an aim of finding out whether or not there were any
gender differences in students’ intelligence profiles in relation to their gender,
Loori (2005) conducted a study of 90 English language learners and found that
males showed higher preference in logical/mathematical intelligence. On the
other hand, Razmjoo (2008) found that the use of intrapersonal intelligence by
females was higher than that of the males whereas no significant difference
was found between male and female participants regarding language success
and types of intelligences. Hence, contrasts exist between the results of these
two studies which studied the relationship with gender and MI.
Work on MIT has growingly been carried out in Turkey most of which
were on young learners and revealed clashing results. Özdemir, Güneysu and
Tekkaya (2006) found that logical-mathematical intelligence was the leading
intelligence type followed by interpersonal and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
while the musical intelligence was the least common intelligence type held by
students. In contrast, Yilmaz and Fer’s (2003) small scale study with 16
primary school students showed that visual-spatial intelligence was the leading
whereas interpersonal and intrapersonal were the least common intelligence
types.
While learners are in the center of some studies, teachers are the center
of attention in some others (?ad and Sar?ba?, 2008; Barrington, 2004). ?ad and
Ar?ba? (2008) investigated the effect of materials and activities based on MIT
in relation to some variables on 102 English teachers from 32 primary schools
and found that English teachers utilized MIT at a moderate level and that a
balanced attention was not paid to students’ intelligence types. Furthermore,
no significant difference was found in terms of gender, the program of
graduation and seniority in relation to teachers’ utilization of MIT. Likewise,
Barrington (2004) ran three workshops for university-level foreign language
instructors which allowed them to consider MI in the context of their own
113
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


A study of multiple intelligences, foreign language
success and some selected variables

teaching. According to the results of that study, most of the instructors knew
little or nothing about the theory before the workshop. After the workshop,
they found the theory relevant to and applicable in their higher education
teaching contexts. However, since the study was based on a three-hour
workshop, it was insufficient to bring about much change in terms of the
teaching practices of the participants of the study.

As can be seen in the aforementioned review of literature looking at
various aspects of MIT, there are clashing results which require more research
shedding light on the issue. Hence, in order to build onto our current
knowledge of MIT, this study aims to explore

a) the types of intelligences held by university level foreign language
learners;
b) whether there is a significant difference between female and male
students in terms of their types of intelligences;
c) whether there is a significant relationship between a particular type
of intelligence and success in grammar, listening and writing;
d) whether there is a significant relationship between parents’ level of
education and students’ intelligence types.


METHOD


Subjects

The participants were 144 (78 female and 66 male) randomly selected
preparatory class students attending English courses at Erciyes University’s
School of Foreign Languages. The participants were in Course B, suggesting
that they were intermediate-level students whose ages ranged from 18 to 22.
There are three streams of courses at this school, namely, Course B
(intermediate level), and Course C and D (pre-intermediate level and below).
Course B students were selected for the purposes of this study since the
inventory used in this study required an intermediate level of English for the
students to understand the content of the instrument.



The Instrument

MI Inventory for Adults, prepared by Armstrong (1994), was used in
the study. The inventory consists of a Likert-type scale with 70 items
measuring types of intelligences. Assessing seven intelligences, the inventory
has ten statements for each specific intelligence type. The sentences in the
inventory included some vocabulary items and grammatical structures which
the students had not learnt. Thus, these items were simplified in a way that the
students would have no difficulty understanding them. In addition to this, a
section gathering students’ personal information was included in the inventory
E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama / Journal of Theory and Practice in Education
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Sar?cao?lu & Ar?kan





E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

2009, 5 (2): 110-122

which consisted of the items about students’ gender and their mothers’ and
fathers’ level of education. In order to investigate the relationship between a
particular type of intelligence and success in grammar, listening and writing,
students scores of grammar, listening and writing were obtained from the
administration of the School of Foreign Languages.

A pilot study was conducted with B-level students (n=40) taking
evening courses at the context of the study in order to determine the time
necessary for the students to complete the inventory and to see whether there
were any unclear statements for them. While doing that, the reliability analysis
of the instrument was completed which showed that the Cronbach’s alpha
reliability coefficient was .792, indicating that the instrument can be
considered as a reliable tool to be used for the purposes of this study.



Data Analysis

SPSS 15.00 was used to analyze the data collected for the study.
Independent samples t-test analysis was used to determine whether there was
difference between male and female students in terms of their types of
intelligences. In order to identify the intelligence types of the students, the data
were analyzed descriptively. In this step, simple descriptive statistics were
attained to identify group tendencies in terms of students’ intelligence types.
In order to investigate the relationship between a particular type of
intelligence and students’ success in grammar, listening and writing in English
as a second language, the relationship between gender and the intelligences of
the students and the relationship between parental education and students’
types of intelligences, the data were analyzed inferentially by means of
correlation analysis.


