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SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KOLENCHERY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Seminar Report On AIRBORNE INTERNET Submitted by: Aravind.S. Reg.No. 56407 i I 1 2005-2006 i DEPARTMENT OF…
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  1. SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KOLENCHERY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Seminar Report On AIRBORNE INTERNET Submitted by: Aravind.S. Reg.No. 56407 i I 1 2005-2006 i
  2. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Kadayiruppu, Kolencherry CERTIFICATE ~ert$ied the seminar project entitlkdgirdome Internet has that been successful^ comphted by A r a v i d S of eighth semester, in . partialfu@llinent of the requirementsfor the awardof the Degree of Bachelor of lechnolbgy in Computer Science and Engineering by 9 /I University, during the academic year 2006. 4 Head of Computer Staff In Charge Science &Engineering Computer Science & I 1 Department Engineering Department I
  3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere thanlts to Prof. Dr. Janahanlal P S, Head of .the department for providing me the guidance and facilities for .the seminar. I extend my sincere gratitude to Mr.Smijesh P S for his co- operation for presenting the seminar. I also extend my sincere thanlts to all other faculty members of Computer Science & Engineering department and my friends for .their support and encouragement.
  4. AIRBORNE INTERNET
  5. Abstract Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel to aviation. It is a concept that adopts modern network theory and principles into the transportation realm, creating a system in which aircraft and people in transit will be connected with a scalable, general purpose, and multi-application aviation data channel. A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establishing the general purpose, multi- application digital data channel connection to the aircraft is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer to its local area network, or to Internet. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data channel. Secondly, it helps in accurately determining an aircraft's position Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a nonprofit research organization composed of aviation sector participants that collaboratively research, develop, and promote open standards and Internet protocols for aviation digital communications. With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from commercial to general aviation, from the flight deck to the cabin, and from flight- related tasks to entertainment, dramatic increases in communication and transportation mobility will be achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft easier to fly with more situational awareness, safety, and security. Airborne Internet has the potential to change the way aircraft receive and send data, or more appropriately, information. A.I. will provide an interconnected digital data network between aircraft and tolfrom the ground. A.I. has the potential to change how aircraft are monitored and tracked by the air traffic control system, how they exchange information with and about other aircraft.
  6. ABOUT A.I. ADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS AIC HOW AIRBORNE INTERNET WORKS ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT METHODOGY CONCLUSION REFERENCE
  7. Airborne Internet Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-al~plicationdata channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the potential to provide significant cost savings Tor aircrart operalol-s a~idthe FAA, as it allows the consolidation oT many T~~n&tions a co~nmon into data channcl. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft Tor the air traffic control system. Many otllcr applications can ~ ~ t i l i z e the same A.I. data chan~lel.'['he applications available are only limited by the bandwidth available. A.1. began as a supporting technology Tor NASA's Small AircraTt Transportation System (SATS). But there is 110 reason that A.I. should be limited to SATS-class aircraft. All oT aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit from A.I. 'I'be principle behind the A.1. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establisliing tile gel-~eral purpose, multi-application digital data channel connection to thc aircrart is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer to its local area nelworl<, or evcll lhe wide arca nctwork we call the Internet. But aircraft arc mobile objects. Therefore, mobile routing is required to maintain the data channcl connectivity while the aircraft moves Tron~region to region. The desktop cornpuler, vhether used in the office or the home, runs many tlifTcrcnl applications that can all use t l ~ c sanlc data channel. The applications are tlcsignctl arouncl thc lntc~net I'rotocol (11') stancla~.tl takc to advantage of tlie existence of the network connection to tlic coniputcr. Airbornc Internet is built upon the same model. A.I. will provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel tliat numerous applications can use. By combining application and data functionality over a common data channel, aviation has the potential to significantly reduce costs for equipage on the ground and in the aircraft. 1P IT aircrart ~~tilized as network computers do, functions in the cockpit co1.11d enabled not currently being provided. It could open LIPa be whole new set of operating capabilities, cost savings, safety and efficiency for tomorrow's aviation industry. The Tunctions provided today Illat rccluire tlie use of multiple on-board systems could be reduced to two simple systems. First, a rigorous and dependable method to maintain thc airplane's connection to the ground-based If' network is needed. This T~~nction feasible u s i ~ ~ gcombination of V11I7 radio (as is used Tor is a today's aircraft co~n~iiunications) an alternate, backup commi~nicationmethod. A and satellite comnli~nication system could be employed for aircrafl that fly in sparsely opulated areas tliat are beyond Vk1F coverage of tlie existing NAS infrastructure, or for any aircraft that might lose VHF coverage (even temporarily). Satellite communication is currently being used for trans-oceanic fight today in which aircralt are clearly beyond range of the VHF radio system in the NAS.
