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AIR SPACE DEVELOPMENTS

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This document specifies the design requirements for air space developments on the RailCorp network. It is intended primarily for the use of private developers. It covers the construction of new air space developments, and the refurbishment of existing air space developments where they do not meet current requirements as laid down in legislation, Australian Standards and RailCorp's standards. It does not cover station concourses.
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Engineering Standard
Structures




ESC 370

AIR SPACE DEVELOPMENTS

Version 2.2

Issued July 2010

Owner:
Chief Engineer Civil
Approved by: John Stapleton
Authorised by:
Richard Hitch
A/Principal Engineer
Chief Engineer Civil
Technology & Standards
Engineering Standard

Disclaimer
This document was prepared for use on the RailCorp Network only.
RailCorp makes no warranties, express or implied, that compliance with the contents of this document shall be
sufficient to ensure safe systems or work or operation. It is the document user’s sole responsibility to ensure that the
copy of the document it is viewing is the current version of the document as in use by RailCorp.
RailCorp accepts no liability whatsoever in relation to the use of this document by any party, and RailCorp excludes
any liability which arises in any manner by the use of this document.
Copyright
The information in this document is protected by Copyright and no part of this document may be reproduced, altered,
stored or transmitted by any person without the prior consent of RailCorp

UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED
Page 1 of 15

RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


Document control
Revision
Date of Approval
Summary of change
2.2

Changes detailed in Summary table below
2.1
November, 2009
Change of format for front page, change history and table of
contents; minor editing and formatting throughout.
2.0
July, 2007
Minor changes to general requirements; services; seismic loading;
collision protection; guard rails to be consistent with changes in
other Structures Standards.
1.0
March, 2006
First issue as a RailCorp document. Replaces TS 30 000 3 01 SP,
TS 4451

Summary of changes from previous version
Section
Summary of change
Document
Update version details
Control
All
Correct internal section references
1
Amend scope to not include station concourses
4.8
Change reference to TMC 304 to SPC 301
6.5.3
Add guard rail insulation requirements from CTN 08/06




© Rail Corporation

Page 2 of 15
Issued July 2010
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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


Contents
1
Purpose, Scope and Application ............................................................................................................ 4
2
References ................................................................................................................................................ 4
2.1
Australian and International Standards ......................................................................................... 4
2.2
RailCorp Documents ..................................................................................................................... 4
2.3
Other References .......................................................................................................................... 4
3
Definitions ................................................................................................................................................. 4
4
General Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 5
4.1
Design Standards .......................................................................................................................... 5
4.2
Approved Materials........................................................................................................................ 5
4.3
Safety............................................................................................................................................. 5
4.4
Protection of the Environment ....................................................................................................... 5
4.5
Heritage ......................................................................................................................................... 5
4.6
Design Procedure – New or Infrequently Used Products.............................................................. 5
4.7
Drawing Standards ........................................................................................................................ 6
4.8
Construction................................................................................................................................... 6
4.9
Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 6
5
Design Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 6
5.1
General .......................................................................................................................................... 6
5.2
Access ........................................................................................................................................... 6
5.3
Site Considerations ....................................................................................................................... 7
5.4
Clearances to Railway Tracks ....................................................................................................... 7
5.5
Services ......................................................................................................................................... 7
5.6
Fire Rating ..................................................................................................................................... 7
5.7
Seismic Loading ............................................................................................................................ 8
5.8
Electrical Requirements................................................................................................................. 8
5.9
Lighting and Ventilation ................................................................................................................. 8
5.10
Aesthetics ...................................................................................................................................... 8
5.11
Protection of RailCorp Property..................................................................................................... 8
6
Collision Protection ................................................................................................................................. 9
6.1
New Developments ....................................................................................................................... 9
6.2
Existing Developments .................................................................................................................. 9
6.3
Refurbishment of Existing Developments ................................................................................... 10
6.4
Structural Configuration............................................................................................................... 10
6.5
Guard Rails.................................................................................................................................. 10
7
Construction Requirements .................................................................................................................. 12
7.1
General ........................................................................................................................................ 12
7.2
Dilapidation Surveys.................................................................................................................... 13
7.3
Risk Assessment ......................................................................................................................... 13
7.4
Demolition, Earthworks and Construction Impacts...................................................................... 13
7.5
Drainage and Pollution Control.................................................................................................... 14
7.6
Electrical Restrictions .................................................................................................................. 14
7.7
Crane and Other Aerial Operations ............................................................................................. 14
7.8
Track Possessions and Power Outages ..................................................................................... 14
8
Information to be Supplied at the Design Stage ................................................................................. 14
9
Documentation to be Submitted Prior to Construction ..................................................................... 15



