Dallas Baptist University
Department of Philosophy
Spring Term, 2004
∞∞§§§∞∞SYLLABUS FOR PHILOSOPHY 4304AESTHETICS AND CREATIVITY
I. DBU Catalog Description:
An examination of the principles involved in the production, interpretation, and criticism of
works of art, as well as basic principles of Christian aesthetic theory. Illustrative material from
various artistic disciplines will be utilized.
II. Course Data
Professor: Dr. David Naugle
Days and Time: MWF, 9: 00-9: 50 am
Phone: Office (214) 333-5248; Home (972) 780-0626
E-dress: Office—dnaugle@DBU.edu; Home—d1naugle@AOL.com
Office and Office Hours: Strickland 213, MWF afternoons, 1: 30-5: 00 pm
III. Course Goals
There are three marks of a great person:
One who is a great thinker;
One who is a great lover;
One who is a great doer.
A. Intellectual Objectives:
• To understand the substance and content of the discipline of aesthetics, its primary
concerns and questions, issues of methodology, major aestheticians and their
viewpoints in the history of aesthetics, and to comprehend and critique the aesthetic
tradition in light of a Christian framework.
• To analyze the cogency of arguments deployed in defense of aesthetic positions and
viewpoints, and to clarify the use and meaning of terms and concepts associated
with these arguments as evidenced by class discussion, written work, and course
• To grasp of the biblical foundation and framework for artistic endeavor and the
aesthetic experience of humanity as imago Dei
, and to develop a profound
awareness of the central role and purpose of the arts and the aesthetic dimension in
the corporate life of the Church and in the individual life of the Christian believer.
B. Emotional Objectives:
• To gain an appreciation for the task of aesthetic reflection on the artistic realm in the
philosophic and Christian traditions, and develop an awareness of the omni-presence
of beauty, and the significance of aesthetic experience in general as a fundamental
characteristic and mode of human life and experience.
• To develop a deep appreciation for the Christian affirmation of the arts, and learn to
rejoice in the artistic and the aesthetic domains as an integral dimension of
ecclesiastical and Christian life.
• To establish theoretical connections between aesthetics and other academic
disciplines, and to be able to recognize the aesthetic component that is present in
every human enterprise and experience (beauty of mathematical theorems or of well
executed play in football, etc.)
B. Volitional Objective:
• To challenge and encourage you to pursue the task of developing the aesthetic
“attitude” in your personal life intellectually and practically (learning and doing) as art-
maker and as audience with a view to the enrichment of your overall human
“In the ordinary course of study, I fell upon a certain book of Cicero, whose speech almost all
admire, not so his heart. This book of his contains an exhortation to philosophy, and is calledHortensius
. But this book altered my affections, and turned my prayers to Thyself, O Lord;
and made me have other purposes and desires.” —St. Augustine, Confessions
III. Course Requirements, Grading, and Teaching Methods
"Reading maketh a full man;
Conference [conversation] a ready man;
Writing an exact man!"
—Francis Bacon, Of Studies
A. Course Requirements:
(20%): You are required to read the assigned readings in the books and
handouts. You will report on whether or not you have completed the assigned
readings with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ on the following two dates (the material must be read in
its entirety to receive credit; each is worth 10% of your total grade): March 8 and May
2. Biweekly Summary Presentations
(10%): Each student will be responsible for an
analysis/synthesis of ONE
major text studied this semester. This paper is to be an
interpretation and evaluation of the content and argument of either the entire piece or
what are the most important ideas and arguments in the piece. Each paper must be
type written, double-spaced, copied and passed out to the class on the day of
presentation. You will need to be prepared to respond to questions and comments
from class members and your instructor. One of these presentations will be made
every other week on Friday, and each is worth 15% of your total grade. On a couple
of Fridays, we will have two presentations to accommodate everyone.
3. Biweekly Insights/Response Papers for “Discussion Fridays”
student will present a 2-3 page paper every other week on Fridays in which
fundamental insights and evaluations (positive and negative) on the text being
considered are set forth. These papers will serve as a basis for discussion on that
particular class day. Each of these five installment is worth3% of your total grade.
