Although much has been written about improvements in the Federal medical system during the Civil War, the following court martial illustrates the problems a regimental surgeon had in establishing a ...
TBS Error: Your document contains more than the maximum allowed 5,000 words and phrases.
Background and Origins Causes of War Results Nature of War Introduction and Type of War
Algerian Revolution was one of the bloodiest wars fought in Africa. Over 1.5 million Algerians died, over 27,000 French soldiers, and over 4,000 civilians. This guerilla war lasted for eight years leaving many of the Algerian people to be in conflict with French.
The Algerian Revolution is a guerilla war because on All Saints' Day, November 1, 1954, FLN maquisards (guerrillas) launched attacks in various parts of Algeria against military installations, police posts, warehouses, communications facilities, and public utilities.
Also, the revolution was a civil war because the Algerians were fighting for their independence.
After Napoleons downfall in France and the revolution. The French government was weak economically, politically, and militarily. So, the French try to reverse their unpopularity through their military.
In 1827, the French army blockaded Algeria for three years, which was a complete failure.
This failure caused France to take Algeria by force in the 1830’s.
This conquest for Algeria was not actually completed until the 1900’s.
Movement for independence came from Algerians’ dissatisfaction with being treated as second-class citizens by the French colonial government.
The revolution’s philosophical foundations came from the privileged Algerians who were Gallicized by the French education system
Also, a since of nationalism was building across Algeria. This cause the Algerians to become tired of their French invaders.
Religious conflict between the Muslims and French were building throughout the country.
Economy in Algeria belong to the French colonist and rich Algerians.
One of the first organizations for Algerian Independence was the Star of North Africa. The group was originally in Paris in 1926.
The Star was banned in 1929 by French government for their outspoken beliefs.
The Star continued to operate underground until 1934.
The independence group (Star) reached 43,500 through there newspaper.
The Star later became known as the Party of Algerian people (PPA).
This group influenced rebel groups to start forming and rising up in Algeria.
In 1933 to 1936, political protest were all throughout Algeria.
The government responded with more restrictive laws .
The laws ordered for public order and security. These laws made tension build in Algerian people.
In the winter of 1944-45, the shortage of manufactured goods, poor wheat harvest, and severe unemployment caused more social unrest
The PPA joined the Friends of the Manifesto and liberty (AML) to march through 21 towns demanding independence.
On May 8, 1945, tension had built high between Muslims and colonial communities .
As the marchers started their demonstration. They were attacked and violence broke out.
As a result the estimates of people killed are 6,000 to as high as 45,000 killed.
The PPA continue to operate. They still were striving for independence.
In 1950, a new group called the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA) started. The group was lead by Ben Bella and was based off of Cairo, Egypt.
Between March and October of 1954 the group organized a military network.
They organized 6 military regions across Algeria
These 6 military regions made up the National Liberation Army.
This army was designed to fight and win the revolution.
The first organization to call for Algerian independence was the Star of North Africa known as Star.
The group was originally a solidarity group formed in 1926 in Paris to coordinate political activity among North African workers in France and to defend the material, moral, and social interests of North African Muslims.
Between March and October 1954, the CRUA organized a military network in Algeria comprising six military regions
The leaders of these regions and their followers became known as the "internals." Ben Bella, Khider, and Ait Ahmed formed the External Delegation in Cairo. Encouraged by Egypt's President Gamal Abdul Nasser
Their role was to gain foreign support for the rebellion and to acquire arms, supplies, and funds for the wilaya commanders.
In October the CRUA renamed itself the National Liberation Front, which assumed responsibility for the political direction of the revolution
The National Liberation Army (FLN) the FLN's military arm, was to conduct the War of Independence within Algeria.
On All Saints' Day, November 1, 1954, FLN maquisards (guerrillas) launched attacks in various parts of Algeria against military installations, police posts, warehouses, communications facilities, and public utilities.
From Cairo, the FLN broadcast a proclamation calling on Muslims in Algeria to join in a national struggle for the "restoration of the Algerian state, sovereign, democratic, and social, within the framework of the principles of Islam."
De Gaulle immediately appointed a committee to draft a new constitution for France's Fifth Republic, which would be declared early the next year.
Algeria would be associated but of which it would not form an integral part.
Muslims, including women, were registered for the first time with Europeans on a common electoral roll to participate in a referendum to be held on the new constitution in September 1958.
Talks with the FLN reopened at Evian in May 1961.
After several false starts, the French government decreed that a cease-fire would take effect on March 19, 1962.
In their final form, the Evian Accords allowed for equal legal protection of Algerians over a three year period.
These rights included:
respect for property
participation in public affairs
full range of civil and cultural rights
At the end of that period, however, Europeans would be obliged to become Algerian citizens or be classified as aliens with the attendant loss of rights.
On July 1, 1962, some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence.
The vote was nearly unanimous.
De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on July 3, 1962. The Provisional Executive, however, proclaimed July 5,1962 the 132 anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence.