T E A C H E R ’ S G U I D E
T E A C H E R ’ S G U I D E
T E A C H E R ’ S G U I D E
• Replicate the investigation from the show, observing the growth stages
• Owings, Jennifer. Poison Dart Frogs. Boyds Mills Press, Honesdale, PA;
of an amphibian in a classroom tank. Have your students describe, draw
and record all of the stages. Refer to the “EEK!: Raising Frogs in the
• Pfeffer,Wendy. From Tadpole to Frog. Harper Trophy, New York, NY;
Classroom”Web page (http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/
teacher/frogact.htm) for guidelines on how to conduct such an investi-
• Collect and share examples of folklore, mythology, literature, music,
games, dance or art that deal with frogs and other amphibians. Make a
chart listing negative characteristics of the creatures on one side and
positive characteristics on the other.
• Have students design and create a bulletin board display that shows
the many different kinds of amphibians. Illustrate the characteristics of
this group of animals.
All About Amphibians
This great site explains how and why scientists study amphibians, and
includes an interactive investigation about the mysterious disappear-
ance of many amphibians, as well as a listing of many worthwhile activ-
TEACHER’S GUIDE CONSULTANT
This guide is a supplement,designed for educators to use
when presenting this program in an instructional
Conrad M. Follmer
Before Viewing: Research in learning suggests that it is
This “Froggy Page” contains extensive links to frog images, sounds,
important for the teacher to discover what the students
stories and science.
25 years as a K–5 Science & Math Coordinator for a Pennsylvania public
know — or think they know — about a topic, at the start of
school system, currently an independent consultant to elementary schools.
a new unit, so that their accurate conceptions can be vali-
The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency “Frogs for Kids” Web site has
dated and reinforced, and their misconceptions identified
strange frog facts, coloring pages, frog jokes and links for learning
and corrected.Therefore, after reviewing the pre-viewing
• ALL ABOUT AMPHIBIANS
• ALL ABOUT DINOSAURS
discussion questions provided for your class, create a
• ALL ABOUT ANIMAL ADAPTATION
• ALL ABOUT ENDANGERED
“Everything We Know About…” list. Preview key vocabulary
• ALL ABOUT ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
& EXTINCT ANIMALS
This is a thematic unit for 2nd and 3rd graders designed to help stu-
• ALL ABOUT FISH
words and have students raise additional questions they
dents learn more about the distinct characteristics of reptiles and
• ALL ABOUT ANIMAL LIFE CYCLES
• ALL ABOUT FOOD CHAINS
hope will be answered by this program. Most importantly,
amphibians, including an emphasis on the metamorphosis and devel-
• ALL ABOUT ANIMAL NEEDS
• ALL ABOUT MAMMALS
students should be told that as “science detectives” they
opment of amphibians. It lists resources available for the study of
• ALL ABOUT BIRDS
• ALL ABOUT REPTILES
must listen closely, so that after viewing the program, they
• ALL ABOUT BUGS
will be able to tell whether or not the facts/beliefs they put
on their list were scientifically accurate.
Suggested Print Resources
After Viewing: After a brief discussion about the program,
• Clarke, Barry. Amphibian (Eyewitness Books). Knopf, New York, NY;
Teacher’s Guides Included
challenge your “science detectives” to prove or disprove the
and Available Online at:
accuracy of the facts they put on their “Everything We
• Cowley, Joy. Red-Eyed Tree Frog. Scholastic, New York, NY; 1999.
Know About…” list. Discuss what else they learned and use
A DIVISION OF LIBRARY VIDEO COMPANY®
• Hickman, Pamela. A New Frog: My First Look at the Life Cycle of an
the follow-up questions and activities to inspire further dis-
Amphibian. Kids Can Press, New York, NY; 1999.
cussion. Encourage students to research the topic further
with the Internet and reading resources provided.
• Himmelman, John. A Salamander’s Life (Nature Upclose). Children’s
Press, New York, NY; 1998.
Teacher’s Guide and Program Copyright 2000 by Schlessinger Media,
a division of Library Video Company
P.O. Box 580, Wynnewood, PA 19096 • 800-843-3620
Executive Producers: Andrew Schlessinger & Tracy Mitchell
Programs produced and directed by Burrud Productions Inc.
All rights reserved
cold-blooded — A term that describes animals that cannot control their
7. What does being cold-blooded mean?
own body temperature, so they assume the temperature of their environ-
8. What are two things that are special about an amphibian’s skin?
Over many millions of years, amphibians developed from fish.Today, there
ment (like fish, reptiles and amphibians).
are more than 3,000 types of amphibians, separated into three groups based
9. Why do amphibians have to live near water or in moist environ-
metamorphosis — The process of changing form during the life cycle of
on their body shapes as adults: amphibians that can jump (frogs and toads),
amphibians that have tails (newts and salamanders), and a less common
10. How are amphibians like fish? How are amphibians like reptiles?
amphibian that is blind and legless.
tadpoles — Swimming amphibians with gills that have hatched from their
11. What are the three different groups of amphibians?
eggs and will develop into adults with lungs.