  8. Second, a means of accurately deter~niliing an aircraft's position is rccluircd. Currcnt tcclinology in GI's rcccivcrs provides position infonnation reliably and accurately. WAAS and LAAS are aviation systems that utilize GPS and provide en-or correction to allow aircraft the accuracy needed for navigation and landing. By combining the GPS provided position illformation of any moving aircrafl (or other vehicle) with reliable mobile network connectivity, the aircrart's position could be constantly reported to tlie ground network for processing. Furtlier, this data could be intelligently parsed to provide position and tracking information back to aircrart so its flight crew could be aware of other aircraft movement in its proximity. Air-to-air position reporting is possible (such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast or ADS-B) if the proper radio method is used. In the end state, it is possible that enough aircrafl could utilize tlie A.I. arcliitecture to create a virtual network in tlie sky. At any given mo~iient, there are between 4500 and 6000 aircraft in flight over the United States. Air transport aircraft could not only use A.I. for their own purposes, but they could provide a network router function that could sell excess bandwidth to other less bandwidth-demancling aircraft. l'his network in tlie sky not only reduces equipage and saves system costs, it could create a revenue stream for air carriers that does not currently exist. It becon~esa win-win situation for aviation. J
  9. ADVANTAGE Increase productivity and e c o ~ ~ o ~growth nic The use o~co~iimercial Internet protocols and services will i11ip1-ovesituational awareness, wliicli will niake aircrart easier to fly and rcducc pilot workload The growth in conncctivily will enable higher-volume ail-crali opcrations and alIow peoplc in transit (i.c., passengers) to use otherwise unproductive timc Communication and transportation mobility will increase, creating new markets and causing established markets to expand at accelerated rates wliicli will increase investments in econoniic development and create jobs Lower cost Flight deck fu~ictions the aircrart will bc coiisolidated and tlic number o r in required radios will be reduced, which will save aircralt owners money in addition to weight and space Most communication will occur in a peer-to-peer fashion between aircraft, wliicli will reduce tlie amount of expensive ground infrastructure (sucli as anten~ias) the FAA needs to build and niaintain Many people are already Li~iiiliar with commercial or[-the-sIiclr(C0TS) Intcr~iet technologies, wliicli wi l l reduce tlie amount o r time and money recluired to create and manage tlie Airborne Internct Increase security, reliability, and scalability The use o l XML Web Servicc protocols will makc the Collaborativc Information Environment (CIE) secure and reliable, i~nlilte many current aviation communication mctliods The Airboriie Internet will retain the resilience of the commercial Internet, which will allow it to scale to events such as extraordinary traffic volume, disruptive wea'ther, or exponent ional increases in user volume i
  10. Reduce risk Many stakeholders will share tlie costs of creating and maintaining the Airborne Internet, which will reduce tlie possibility of one organization dominating or abruptly termir~aling data cliannel lhc Increase innovation The use of open standards will allow companies to focus on building better radios, applications, and scrviccs inslead o r competing on basic c o n ~ r n ~ ~ n i c a l i o ~ ~ prolocols Increase flexibility The Airborne Intcrnel will be data link and device-intlcpcndcnl, which will allow aircraft operators lo sclecl ecluipment based 011 111cir avai lablc resources ant1 needs The use of conimcrcial Inlcrnel tcclinology will allow Ihc Airhome Inlcrnel and the Collaborative lnfonnalion Environmenl lo be inleroperable with entire transportation systenl and the rest of the world I I
  11. APPLICATION US Radar Using A1 A standoff radar plane used by the U.S. Air Force for deep-strike assaults since the 1991 Gulf War has been tested for providing airborne Internet access. IJnder a program called "Interim c'apability for Airborne Nelworking," Ihe Joint Stars, or Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System, aircraft used its dedicated radios to link to tlie Pentagon's Secret IP Router Network, or Siprnet. The Air Force and Northrop Grumman Corp, tested tlie packet data technique at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. The scheme accelerates data rates considerably from the earlier Dial-Up Rate IP over Existing Radios, or Drier, program, tested on Joint Stars planes in 2003. The new ICAN system can link to ground stations via HF, UHF, VHF and satellite links. The tests at Nellis represented the initial proof-of- concept phase. The next phase of the program includes additional testing and prototype deployment. ?'he military's need for bandwidth is growing as forces deployed in Iraq seek speedier access to battlefield data. Meanwhile, the I'entagon is trying to implement its bandwidth-11uiigry network-centric warfare doctrine I