4. Research paper
(20%): Each student will choose an appropriate topic in
aesthetics on which to do in-depth research and writing. Each paper must meet the
expectations of a senior level research effort in terms of resources used, format,
content, documentation (MLA or Turabian), and length (15 pages). Research must
include material retrieved from the Internet (see bibliography below for some
possibilities). A prospectus of your paper contain a thesis statement, outline, and
bibliography will be due right after Spring Break. May 8.
(35%): Two exams, essay format, will be given in this course, a midterm
worth 15% of your grade, and a final also worth 17.5%.
6. Cinematic Confabulations
: Plan on joining the Pew College Society for a trip to
Angelika Film Center, March 22 @ 5: 30 pm. Ride Dart Rail from Westmoreland to
Mockingbird Station, and take in a dinner and film at this new art house theatre!
B. Grading: (tougher for upper level philosophy students)
• A- = 92-94; A = 95-97; A+ = 98-100 % Excellent:
Excellent = top notch, superior, first rate/class, exceptional, superlative; paper and
tests; class attitude, attendance, note taking, participation, posture, interest, etc.
Comprehensive excellence is needed for a superlative grade in this course.
• B- = 83-85; B = 86-88; B+ = 89-91%: Above average
• C- = 74-76; C = 77-79; C+ = 80-82%: Average
Average = mediocre, commonplace, ordinary, passable, fair, run-of-the-mill,
tolerable, so-so, mid point between extremes of excellence and failure.
• D- = 65-67; D = 68-70; D+ = 71-73%: Below average
• F = 64% and below: Failure
Omission or lack of satisfactory performance of action or task, inadequate,
unsuccessful, inferior, impassable, etc.
C. Pedagogy: class will be conducted by means of lecture, question and answer, and student
• Plato, Two Comic Dialogues: Ion and Hippias Major
. Trans. Paul Woodruff. Indianapolis:
Hackett Publishing Company, 1983. Abbr: TCD
• Aristotle, Poetics
. Trans. Richard Janko. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company,
1983. Abbr: P
• John Navone, S. J., Toward a Theology of Beauty
. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical
• G. W. F Hegel, Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics
. Translated by Bernard Bosanquet.
Introduction by Michael Inwood. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. Abbr: ILA
• Plotinus, The Enneads
. Translated by Stephen MacKenna. Introduction and notes by
John Dillon. New York: Penguin, 1991. Abbr: E
• Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment
. Translated by Werner S. Pluhar. Foreword by
Mary Gregor. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1987. Abbr. CJ
• Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy
. Trans/Commentary Walter Kaufmann. New
York: Random House/Vintage, 1967. Abbr. BT
V. Tentative Course Schedule Week 1:
Dates: Jan 23, 25
Introduction to Course and Aesthetics Week 2:
Dates: Jan. 28, 30, Feb. 1
Text: John Navone, Toward a Theology of Beauty
Discussion/Insights FridayWeek 3:
Dates: Feb. 4, 6, 8
Texts: N. Wolterstorff (4); Dorothy Sayers (6)
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 4:
Dates: Feb. 11, 13, 15
(11), Hippias Major
Discussion/Insights FridayWeek 5:
Dates Feb. 18, 20, 22
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 6:
Dates: Feb. 25, 27; Mar. 1
Text: Poetics, continued
Discussion/Insights FridayWeek 7:
Dates: Mar. 4, 6
Text: Augustine’s De Musica
or De Ordine
(handouts)MID-TERM EXAM, March 8!Week 8:
Dates: Mar. 18, 20, 22
Text: Aquinas, Summa Theologica
I q. 39 a. 8; I-2 q. 54 a. I, and Comm Div Names
c. IV. Lectio 5
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 9:
Dates: Mar. 25, 27
Text: Kant, Critique of Judgment
Easter Holiday: no insights/discussion due
Dates: April 1, 3, 5
Text: Kant, Critique of Judgment
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 11:
Dates: April 8, 10, 12
Text: Hegel, Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics
Discussion/Insights FridayWeek 12:
Dates: April 15, 17, 19
Text: Hegel, Introductory Lectures
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 13:
Dates: April 22, 24, 26
Text: F. Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy
Discussion/Insights FridayWeek 14:
Dates: April 29, May 1, 3
Text: Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy
Presentation Friday: ______________________ (name/s of presenter)Week 15:
Dates: May 6, 8
Summary and ConclusionsWeek 16:
Date: Wednesday, May 15, 8: 00-10: 00 pm
Our excuse for our aesthetic failure has often been that we must be about the Lord's business,
the assumption being that the Lord's business is never aesthetic!
