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Adult Learning Styles and Training Methods

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The term “pedagogy” was derived from the Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”) an d “agogus” (meaning “leading”). Thus, it is defined as the art and science of teachin g children. The term “Andragogy” was coined by re searchers of adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. Malcolm Knowles first introduced th e concept in the US in 1968. The concept of andragogy implies self-di rectedness and an active student role, as well as solution-centered activities. It was derived from the Greek wor d “aner” (with the stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.”
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Content Preview
Adult Learning Styles and Training Methods
(Forget those 13,000 hours!)
FDIC ADR Presentation Handouts
John Mihall
Helen Belletti
February 16, 1999

Objectives
By the end of this hour, you will be able to –
describe adult learner
characteristics,

determine what factors contribute to
maximum retention in adult learners
be able to select the most effective training
methods for ADR.

PEDAGOGY vs ANDRAGOGY
The term “pedagogy” was derived from the Greek words “paid” (meaning “child”) an d
“agogus” (meaning “leading”). Thus, it is defined as the art and science of teachin g
children.

The term “Andragogy” was coined by re searchers of adult learning in order to contrast their
beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. Malcolm Knowles first introduced th e
concept in the US in 1968. The concept of andragogy implies self-di rectedness and an active
student role, as well as solution-centered activities. It was derived from the Greek wor d
“aner” (with the stem andr-) meaning “man, not boy.”

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS AS LEARNERS:
CHILDREN
ADULTS
Rely on others to decide what is
Decide for themselves what is
important to be learned.
important to be learned.
Accept the important being
Need to validate the information
presented at face value.
based on their beliefs and
experience.

Expect what they are learning to be
Expect what they are learning to be
useful in their long-term future.
immediately useful.
Have little or no experience upon
Have much experience upon which
which to draw – are relatively “clean
to draw – may have fixed viewpoints.
slates.”
Little ability to serve as a
Significant ability to serve a
knowledgeable resource to teacher
knowledgeable resource to trainer
or fellow classmates.
and fellow learners.

COMPARING PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY – ASSUMPTIONS:
COMPARISON
CATEGORIES
PEDAGOGY
ANDRAGOGY
Self Concept
• Children are dependent on teacher
• Adults expect and enjoy
and enjoy dependence.
independence.
• Expects to be taught. Takes no
• They like control, i.e., like to
responsibility of teaching self.
take control.
• Expects teacher to be dominant in
• Learning is a process of
determining what, when, and how
sharing with the teacher and
something is to be learned.
one another.
• Teacher has responsibility to
encourage and nurture the
process of self-direction.
Need to Know
• Children need to know what the
• Adult learners need to know
teacher teaches in order to pass and
why they need to learn
get promoted. Material does not
something before undertaking
need to be “life applicable.”
to learn it.
Experience
• Children have few experiences
• Have many experiences;
relevant to what is being taught;
therefore, teacher must draw
therefore, teacher must create
on adult-learner experiences.
pertinent experiences.
• Teachers or experts are the
• Trade-off. Anyone in class also
transmitters of experience.
could share.
• Teacher seldom recognize
• In some areas, students may
experiences that children do have.
have more experience than the
instructor.
• Elicits little discussion in class--
• Elicits 2- and 3-way
teacher to student, one-way
communication: instructor to
communication
student and student to student.

ASSUMPTIONS
(continued)
COMPARISON
CATEGORIES
PEDAGOGY
ANDRAGOGY
Readiness to
• Children are not necessarily ready to • Adults normally come to class
Learn
learn. Teacher must decide when it
motivated and ready to learn,
is time to learn specific skills or
because they’ve chosen the
knowledge and tries to create
training.
motivation.
• We impose uniform curricula on
• Adults learn in order to cope
children by classes and age groups.
with real-life tasks.
• Adults do not group by age,
sex, but by experience.
T
i
m
e • Children are believed content to
• Pragmatic—want application
Perspective
study for the future. (“Someday you’ll
today.
need this.”)
• Children are believed content to only • Can barely tolerate studying
accept knowledge and understanding
anything that can’t be applied
level, not application level.
to a task they expect to
perform.
Orientation to
• Children and teachers of children are • Adults and teachers need to be
learning
subject-centered and enjoy being so.
problem or task centered.
(1:00 reading, 2:00 math, etc.)
• Learning is a process of acquiring
• Learning is a process of
subject matter content to be used at a
increasing competence to
later time in life.
achieve full potential in life.

ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES:
1.
FOCUS ON “REAL WORLD” PROBLEMS.
2.
EMPHASIZE HOW THE LEARNING CAN BE APPLIED.
3.
RELATE THE LEARNING TO THE LEARNERS’ GOALS.
4.
RELATE THE MATERIALS TO THE LEARNERS’ PAST EXPERIENCES.
5.
ALLOW DEBATE AND CHALLENGE OF IDEAS.
6.
LISTEN TO AND RESPECT THE OPINIONS OF LEARNERS.
7.
ENCOURAGE LEARNERS TO BE RESOURCES TO YOU AN D TO EACH OTHER.
8.
TREAT LEARNERS LIKE ADULTS.
9.
*****GIVE LEARNERS “CONTROL”*****

TRAINING METHODS – Chart 1
METHOD
ADVANTAGES
DRAW BACKS
ADR Application
Trainer
Keeps group together and on the
Can be dull if used too long
1. Do you think this method
Presentation/Lecture
same point.
without learner participation.
is appropriate for teaching
ADR?
Time control is easier.
Difficult to gauge if people
are learning.
YES NO
Useful for large group size (20 or
Retention is limited.
more).
2. Why, or why not?
Structured
Aids retention.
Requires preparation time.
1. Do you think this method
Exercise/Role Play
is appropriate for teaching
Allows practice of new skills in a
May be difficult to tailor to
ADR?
controlled environment.
all learners’ situations.
YES NO
Learners are actively involved.
Needs sufficient class time
for exercise completion and
feedback
2. Why, or why not?

TRAINING METHODS – Chart 2
METHOD
ADVANTAGES
DRAW BACKS
ADR Application
Individual Reading
Saves time (learners can read
Can be boring if used too
1. Do you thin this method
Assignments and
faster than trainer can talk).
long without interruption.
is appropriate for teaching
Individual Exercise
ADR?
Material can be retained for later
Learners read at different
use.
paces.
YES NO
Insures consistency of information
Difficult to gauge if people
are learning.
2. Why, or why not?
Facilitated Group
Keep learners interested and
Learning points can be
1. Do you think this method
Discussion
involved.
confusing or lost.
is appropriate for teaching
ADR?
Learner resources can be
A few learners may
discovered and shared.
dominate the discussion.
YES NO
Learning can be observed.
Time control is more
2. Why, or why not?
difficult.

TRAINING METHODS – Chart 3
METHOD
ADVANTAGES
DRAW BACKS
ADR Application
Case Study
Requires active learner
Information must be precise
1. Do you thin this method
involvement.
and kept up-to-date.
is appropriate for teaching
ADR?
Can stimulate performance
Needs sufficient class time
required after training.
for learners to complete the
YES NO
cases.
Learning can be observed.
Learners can become too
interested in the case
content.
2. Why, or why not?
Demonstration
Aids understanding and retention.
Must be accurate and
1. Do you think this method
relevant to learners.
is appropriate for teaching
ADR?
Stimulates learners’ interest.
Written examples can
require lengthy preparation
YES NO
time.
Can give learners a model to
Trainer demonstrations may
follow.
be difficult for all learners to
see well.
2. Why, or why not?

Adult Learning Styles and Training Methods Quiz………
2/99
Part One
Q1. List 5 adult learning characteristics; characteristics that show the difference between
how adults and children learn.

1. ______________________________
4. _______________________________
2. ______________________________
5. _______________________________
3. ______________________________
Part Two
Q2. Over a 3 day period of time, what is the rate of retention when adults learn, using the following methods:
A. Adults retain _____ of what they see and hear:
a. 30%
b. 20%
c. 60%
d. None of the above
B. Adults retain _____ of what they see:
a. 50%
b. 70%
c. 30%
d. None of the above
C. Adults retain _____ of what they say as they do:
a. 80%
b. 90%
c. 70%
d. None of the above
D. Adults retain _____ of what they hear:
a. 30%
b. 10%
c. 40%
d. None of the above
Part Three
Q3. List three of the most effective training methods for teaching ADR to adults.
1. _________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________

ANSWERS

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