In Part II we will try to answer the questions posed by Maslow. Part II contains two chapters on motivation: content theories and process theories. Although the theoretical bases of the two theories ...
Traditionally, cognitive dissonance is seen as a post-purchase phenomenon. This study aims at investigating the applicability of cognitive dissonance to the pre-decision phase. The empirical part of ...
Showed that the media ARE powerful, yet also recognizing that public was free to choose
FOCUS OF THEORY
Establishing cause-effect relationship between media agenda and public agenda
Quantitative research techniques
Media agenda revealed by POSITION and LENGTH of story
Stories had to be about SUBSTANTIVE issues
Public agenda was revealed by what (undecided) voters said were key issues of the campaign, regardless of what the candidates were saying
Strong correlations b’n media + public agendas are insufficient proof
Public agenda has to TRAIL media agenda (shown to be the case, by 4-6 weeks)
Historical research demonstrates media and public agendas don’t simply mirror real-world events (no “third party” cause)
Experimental studies demonstrated causal media effect in lab
WHO SETS THE AGENDA FOR MEDIA?
The candidates themselves
Public relations / “spin” professionals and interest groups
Compelling news events
WHO IS MOST EFFECTED BY MEDIA AGENDAS?
People with “high need for orientation” as determined by the perceived RELEVANCE of stories to their interests, their feelings of UNCERTAINTY about those stories, and the particular ASPECTS of the stories that media deal with.
Media not only influence what we think about, they influence they WAY we think about them
They do this by “framing” : i.e. through selection , emphasis , exclusion and elaboration .
These determine the salience of particular attributes of a story of issue
FRAMING NOT AN OPTION
Framing promotes a particular:
moral evaluation and/or
In one piece of research:
Public concern about crime increased
Yet actual crime levels were falling
Because media were intensifying their focus on crime, in particular framing crime as
“something that can happen to anyone” and
“something most fearsome when local”
New Statement of Agenda-Setting
Media may not only tell us what to think about , they may also tell us how and what to think about it, and perhaps even what to do about it
Media may also affect behavior, for example, influencing sentiment about the economy, about travel etc.
Can only show that media agendas affect some people, on some issues, some of the time