© Rail Corporation

Page 3 of 15
Issued July 2010
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 2.2

RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


1
Purpose, Scope and Application
This document specifies the design requirements for air space developments on the RailCorp
network. It is intended primarily for the use of private developers.
It covers the construction of new air space developments, and the refurbishment of existing air
space developments where they do not meet current requirements as laid down in legislation,
Australian Standards and RailCorp’s standards.
It does not cover station concourses.
2 References
2.1
Australian and International Standards
AS 1085.1-2002 “Railway Track Material Part 1: Steel Rails”
AS 1170.4-1993 “Minimum Design Loads on Structures”
AS 1668-1998 “The use of ventilation and air conditioning in buildings”
AS 5100-2004 “Bridge design”
2.2 RailCorp
Documents
ESC 100 - Civil Technical Maintenance Plan
ESC 215 - Transit Space
ESC 220 - Rail and Rail Joints
ESC 302 - Defect Limits
ESC 340 - Tunnels
SPC 301 - Structures Construction
ESG 100.17 - Signal Design Principles Track Circuits
CityRail Engineering “Standard Guidelines for Fire and Life Safety in the Construction of
Underground Railway Facilities”
RailCorp Safety Management System
2.3 Other
References
Building Code of Australia (BCA)
Heritage Act 1977
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
3 Definitions
The following terminology is used in this Standard:
Air Space
A structure built over the rail track to support overhead offices, shops and
Development:
accommodation.
Developer:
The person or party proposing the development.


© Rail Corporation

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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


RailCorp:
The NSW Rail Corporation, wholly owned by the NSW Government and
responsible for the construction and maintenance of public rail infrastructure
and the safe operation of rail traffic.
RailCorp’s
All railway track, railway stations, civil works, associated track structures, over
Facilities:
track structures, signalling systems, train control systems, communication
systems, equipment, nodes, conduits, ducting, cable, cable support structures
and other plant, equipment, buildings or facilities owned, leased or used by
RailCorp on, or in any way comprising, the railway corridor.
Services:
Underground and aboveground pipelines and cables carrying utilities such as
electricity, water, gas, telecommunications and signalling etc.
4 General
Requirements
4.1 Design
Standards
All designs of air space developments are to comply with Australian Standard AS 1170.4-1993
“Minimum Design Loads on Structures”, AS 51200 “Bridge design”, the Building Code of Australia
and the requirements specified in this Document.
If a new air space development effectively creates a tunnel and/or underground station condition,
the Developer will be responsible for the design and installation of Fire Safety Standards in
accordance with ESC 340 “Design Standards – Tunnels” and CityRail Engineering document
“Standard Guidelines for Fire and Life Safety in the Construction of Underground Railway
Facilities”.
4.2 Approved
Materials
Approved construction materials for main structural elements are steel and concrete. Timber shall
not be used.
4.3 Safety
The design of all air space developments is to take into account safety considerations for
construction and maintenance personnel, and the future users of the development.
The requirements of the RailCorp Safety Management System, particularly SMS-12-PR-0371
Managing Engineering Design Control, are to be observed and incorporated in all designs.
4.4
Protection of the Environment
The design of all air space developments is to take into account environmental impacts during
construction and maintenance activities, with a view to minimising any impacts.
4.5 Heritage
Where any aspect of an air space development may have heritage implications (e.g. above or
adjacent to an existing heritage item), the Developer is to ensure that all statutory obligations are
met as required under the Heritage Act and the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act.
4.6 Design
Procedure
– New or Infrequently Used Products
If any products specified in the design documentation can reasonably be deemed to be new or
infrequently used, these must be identified by the designer and referred to the Chief Engineer Civil
for approval. The designer must be satisfied that the manufacturer/constructor/maintainer
understands any special requirements/practices relating to the product prior to release of the
design documentation.