—Clyde S. Kilby, Christian ImaginationBIBLIOGRAPHYAESTHETICS
Alexander, Samuel. Beauty and Other Forms of Value,
Alperson, P., ed. What is Music?
Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida,
_____ . Semiology of the Camera.
Beardsley, Monroe C. Aesthetics from Classical Greece to the Present
_____ . Aesthetics
_____ . Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism
_____ . The Aesthetic Point of View
_____ . The Possibility of Criticism,
Bell, Clive. Art
Best, D. Philosophy and Human Movement
_____ . "The Aesthetics of Dance." Dance Research Journal
Bosanquet, Bernard. A History of Aesthetic
Buermeyer, Lawrence. The Aesthetic Experience,
Burke, Edmund. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful,
Casebier, A. Film Appreciation
Cassier, H. W. A Commentary on Kant's Critique of Judgment
Cavell, S. "More of the World Viewed," Georgia Review
Clark, Barrett H.,ed. European Theories of the Drama,
Cohen, M. and Mast, G., eds. Film Theory and Criticism
Coleman, Francis X. The Harmony of Reason: A Study of Kan't Aesthetics,
Collingwood, R. G. The Principles of Art.
Copeland, R. and Cohen, M. eds. What is Dance?
Croce, Bendetto. Aesthetics as Science of Expression and General Linguistic,
Danto, A. The Transfiguration of the Commonplace.
Dickie, C. Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis.
Dickie, G. Art and the Aesthetic
Else, G. F. and Burian, P., eds. Plato and Aristotle on Poetry,
Forbes, Cheryl. Imagination: Embracing a Theology of Wonder.
Gilbert, Katherine and Helmut Kuhn. A History of Aesthetics,
Gombrich, E. H. Art and Illusion.
_____ . Ideals and Idols
_____ . Meditations on a Hobby Horse and Other Essays on the Theory of Art
Goodman, N. Languages of Art.
_____ . Ways of Worldmaking,
Halliwell, S. The Poetics of Aristotle
Harries, K. The Meaning of Modern Art.
Hogarth, William. The Analysis of Beauty,
Hutcheson, Francis. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue
Jarvie, I. C. The Philosophy of Film,
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment.
Kivy, Peter. Speaking of Art
_____ . The Seventh Sense,
Krusz, Michael. Critical Essays in the Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood,
Lang, B., ed. The Death of Art,
Langer, S. K. Problems of Art.
Lockerbie, D. Bruce, ed. The Timeless Moment: Creativity and the Christian Faith.
Longinus, On the Sublime.
Malroux, André. The Voices of Silence: Man and His Art
Margolis, J. Art and Philosophy,
Mothersill, M. Beauty Restored
Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy
Ortega y Gassett, José. The Dehumanization of Art,
Osborne, Harold. Aesthetics and Art Theory
_____ . The Theory of Beauty,
Pepper, Stephen. Aesthetic Quality
Powdermaker, Hortense. Hollywood the Dream Factory,
Prall, David. Aesthetic Analysis
_____ . Aesthetic Judgment
Redfern, B. Dance, Art, and Aesthetics,
Ricoeur, Paul. "Mimesis and Representation." Annals of Scholarship
Rookmaaker, Hans. The Creative Gift: Essays on Art and Christian Life.
Santayana, George. Interpretations of Poetry and Religion,
_____ . The Sense of Beauty,
Sartre, Jean Paul. What is Literature?