FINDINGS


The findings of the study are presented in the order of the research
questions.

1. The Types of Intelligences Held by University Level Foreign
Language Learners

The analysis revealed that logical mathematical intelligence (mean:
3.88) was the leading intelligence among the students who participated in this
study. The other dominant intelligence types were spatial intelligence (mean:
3.67), bodily-kinesthetic (mean: 3.66), interpersonal intelligence (mean: 3.61),
and intrapersonal intelligence (3.54). These were followed by a considerably
less common intelligences, namely linguistic intelligence (mean: 3.19) and
musical intelligence (mean: 3.18). It is noteworthy that musical intelligence
115
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


A study of multiple intelligences, foreign language
success and some selected variables

had the highest standard deviation, indicating a greater variation among the
participants who showed tendency toward musical intelligence. Table 1
presents the results of the descriptive statistics.


Table 1. Types of Intelligences Held by Students

Intelligence Types
Mean
Std. Deviation
Logical-mathematical
3.8889
.4652
Spatial
3.6732
.4407
Bodily-kinesthetic
3.6607
.4438
Interpersonal
3.6171
.4943
Intrapersonal
3.5480
.4977
Linguistic
3.1984
.4638
Musical
3.1839
.6021



2. Whether There is a Significant Difference between Female and
Male Students in terms of their Types of Intelligences

Results show that intrapersonal, linguistic, logical, and musical
intelligences were more common among females. Further analysis of group
differences revealed a significant difference between males and females only
in linguistic intelligence (p<.02). The results are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Gender Differences

Types of Intelligence
Gender
Mean
SD
t
Sig. 2 tailed
Female
3.6326
.44577
Bodily-Kinesthetic
-.825
.411
Male
3.6939
.44254
Female
3.6033
.50341
Interpersonal
-.364
.716
Male
3.6335
.48660
Female
3.5954
.66917
Intrapersonal
.474
.636
Male
3.5488
.47398
Female
3.2808
.43422
Linguistic
2.354
.020
Male
3.1010
.48178
Female
3.7684
.59298
Logical-Mathematical
-.393
.695
Male
3.6202
.48081
Female
3.8955
.60686
Spatial
1.627
.106
Male
3.9311
.45092
Female
3.2075
.57836
Musical
.341
.733
Male
3.1728
.64346

E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama / Journal of Theory and Practice in Education
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Sar?cao?lu & Ar?kan





E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

2009, 5 (2): 110-122

3. Whether there is a significant relationship between a particular
type of intelligence and success in grammar, listening and writing

The third research question scrutinized whether there was a relationship
between students’ intelligence types and their achievement grammar, listening
and writing. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated some relationship
between students’ exam scores and intelligence types. Table 3 demonstrates
the relationship among grammar, listening, and writing and the types of
intelligences withheld by the participants dominantly.

Table 3. The Relationship between Intelligence Types and Success
Bodily
Inter.
Intra.
Linguistic
Logical
Spatial
Musical
GRAMMAR
-.166*
-.110
-.183*
-.062
-.081
-.172*
.091
LISTENING
-.107
-.103
-.119
-.124
-.061
-.137
.125
WRITING
-.027
.034
.008
.043
-.124
-.107
.182*
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).


Results show that there is a low positive relationship between writing
scores and musical intelligence (r=.182, p<.033). The analysis also indicated
some negative correlations. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (r= -.166, P<.049),
intrapersonal intelligence (r=-.183, P<.031), and spatial intelligence (r=-.172,
p<.042) had low negative correlations with students’ grammar test scores.

4. Whether There is a Significant Relationship between Parents’
Level of Education and Students’ Intelligence Types

The final research question concerned the relationship between parents’
educational background and students’ intelligence types. One way ANOVA
test did not reveal any differences between groups of students whose parents
had different levels of education. The differences were as follows:
• bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (mother’s education, F=1.183, p<.310;
father’s education, F=.875, p<.419);
• interpersonal intelligence (mother’s education, F=.613, p<.543; father’s
education, F=.005, p<.995);
• intrapersonal intelligence (mother’s education, F=.653, p<.522; father’s
education, F= 4.147, p<.845);
• linguistic intelligence (mother’s education, F=2.030, p<.135; father’s
education, F=1.628, p<.200);
• logical mathematical intelligence (mother’s education, F=.410, p<.665;
father’s education, F=.062, p<.940);
• spatial intelligence (mother’s education, F=1.761 p<.176; father’s
education, F=.962, p<.385);
117
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


A study of multiple intelligences, foreign language
success and some selected variables

• musical intelligence (mother’s education, F=1.623, p<.201; father’s
education, F=.469, p<.627).