  12. Airborne Internet Consortium The Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a ilonprofit research organization co~nposed of aviation sector participants that collaboratively research, develop, and pronlote open standards and Internet protocols for aviation digital communications Need The need for an Airborne Inlernet Consortium (AIC) is basctl on thc Inclt of a colnlnon organization for the aviation industry to Icvcragc commercial lntcrnct tcchnologics. 7'he advent of new digital c o ~ i ~ ~ i ~ u n i c a t i o processing tcclinologies is radically changing and n the way commercial businesses and social comm~~nications bcing concluctcd. It would arc appear that aviation is the last industrial segment to enlbracc the latest digital and Internet technologies. The purpose of the AIC is to accelerate the rate of adoption and abso~ylion digital and of Internet technologies into aviation. The AIC will provide the necessary research, certification and guidance metliodologies, advocacy, and inflilence in order to create the necessary technologies, policies, and reg~~lationsrequired for the use of commercial Internet protocols in aviation. With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from coinmercial to general aviation, froin the flight deck to the cabin, and from flight-related tasks to entertainment, dramatic increases ill com~unication transportation mobility will be and achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft casier to fly with more situational Awareness, salety, and sec~rrity. Also, the productivity ~Ppassengers will be increased because the growth in connectivity will allow people in transit to use otherwise unproductive time. Once this increased coin~nunication transportation mobility is implemented, new and markets will be created and established markets will expand at accelerated rates which will increase investments in econoinic developinent and create jobs. I i
  13. 1 Scalability To encourage the creation and gro ~ 1 . 1o f marl<ets, the Airborne Internet Consortiun~ 1 must identify and develop technologies that will scalc. The commercial success OF Internet is not only been due to its ability to incrcase com~iiunication lnobility, it has also occurred because of its ability to scale exponentially. The Intemet has been able to meet the demands placed on it by not having a fixed network topology or architecture. For this reason, part of the AIC efrort will include moder~l network theory and principles so that the Airborne Internet will retain the resilience of the commercial Intenlet and not fail to scale to events such as extraordinary traffic volume, disruptive weather, or exponentional increases in user volume. 1 JPDO Partnersl~ip '. The power of future networked system arcl~itccturesto transform aviation will enable scalable airspace and aircraft architectures, flexible ground in~rastructurcs,and new approaches to safety and security i n the system of systems known as Aviation. To insure that the Airborne Internet Consortium is aware o r network theory developnlents in aviation, the AIC will maintain a close worl<ing relationship ~ v i t hthe Joint Planning and Development. Objectives: Create Airborne Internet (AI) giliding principles Create an A i r b o r ~ ~ e Inter~iet Operational Concept Create and evaluate Airborne Internet "system of systcms" arcl~itcctures Influence, tailor, or create standards for the Airborne Internet Demonstrate the capability of an Airborne lnternet The mission of the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is to define, develop, and promote the common systeln elements nccessary to deploy con~prchensivc aviation-based digital data link capabilities throughout the nation using evolving Internet technologies. i
  14. Outputs: Kesearcli Studies - All research reports are copyrighted and treated as shared data rights alnong Principal n~embers: o National Airborne Internet operations concept Standards and Guideli~ics Reports - All standards and guidelines reports prepared for release into Che public domain: o National Airborne Internet standards o Guidelines for Airborne Internet product certification Standards Setting Liaison - All o ~ ~ g o i n g standards liaison services provided to nien~bers long as ncccssary to acliicvc thc targctcd goals for i~illi~cncing as andlor creating standards: o Standards liaison worlting groups Public and Private Benefits The AIC intends to undertake its research through collaborations with the pirblic sector in a manner that will: Enable a safer, more secure, more cost efficient global airspace system by eliminating commu~~ications a constraint on the economic viability of aviation as related applications Facilitate collaborative rescarcli and development in the field o r aviation communications Develop open systems architecture and standards for aviation digital comn~unications Foster and proniote general purpose, multi-application, scalable data channel protocols in aviation Develop intellectilal content to guide public and private investment in aviation digital communications Prqniote inter~iational adoption of open systems architecture, standards, information nianagknient stri~ctures, protocols Tor aviation digital and communications Foster use of advanced aviation digital comm~~nications technology for public security I I
  15. I How Ail-bol-11e Internet Works I'lic old 0 1 1 Just ahout ~ ~ c t Intcrnct ~ ~ s c rlips these days is "broadband." We have so .y 's ml~cli more data to scnd and dowliload today, including audio files, video files and pllotos. that it's cloggilig our wiliipy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable ~iiodc~iis digital subscriber lilics (DSL's) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a a1id tqpe of service being developed tliat will take broadband into the air. p v ,2ik&f?y ,iJy ,' ,1 <' .. I . pe ...," -a PI' - ".>. p**,,"" Consumer. ;. 'k; i ' II ,. ItALO ", A ' i gateway ; ~',. courtesy Angel Technologies ~hotb This diagram s h o w s how t h e HALO Network will enable a high-speed wireless Internet connection At Icast rlircc companies are planning to provide high-speed wireless Internet connection by placing aircraft i l l fixed patterns o/cr hundreds of cities. Angel Technologies is platlni~lga n ail.bornc Intcrnct nc[;oslc,called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO), -hicll.oulrl 11sc liglit!ciglit planes to cil-clc overhead and provide data delivery faster [I1311 a -1'1 line Tor busiliesses. Cons~uncrs would get a connection coinparable to DSL. Also. AeroVironn~elithas teamed up /it11 NASA on a solar-powered, unmanned plane tliat . o ~ ~ vork like the HALO networlc, and Sky Station International is planning a ld similar ~~~~~~~~e using blimps instead of planes.
  16. L Architecture Development Methodology Architecture defines thc structural and collaborativc relationships of systcm components. Ofien described using views (e.g., r~~nctional, component, implementation, temporal, user), the architecture provides infomiation to guide system ant1 sortware developers during initial development and inevitable system improvement activities. In addition to defining the fi~nctional and physical relationships between system components, architecture often providcs dcsign guitlance in an attcnlpt to achicvc othcr dcsirablc objectives such as crficicnt rcsourcc utilization, inc~.cmcntal tlcvclopn~cnt,vcriliabilily, use of COTS products, ease of maintenance, and system extensibility. 1) Understand the SATS operational concepts 2) Define system level requirements 33 Investigate and evaluate the external environment 4) Identify trends and issues that must be addressed 5) Apply mod en^ system design tcchniclues 6) Document the result and submit [or revicw I) Understard the SATS opemtior~c~l corlce/7ts - Everyone tends to relate to SATS in a unique way. It is more a new way of thinking about air transportation than a technical concept that becltons to be explored. This leads to a variety of dcfinitions o r what SAYS is - or shobld be. To bind the A1 architeclure problem, we developed a set of system operation assun~ptions. sampling o r these key assun~ptionsis listed below: A Pilot - Until such time as highly automated systems can be fully tested and certified, SATS aircraft will have at least one qualilied, instrumenl rated pilot on board. Because of the level of automation on board, the SATS system will enable this pilot to be much more proficient and able to fly in nearly all weather conditioils into a large n~unber minimally equipped airports. of Airspace - SATS aircraft will share airspace wit11 non-SATS aircraft. This implies a minimum level of system co~npatibility equipage in both SATS and and non-SATS aircraft. SATS aircraft en route will operate in Class A airspace, SATS aircraft landing at small/n~ediumsized airports will operate in Class C, D, or E airspace. i L
  17. Avionics - in addition to the minimum set of avio~iics required of normal IFRl[2] aircraft, SATS aircraft will have 011 board additional avionics equipment to enable the pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. If SATS is to be prototyped in 2005 and operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with systems used by co~nmercial and general aviation airports to not require expensive new ground support systems not currently l>lanned by the FAA. Flight rules - to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access sniall ant1 medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR2[3] traffic in addition to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a mixture of IFR, VFR and SATS traffic. 2) Defilze syslenl level requit-ettietlts - Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS communications system ~ i i ~ be sdeveloped. The co~iini~~nications ~ t system is unique in that it is both an end systeni and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must provide pilot-controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-fl~ghtoperations communications. As an enabling infrastructure it must support applications associated with navigation, surveillance, and other f~lnctious. Requirements need to be developed in the trad~tionalareas of communication, navigation, and surveillance, including both avionics and ground infrastructure, consistent with the infrastructure defined in Ilie task below. System level I-equirements also need to be developed for onboard f l i ~ l i t manageine~~t and sensor/actuator systems capable of providing tlie level of support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew performance with a single crew nieniber. Other requirenients will include support for passenger support systems -3) l~rlvcstigc~le evcllrrctte the exter-rltrl environnient - SATS, although a revolutionary citltl transportation concept w ~ l lhave to work within tlie National Airspace System (NAS). This is true both dur~ng SA'TS prototyping in 2005 and during full-scale development, in 2025. ' h e NAS itself is evolving ~iecessitatingdevelopi~igan understanding of the capabilities of NAS over time. This can be very tricky as the NAS is subject to many forces that a1.e political, not technical, and as such is difficult to predict. For example, there al-e currently three competing conimunication teclinologies to provide aircraft- aircraft position reporting. Clearly, there is agreement that position reporting is desirable, but wh~cli technological approach will survive is like trying to choose between VHS and Bctamax before the ~i~arkctplacc spolccn. has ., 4) l(1enrfi tl-etlcls c~trtlisszies thcrl t7111st citltlr-essetl - To be successf~~l, he SATS must f~~nction w~lliinthe context of technology evolution and systems development. We present a suniniary of some of the trends and issues in Ihe next section of this paper. I(I (I 4