Sesonske, Alexander, ed. What is Art? Aesthetic Theory from Plato to Tolstoy,
Sparshott, F. Off the Ground: First Steps to a Philosophical Consideration of the Dance,
_____ . "On the Question: Why Do Philosophers Neglect the Dance?" Dance Research Journal
_____ . The Theory of the Arts
Stace, W. T. The Meaning of Beauty,
Stolnitz, J. Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art Criticism.
_____ . "Beauty: The History of an Idea." Journal of the History of Ideas,
Tolstoy, Leo. What is Art?
Trilling, Lionel. The Liberal Imagination,
Venturi, Lionello. History of Art Criticism,
Wimsatt, William K. and Cleanth Brooks. Literary Criticism: A Short History
, 1957.Mostly Christian Perspective on Art, Aesthetics and Poetics.
Augustine, On Education.
Barratt, D. and R. Pooley, eds. Reading Literature: Some Christian Approaches
, IVP, 1984.
Barzun, Jacques. The Use and Abuse of Art
Batson Shakespeare Collection (everything published on Shakespeare and Christianity at Wheaton College).
Battenhouse, Roy. W. Shakespearian Tragedy: Its Art and Christian Premises
, Indiana, 1969.
_____ . Shakespeare’s Christian Dimension
, Indiana, 1994.
Blamires, Harry. The Christian Mind
, Servant, 1963.
_____ . A Short History of English Literature
, Routledge, 1989.
_____ . A History of Literary Criticism
, Macmillan, 1991.
Cunningham, Valentine, In the Reading Gaol: Postmodernity, Texts and History
, Blackwell, 1994.
Duriez, Colin, The C. S. Lewis Handbook
, Monarch, 1990.
Edwards, Michael. Towards a Christian Poetics
, Eerdmans, 1984.
_____ . Poetry and Possibility
, Macmillan, 1988.
_____ . Of Making Many Books: Essays on the Endlessness of Writing,
Eliot, T. S. After Strange Gods
_____ . Selected Essays
_____ . The Idea of a Christian Society
_____ . The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism
, Faber, 1933.
Etchell, Ruth. A Model of Making
, Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1984.
Ferguson, Donald N. A History of Musical Thought
Fiddes, Paul. Freedom and Limit: A Dialogue between Literature and Christian Doctrine
, Macmillan, 1991.
Frye, Northrop, The Educated Imagination,
_____ . Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays
_____ . The Great Code: The Bible and Literature
, HBJ, 1981-1982.
Frye, Roland M. Perspective on Man: Literature and the Christian Tradition
_____ . Shakespeare and Christian Doctrine
, Princeton, 1963.
Gaebelein, Frank, E. The Christian, The Arts, and Truth
Gilson, Etienne. Painting and Reality
Hammond, Peter. Liturgy and Architecture
Harries, Richard. Art and the Beauty of God
, Mowbray, 1993.
Huttar, Charles A., ed. Imagination and the Spirit
(about the Inklings), Eerdmans, 1979.
Jasper, ed. Images of Belief in Literature
, Macmillan, 1984.
_____ . The Study of Literature and Religion
, Macmillan, 1992.
L'Engle, Madeleine. Walking on Water: Reflections on Faith and Art,
Lewis, C. S. An Experiment in Criticism
_____ . “Christianity and Culture,” in Christian Reflections
, ed by W. Hopper, 1967.
_____ . A Preface to Paradise Lost
_____ . The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature,
Lynch, William. Christ and Apollo: The Dimensions of the Literary Imagination
, Notre Dame, 1960 (RCC).
MacDonald, George. "The Imagination: Its Function and Culture" in a Dish of Oats
Maritain, Jacques. Art and Scholasticism
_____ . Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry,
_____ . The Responsibility of the Artist
Milton, John. Of Eduction
Molina, David Newton de. The Literary Criticism of T. S. Eliot
, Athlone, 1977.
O'Connor, Flannery. Mystery and Manners
Palmer, Frank, Literature and Moral Understanding: A Philosophical Essay on Ethics, Aesthetics, Education andCulture
, Oxford, 1992.