© Rail Corporation

Page 5 of 15
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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


4.7 Drawing
Standards
Construction drawings are to comply with RailCorp’s standard procedures and formats as advised
by the Chief Engineer Civil, and are to detail the design loadings, horizontal and vertical
clearances, and any other information that is relevant to ensuring that the new structure is
constructed and maintained in accordance with the design.
4.8 Construction
Design documentation is to identify standards for construction, including construction methods,
processes and materials.
RailCorp has a suite of technical specifications for construction of structures. The specifications are
detailed in Engineering Specification SPC 301 “Structures Construction” and are to be incorporated
in the design and construction documentation of miscellaneous structures.
Design documentation shall include relevant references for material testing and testing of welds.
The design of air space developments is to take into account construction constraints, particularly
under live particularly live road and rail operating conditions and track possession constraints.
4.9 Maintenance
The design of all air space developments is to take into account the ability to access components
for inspection and maintenance purposes.
Components, materials and finishes should be chosen to minimise future maintenance due to the
close proximity of the structure to the tracks.
Maintenance requirements are to be specified in all design documentation for structures.
Requirements are to include examination tasks and frequencies, damage limits, and repair
standards. In most cases, ESC 100 “Civil Technical Maintenance Plan” and ESC 302 “Defect
Limits” will apply. However site specific maintenance requirements may need to be provided.
5 Design
Requirements
5.1 General
The following requirements shall be met by any air space development over RailCorp’s
infrastructure:

the development must satisfy all Local Government, State, and Federal Authority requirements
without any concession for being on railway land;
− the development shall comply with RailCorp’s specified noise, vibration and track drainage
requirements;

planning should allow for up to twelve months’ notice where track possessions and/or electric
traction power outage are required for construction;
− preliminary and detailed drawings and specifications for the proposed development are to be
submitted to RailCorp for comment and acceptance.
5.2 Access
The following access requirements must be incorporated in the design:
− where the existing access by the rail authorities or the public between a station and the
adjacent public streets is proposed to be changed, the Developer must obtain written approval
for the suitability and capacity of passageways, steps, escalators, etc.
− approved arrangements must be made for access of commuters and workers to island
platforms, and for workers’ areas between tracks.

access to RailCorp’s facilities must be maintained as specified for the particular site.


© Rail Corporation

Page 6 of 15
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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


5.3 Site
Considerations
Developers must fully investigate ground conditions and any peculiarities of the site.
RailCorp accepts no liability for generation of noise and vibration by normal railway operations
(including track maintenance), or for its transmission into buildings or structures built over or
adjacent to the track area. All aspects of noise must be investigated including reverberation in any
enclosed railway air space.
Subject to RailCorp’s agreement, development proposals may provide for complete or substantial
removal of existing buildings and/or structures from the platforms and affected areas, in the interest
of better access and column locations. If such a course of action is proposed then the cost of
temporary and ultimate relocation of the displaced activities to the satisfaction of RailCorp shall be
borne by the Developer.
5.4
Clearances to Railway Tracks
Horizontal and vertical clearances for air space developments are to comply with RailCorp
Engineering Standard ESC 215 “Transit Space”.
Provision must be made for any future railway track advised by RailCorp.
On platforms, the minimum clear space between the track centreline and any supporting structure
is to be as specified in the Transit Space Standard.
No part of the development shall intrude inside the clearance lines without the specific approval of
RailCorp.
5.5 Services
The proposed development must make full provision for supporting, relocating, and
accommodating all existing and foreseeable future services (RailCorp and utility) to and on the site.
The Developer is to meet the cost of such installations and alterations. The location of services is
to be designed so that future access for maintenance is facilitated.
Services shall not be located below the underside of the floor of the airspace development above
the rail corridor and equipment.
Openings or penetrations above the overhead wiring are not permitted.
Gas, water, drainage, sewerage, mechanical, telephone, data, or electrical services for the
development shall be housed in service ducts and brought down to ground level, preferably at the
street boundary.
Drainage shall not be suspended above the track and shall not discharge into the rail corridor.
Plans of such services showing their construction and locations are to be submitted to RailCorp for
approval before any work on their installation is commenced.
5.6 Fire
Rating
For new developments, the portion of the structure adjacent to and over the tracks is to be fire
rated to the satisfaction of RailCorp, and is to be capable of isolating the track and platform area
from fire in the superstructure.
A 4-hour fire resistance level must be provided between RaiICorp infrastructure and the air space
development.
For refurbishment of existing developments, the appropriate fire resistance level is to be
determined under the ‘fit for purpose’ provisions of the Building Code of Australia.