Most amphibians spend part of their lives in water and part on land.This
12. What do amphibians eat? How do they eat?
interesting “double life” means that most start life with gills, then develop
limbs — The arms or legs of an animal’s body. Most amphibians have four
lungs to breathe when they go through the process called metamorphosis.
limbs, but there is a group of blind amphibians that are limbless.
13. What is metamorphosis? What are the stages of a frog’s metamorpho-
The life cycle of frogs provides a good example of metamorphosis. First,
eardrums — A thin ear covering that vibrates and helps animals hear
frogs hatch from eggs to become tadpoles with gills and tails, which they
sounds. Frogs have round flat patches on both sides of their head, which
14. About how long does it take for a frog to change from an egg into a
use to swim through water like fish. Before leaving the water, frogs lose
serve as hearing organs. Humans have eardrums inside their ears.
their tails, grow limbs and develop lungs to breathe in air — everything
vocal sacs — A pouch in a frog’s mouth that can fill up with air and
15. Why does a frog’s croaking sound so loud?
needed to survive on land. In a sense, amphibians are the middle link
increase the loudness of the frog’s croaking.
16. When would an amphibian have to hibernate? Why?
between fish in the water and reptiles on land; early in life, frogs resemble
mucus — A slimy coating that protects the skin of amphibians by keeping
the fish from which they developed, while later in life, they more closely
their bodies moist. Some amphibians have mucus that is poisonous.
resemble their reptile descendants.
hibernate — To pass a cold winter or dry season in a resting state until the
Amphibians have backbones and are cold-blooded. Because they can’t
The most important part of this segment is to examine both the facts
weather becomes favorable for survival.
warm themselves, many amphibians need to hibernate in cold weather.
and beliefs generated by the class in their “Everything We Know
Young amphibians use their gills to take oxygen from the water, while
biologist — A scientist who studies living things (plants and animals).
About…” list. Research indicates that students will retain their previous
adults have lungs to do the same from the air. Yet all amphibians have moist
misconceptions — in preference to the new information — until they
skin that is also used to take oxygen from the air. In fact, some amphibians
actively recognize and correct their own errors. Because of this, it is
actually get more oxygen through their skin than through their lungs!
important to lead students to the correct ideas while identifying and cor-
Before students generate their list of “Everything We Know About…” this
recting any misconceptions from the class list. After reviewing the list,
The program also reviews how frogs use their senses and how some
topic, stimulate and focus their thinking by raising these questions so that
encourage students to share the answers they got to the questions raised
amphibians use their colors to blend in with their surroundings. In addition,
their list will better reflect the key ideas in this show:
before viewing the program.
Dr. Ken Nagy, a biology professor at UCLA, explains the eating habits of
1. Name some animals that are amphibians.
some amphibians, while students participate in a hands-on investigation
Raising a thought-provoking question is a good way to assess the overall
2. How are amphibians different from other animals?
that shows the growth stages of a frog over a sixteen-week period.
depth of understanding. A couple of suggestions are listed below:
3. Where do amphibians live?
1. Discuss the many ways in which amphibians protect themselves
4. How are fish, reptiles and amphibians alike?
from predators and their environment.
The following words are included for teacher reference or for use with stu-
After the class has completed their “Everything We Know About…” list, and
2. Metamorphosis plays a large role in the life cycle of amphibians.After
dents. They are listed in the order in which they appear in the video.
before watching the show, ask them what other questions they have that
reviewing the process, have students name some other animals that
they hope will be answered during this program. Have students listen
amphibians — Cold-blooded animals with backbones and smooth, moist
go through a metamorphosis during their lives. In addition, have stu-
closely to learn if everything on their class list is accurate and to hear if any
skin that spend part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land.
dents discuss the importance of habitat in this process.
of their own questions are answered.
Frogs, salamanders, toads and newts are all amphibians.
Discuss why many amphibians hide during the day and become
amphibious — A word that describes something that is adapted for both
land and water.
active at night.
You may wish to ask your class the following questions to assess their com-
fish — Cold-blooded animals with backbones and scales that live in the
prehension of key points presented in the program:
water, move with fins and breathe with gills.
• Tell your students to imagine that they will magically turn into amphib-
1. What are some characteristics of amphibians?
reptiles — Cold-blooded land animals with backbones and scales that
ians for one day. Have them choose an amphibian and create an illus-
breathe with lungs.
2. How do scientists think amphibians developed over millions of years?
trated story describing themselves as the frog, toad, salamander or
gills — The organs that fish and amphibians use to take in oxygen from the
3. Which animals developed first: fish, amphibians or reptiles?
newt of their choice. Make sure they describe their appearance, their
habitat and their behavior.
4. What does the word “amphibious” mean?
lungs — The organs that land animals use to breathe in air and exhale.
5. What are gills? At what stage in their life do amphibians have gills?
vertebrates — Animals that have backbones.
6. What are lungs? Why do amphibians develop lungs?