Phillips, D. Z. Through a Darkening Glass: Philosophy, Literature and Cultural Change
, Notre Dame, 1982.
Rookmaaker, Hans R. Modern Art and the Death of a Culture
_____ . The Creative Gift: Essays on Art and Christian Life.
Routley, Eric. Church Music and Theology,
Ruskin, John. A Joy Forever,
Ryken, Leland, ed. The Christian Imagination: Essays on Literature and the Arts
_____ . How To Read the Bible as Literature,
_____ . Triumphs of the Imagination: Literature in Christian Perspective,
_____ . The Literature of the Bible,
_____ . Windows to the World: Literature in Christian Perspective
_____ . Realms of Gold: The Classics in Christian Perspective
, Harold Shaw, 1991.
_____ . The Liberated Imagination: Thinking Christianly About the Arts
, Harold Shaw, 1989.
Ryken, Leland, and Clarence Walhout. Contemporary Literary Theory: A Christian Appraisal
Seerveld, Calvin. A Christian Critique of Art and Literature
Sayers, Dorothy. The Mind of the Maker,
_____ . “Toward a Christian Esthetic,” in The Whimsical Christian
, Collier, 1987.
Schaeffer, Francis. Art and the Bible,
Scott, Nathan A., ed. The New Orpheus: Essays Toward a Christian Poetic,
Scott, Nathan A., ed. The Tragic Vision and the Christian Faith
Seerveld, Calvin G. Rainbows for a Fallen World.
Sidney, Sir Phillip. The Defense of Poesy
Tillich, Paul. Theology of Culture,
Tolkien, J. R. R. “On Fairy Stories,” (1938), found in C. S. Lewis, ed., Essays Presented to Charles Williams
_____ . The Tolkien Reader
, Ballantine, 1966.
Topp, Dale. Music in the Christian Community
Veith, Gene Edward. The Gift of Art: The Place of Arts in Scripture,
_____ . The State of the Arts: From Bezalel to Mapplethorp,
_____ . Reading Between the Lines: A Christian Guide to Literature
Weil, Simon. The Need for Roots,
Wilder, Amos N. Modern Poetry and the Christian Tradition
_____ . Spiritual Aspects of the New Poetry
_____ . Theology and Modern Literature
Wolterstorff, Nicholas. Art in Action: Towards a Christian Perspective,
_____ , ed. The Christian Imagination.
_____ . Works and Worlds of Art.
Wright, T. R. Theology and Literature
, Macmillan, 1991.Aesthetic Reference Works
(DBU)Encyclopedia of World ArtGreat Drawings of All TimeMcGraw-Hill Dictionary of ArtPictoral Encyclopedia of the Oriental Arts
(China and Japan)The New Grove Dictionary of Music and MusiciansThe New Oxford Companion to MusicThe New Oxford History of MusicLiterary Reference Works
(DBU)Encyclopedia of World LiterartureTwentieth Century Literary CriticismNineteenth Century Literary CriticismClassical and Medieval Literary CriticismContemporary Literary CriticismLiterary Criticism from 1400-1800Dictionary of Literary BiographyCambridge History of British LiteratureHistory of English PoetryLibrary of the Worlds Best Literature, Ancient and ModernContemporary Authors (biographies)Journals
(In addition to the standard philosophical journals in which articles on aesthetics and philosophy of art
will most certainly be found—for which see The Philosophers Index
—, the following are cited which deal directly
with the subject matter of this course).BJA British Journal of AestheticsCC Communication and CognitionJAAC Journal of Aesthetics and Art CriticismJAE Journal of Aesthetic Education
9Classroom Policies and Procedures
Dr. David NaugleI. Absences and Tardiness
Students are expected to come to class regularly and be on time.
Each student is allowed a maximum of three unexcused absences for MWF classes, and
two unexcused absences for TTh classes per regular long semester without grade
penalty. This number will be calculated proportionately for other semesters (short
summer and winter terms, long summer and winter, mini terms, etc.). According to the
DBU catalog, students cannot miss over 25% of classes & pass the course.