© Rail Corporation

Page 7 of 15
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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


5.7 Seismic
Loading
Airspace developments over the rail corridor are to be designed for seismic loading in accordance
with AS 1170.4-1993. With reference to Clause 2.2.3, the structure is to be classified as Type III,
i.e. essential to post-earthquake recovery.
5.8 Electrical
Requirements
To limit the transfer of stray traction currents from the electrified tracks to the surrounding area, it
will be necessary for all metallic service pipes installed in the development to be insulated
electrically from the street mains by insulating joints or other approved means, and for the electrical
installation of the building to be so designed that the above provisions would not be short circuited
by the connection of the neutral conductor.
All plans and specifications for the installation shall be forwarded for RailCorp’s approval before
commencing the work. RailCorp will, however, not accept any liability whatsoever for the transfer of
any stray current to the development structure.
Where applicable, the Developer is to make provision for the attachment of overhead wiring
supports and safety screens, particulars of which will be supplied by RailCorp.
The electricity supply required for the development shall be obtained by the Developer from the
Local Supply Authority. In general, this may entail a substation dedicated to the development, with
isolating transformers separating the electrical installation within the development from the Local
Authority’s mains.
5.9
Lighting and Ventilation
All RailCorp property covered by the development is to be illuminated to adequate levels as
required by the Australian Standards. Additional lighting may be required because of “tunnel”
effects.
All RailCorp property affected by the development is to be suitably ventilated and/ or air
conditioned to comply with AS 1668 “The use of ventilation and air conditioning in buildings” and
appropriate Local Council Health Code requirements.
Where a public entrance between a railway station and an adjacent public street is through the
development, an emergency lighting circuit connected to the RailCorp supply is to be provided to
light the access in the event that the supply to the development fails.
5.10 Aesthetics
All visible surfaces of station-level buildings, structures, columns, etc., provided or upgraded as
part of the development are to be architecturally designed and treated to produce a modern public
amenity of pleasing appearance at no cost to RailCorp.
The decking over the track shall be of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete construction and there
must be no exposed pipe or service component of the building visible from below.
5.11
Protection of RailCorp Property
The development is to be constructed in such a way that prevents objects or materials being
thrown, dropped, or falling due to accident, onto a track or platform from any portion of the
structure.
The structure is to be designed so that the structural integrity of the platform and concourse levels
is retained in the event that significant damage occurs to the structure above.
The structure is to be designed so that it can be demolished to the level of the “deck” or “roof” over
the railway tracks, platforms, and access ways, without disturbance to rail operations or
commuters.