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


The main objective of this study was to explore intelligence types that
students employ in relation to their foreign language learning. Results
indicated that logical-mathematical intelligence was the leading intelligence
type and the musical intelligence was the least common intelligence type
employed by the students who participated in this study. These findings are in
line with Özdemir et al. (2006) who also reported stronger preference for
logical mathematical intelligence and weaker preference for musical
intelligence. However, contrasts appear between these two studies in that the
students in our study were found to be stronger in their bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence. Intrapersonal intelligence, which is the ability to understand one’s
feelings, strengths, and weaknesses (Chen and Gardner, 2005) was found to be
the fifth common intelligence type in our study. This result indicates that
students may not be successful in understanding their emotions, strong and
weak characteristics. This situation requires further scrutiny since it draws
attention to the importance of affective variables in second and foreign
language learning. As Smith (2001: 44) explains, affective variables such as
self-esteem, inhibition and anxiety are important factors in second language
mastery and are aspects of intrapersonal intelligence which helps learners
examine their strengths and weaknesses in language learning processes.
Similarly, as Rahimi and Abedini’s (2009: 15) review of literature shows,
affect is considered to be “one of the main determining factors of success in
learning foreign or second languages.” Hence, teachers should try to develop
their students’ intrapersonal intelligence so that this particular intelligence
type will help improving their overall language learning.
Contrary to our expectations, students were found to be weak in their
linguistic intelligence which refers to the ability to perceive and generate
written and spoken language (Chen and Gardner, 2005: 79). Due to the fact
that English is the only course which they take at School of Foreign
Languages for more than eight months, it was assumed that this intensive
period of language learning may have led to the development of their
linguistic intelligence. However, the findings of this study reveal that
linguistic intelligence is the second least common type of intelligence amongst
the students which may result from traditional aspects of Turkish education
system which prioritizes rote learning and passive involvement of learners in
learning processes. The fact that students generally make use of logical-
mathematical intelligence may be related to development of this intelligence
by the teachers through the materials and activities used. As a result, logical-
E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama / Journal of Theory and Practice in Education
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Sar?cao?lu & Ar?kan





E?itimde Kuram ve Uygulama
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

2009, 5 (2): 110-122

mathematical intelligence of the students seems to have been strengthened
whereas other types appear to have been ignored. As Nolen (2003) and Smith
(2001) articulate, individuals have each intelligence to a certain level, but as a
result of the exposure to specific instructional materials designed for a certain
intelligence type, this intelligence type develops to a higher level in the
individual. In other words, one type of intelligence becomes stronger while
others do not develop fully. Thus, teachers need to avoid developing only one
intelligence type of the students and should address all intelligence types.
Although the results about the most and the least common intelligence
types of the students seem to give information about the students themselves,
they provide us with some information for the use of foreign language teachers
as one research question tried to illuminate whether there was a relationship
between a particular type of intelligence and students’ success in grammar,
listening and writing. Although Razmjoo (2008) found no significant
relationship between language success and the types of intelligences in
particular, three types of intelligences were found to have relationship with
listening, writing and grammar. While writing and musical intelligence were
positively related, negative relationship was found between bodily-kinesthetic,
intrapersonal, spatial intelligences and grammar.
These results yield pedagogical implications for foreign language
teachers among which the importance of teachers’ knowledge of the
relationship between intelligence types and acquiring basic language skills is
the leading one. Moreover, the positive relationship between writing in
English as a foreign language and musical intelligence provides support for
the remarks made earlier by Richards and Rodgers (2001: 117) who claimed
that “there are aspects of language such as rhythm, tone, volume and pitch that
are more closely linked, say, to a theory of music than to a theory of
linguistics.” This result showing that musical intelligence is not a popular type
of intelligence among Turkish learners of English may serve in explaining
problems of Turkish students of English with pronunciation knowing that
attaining successful oral language skills require employing correct use of the
rhythm, tone, volume and pitch. Hence, further research should scrutinize
whether or not there exists relationship between musical intelligence and
correct pronunciation.

The discussion above leads us to suggest that employing grammar-
based syllabus with traditional materials with students who have strong
bodily-kinesthetic and intrapersonal intelligences may have detrimental effect
on students’ development since such students are known to benefit from
activities such as role plays, field trips, miming, creative drama and movement
and other group activities while teaching grammar since these activities are
appropriate for the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Activities such as
independent student work, individualized projects, personal journal keeping
119
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education. All rights reserved.
© Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, E?itim Fakültesi. Bütün haklar? sakl?d?r.


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