Additional unexcused absences and habitual tardiness will result in a significant grade
which will be determined at the discretion of the professor. No credit is given
for attendance, but excessive absences can be the basis for lowering the final grade at
the discretion of the professor.
Excused absences must be approved by the professor; in some cases, a note from a
proper authority may be required. Students who will be away from class for an extended
period of time (e.g., for emergencies, medical problems, military service, varsity sports,
work related matters, etc.) are expected to notify and explain the situation to the
professor. Failure to do so may result in grade reduction.II. Papers, Tests, Printers, and Academic Misconduct
Students are expected to turn assigned work in on time, that is, during the class period
for which it is assigned. Papers (essays, term themes, etc) will be accepted late, but
they will be penalized 10 points per day they are late, including weekends if there
is no proper excuse for its tardiness
. For example, a paper due on a Wednesday, but
not turned in until Friday will be docked 20 points. A paper due on a Friday, but not
turned in until Monday will be docked 30 points.
Students are also expected to take tests on the day they are assigned. In case of a real
illness, accident, etc.), a student may take a test late without penalty
(a note from a proper authority may be required to verify the emergency). Unexcused
absences on the day of testing will result in 10 point grade reduction per day until the test
is taken weekends included. Students must make the necessary arrangements with the
professor to make up the test as soon as possible.
•Papers will not be accepted that are printed with a used, worn out ribbon that
renders the paper virtually unreadable
. Students are responsible for having their
paper printed in such at way that the words are clear, dark, and clearly discernible.•
Incidents of cheating, plagiarism (presenting someone else’s work as your own),
collusion, abuse of resource materials, and computer misuse will be dealt with according
to the guidelines in the 1999-2001 DBU catalog on page 79-82, and current schedule of
classes, p. 21III. Financial Aid, Disabilities, and Posting of Final Grades
: Students who are receiving federal, state, or institutional financial aid who
withdraw or add hours during the semester may have their financial aid adjusted because
of the withdraw or addition. This change in schedule may affect the aid they are receiving
during the current semester, and could affect their eligibility for aid in the future.
: The student has the responsibility of informing the course instructor of any
disabling condition which will require modifications to avoid discrimination. DBU provides
academic adjustments and auxiliary aid to individuals with disabilities as defined under
law, who are otherwise qualified to meet the institution’s academic requirements. It is the
student’s responsibility to initiate any request for accommodations. For assistance call
Sonya Payne @ 214-333-5125.
•Posting of Final Grades
: Each faculty member has the right either to post or not post
final course grades for each class. Final course grades provided to a student by a faculty
member may not be relied upon as official. Official grade reports can be obtained only
through the DBU Registrar’s Office. The DBU undergraduate and graduate catalogs state
that “all accounts must be paid in full before a student can receive grade reports.”
Students are not permitted to telephone the professor, contact the dean’s office, or use
email to inquire about their final grade. Please understand that this policy is for the
purpose of protecting the privacy of student’s grades.IV. Classroom Attitude and Demeanor
Students are expected to exemplify proper classroom behavior, attitudes, and etiquette
including such things as:
•Sitting up straight
Doing your very best
Students are not allowed to:
Talk or chatter disruptively, slouch or take a nap
•Work on material for other classes while class is in session
•Read extraneous material while class is in session
Illustrated, Cosmo, etc.)
Phones and pagers:
If possible, please adjust all phones and pages so they will not disturb class
proceedings. If possible, please wait until the class is completed or until there is a
break to attend to calls and pages. Emergency situations are, of course, excepted.
Based on your instructor’s personal judgment, Final Grades
will be influenced by how well
students comply with the above attitudes and expected behavior. Remember: you are no
longer in middle school or high school! When controversial topics are being discussed in
class, before you speak out, you should (1) make sure you understand the ideas being
presented, (2) learn something from them, (3) and then learn how to criticize them
constructively and with civility. Also, make sure comments or questions pertain to the
under consideration. V. The New GPA Grading System:
A ........ 4.00
A- ...... 3.67
B ........ 3.00
B- ...... 2.67
C ........ 2.00
C- ...... 1.67
D- ...... 0.67