© Rail Corporation

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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


The Developer is required to obtain RailCorp’s approval for the method by which the “deck” or
“roof” over the railway tracks and platforms may be constructed or demolished.
6 Collision
Protection
6.1 New
Developments
Columns supporting air space developments are vulnerable to impact from a derailed train, which
in turn could result in collapse of the structure onto the train.
Air space developments within the railway corridor are to be comply with the requirements of AS
5100 “Bridge design” with respect to collision loading and protection of supports.
Supports for new air space developments shall be located outside the rail corridor.
Supports may be located on platforms but shall be a minimum distance of 20 metres from the
platform end and lateral clearance of 4.3 metres from track centreline.
6.2 Existing
Developments
Many existing air space developments do not comply with the provisions of AS 5100 with respect to
collision loading and protection.
If the air space development structure has an alternative load path available, no additional
protection is required.
If an alternative load path is not available, the supports are to be subjected to a risk analysis. The
results of the risk analysis will determine the category of collision loading in AS 5100 that is to be
applied to a support.
The risk assessment is to be performed in accordance with RailCorp’s Safety Management
System. The analysis should consider the following criteria:

Site condition, cutting, embankment etc.
− Derailment
history

Type of structure, i.e. potential for collapse damage to trains
− Track
geometry
− Track
speed

Type of rolling stock

Future usage and growth in patronage.
The risk ranking determined from the risk analysis shall be equated to a loading requirement from
AS 5100 in accordance with Table 1 below:
RailCorp Level 2
AS 5100 Collision Loading Requirements
Safety Risk Matrix
Ranking
A
All requirements of AS 5100.2 clause 10.4.3, clause 10.4.4, clause
10.4.5 and clause 10.4.6.
B
AS 5100.2 clause 10.4.3 (using loading for between 10m and 20m from
centre line of track), clause 10.4.4, clause 10.4.5 and clause 10.4.6.
C
AS 5100.2 clause 10.4.4, clause 10.4.5 and clause 10.4.6.
D
AS 5100.2 clause 10.4.4 and clause 10.4.6.
Table 1


© Rail Corporation

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RailCorp Engineering Standard — Structures

Air Space Developments
ESC 370


The use of lower order protection devices such as earth mounds, gabions or guard rails etc. may
be used in the risk analysis to reduce the risk ranking if approval is obtained from the Chief
Engineer Civil.
6.3
Refurbishment of Existing Developments
Where major refurbishment of an existing development is proposed, the structure is to be treated
as a new development and the provisions of Section 6.1 above are to be applied.
Major refurbishment works are defined to include:

any alterations to the columns or supports;

anything which increases the load on the columns or supports;

any works which increase the height of the building;

any works which will increase the level of patronage to the development;
− any refurbishment to buildings within the development that in the opinion of RailCorp is not
insignificant or minor such as refurbishing an individual shop. For the avoidance of doubt, if
there are several shops being refurbished at or around the same time, such refurbishments
will be accumulated and will be considered as a whole rather than individually; and

any other works or refurbishment that in the opinion of the RailCorp is of a major nature.
6.4 Structural
Configuration
Piers or columns may be designed to withstand the load criteria stipulated in AS 5100 by
configuring either as:
− individual
units

in combination with deflection walls, or

solely reliant on deflection walls.
Piers, columns and deflection walls shall comply with the structural configuration and geometric
requirements of AS 5100.1. In addition, piers, deflection walls or the first column of a group shall
have the leading faces rounded or vee-shaped.
In the case of retrofitting a deflection wall to an existing vulnerable pier or column, as well as infill
walls, end walls shall extend parallel to the track, 3 metres on the approach side of the pier or
column.
6.5 Guard
Rails
6.5.1 Functional
Purpose
The prime purpose of guard rails on rail tracks is to keep derailed or derailing bogies/ wheels
tracked parallel to and in close proximity to the running rails. In the case of an overhead structure,
the guard rails afford a level of protection to an adjacent support.
6.5.2 Configuration
Where guard rails are determined to be appropriate for providing protection to vulnerable supports
of airspace developments, they are to be installed in accordance with the following requirements:

Guard rail shall be new rail manufactured to AS 1085.1 or recycled rail Category 1 (White rail)
in accordance with ESC 220 “Rail and Rail Joints”.
− Guard rail section is to be the same as the running rail or one section size less than the
running rail.
− Top of guard rail is to be no higher than the adjacent running rail and no more than 50 mm
below the running rail.

Each guard rail is to be plated and fastened on both sides to every sleeper.


© Rail Corporation

Page 10 of 15
Issued July 2010
UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 2.2

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