  18. Avionics - in addition to the minimum set of avionics required of normal IFRl[2] aircraft, SATS aircraft will have on board additional avionics equipment to enable the pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. If SATS is to be prototyped in 2005 and operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with systems used by comniercial and general aviation airports to not require expensive new groilnd support systems not currenlly pl:unned by the FAA. Flight rl-lles - to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access - sniall and medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR2[3] traffic in addiiion to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a mixture of TFR, VFR and SATS traffic. 2) Defille system level requireltlenls - Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS communications system nus st be developed. The commiinications system is unique in that it is both an end system and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must provide pilot-controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-flight operations communications. As an enablin~ infrastructure it nus st support applications associated with navigation, surveillance, and other runctions. Requirements need to be developed in the traditional areas of comniunication, navigation, and surveillance, including both avionics and groi~ndinfrastructure, consistent with the infrastructure defined in the task below. System level requirements also need to be developed for onboard flight ~nanagement and sensor/acti~ator systems capable of provitling the level o r support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew performance with a single crew meniber. Other requiremenls will include support for passenger support systems 3) I~l~~estigtrle evcrl~rrlle e,ule~-nnl trrztl (he ellvirolznlerlt - SATS, although a revolutionary transporlatioii concept will have to work within the National Airspace System (NAS). This is [rue both during SA'TS prototypii~g 2005 and during full-scale development, in in 2025. The NAS itself is evolving necessitating developing an understanding of the capabilities of NAS over time. 'This can bc very tricky as llie NAS is subject to many forces that are political, not Lech~iical,and as such is difficult to predict. For example, there are currently three competing co1~~1i1iinicatio11 technolo~iesto provide aircraft- aircraft position reporting. Clearly, there is agrecn~ent Ilia1 position reporting is des'irable, but which technological approach will survive i s like trying to clioose between VHS and Bclamax belbre Ilic marketplace has spoken. 4) I(lelllrfi) tl-ends rcntl isslles thcrt mlrst he tc(ltfressec1- To be si~ccessfirl,SATS must filnction within the context of technology evolutio~~ systems development. We and present a summary of some of the trends and issues in the next section of this paper.
  19. 5) Apply ntoderrt systerlt tleslgrt lechrtiylres - SATS presents an ideal opportunity to apply object-oriented design techniclues for the collection, analysis and doculnentation of system architecture. Elements of tlie resulting design include: Design patterns to identify key components of llie design layers of abstraction to niini~nize coupling of user level f~lnctionality to implen~entation details Exploitation of natural coliesive~iess, common sonware f i ~ ~ ~ c t i o ~ i a l patterns Communications prolocols between major fi~nctional objects Docur~zerllllle result clntl sirbruit for revie~v Peer review is a vital step in tlie - development of architecture for a systenl as co~nplex sarety critical as a new aircraft and transportation system.
  20. C *< The Airborne Irzterrret (AI) is about informalion connectivity. It is n conccpt !hat adopts modern network theory and principlcs into the transportation realm, crealing a systenl in which aircrafi and people in transit will be connected with a scalable, general purpose, and multi-application aviation data channel. It connects airct-aft and pcople in transit. Airborrre Interrret provides aircrafi to the ground, ground to ground and aircraft to aircraft communicatiot~s in support of air trariic management, fleet operations, and passenger support services. Airborrre Irrterrret has the potential to change the way aircraft receive and scnd data, or more appropriately, inforniation. A.1. will provide an interconnected digital data networlc between aircraft and to/from the groi~nd. A.I. has tlie potential to change how aircraft are t-nonitored atltl tracl<ed by tlie air traffic control system, how they exchange infomiation with and about other aircraft I

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