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ANFO, Emulsion and Heavy ANFO blends - Useful explosive and blasting agent for modern day blasting

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ANFO, Emulsion and Heavy ANFO blends - Useful explosive and blasting agent for modern day blasting
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  • Added: April, 14th 2011
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  • Pages: 42
  • Tags: emulsion, ammonium nitrate, heavy anfo blends, anfo
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Useful Explosive & Blasting Agent for modern day BlastingAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech (Hons.) in Mining Engineering, E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/Needed for an explosion..PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/2Ammonium Nitrate (AN)An is a weak explosive base, its explosion temperature being 1130 degree centigrade.2NH4NO3 ƒ 2N2 + 4H2O + O2 + 378 cal/g.ItI t beb ie ngn g o xygoexyg ne n p op sio tit ve,ve , i s os fo tf et ne n useudse d a s aoxygen supplier in addition to being an explosive base.It forms the explosive base in ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate – Fuel Oil) explosives, which are now widely used.PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/3ANFOAmmonium Nitrate / Fuel OilAmmonium Nitrate ProductionReaction of anhydrous ammonia gas ana dn d c ono cn ene tn rt ata et de d n in ti rt ici a ca idi .dAfter the reaction the AN solution is about 83% concentration.Excess water is evaporated off to leave an AN concentration of 95 to 99.9%.PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/4AN Production cont’dAN Solution is turned into prill. A small percentage of water is left in the solution when the prill is formed.WhW eh ne n t heh e p rp ill is d rd iede d t heh ewater is removed and it leaves voids in the prill.This is where the diesel fuel goes when added to the prill. PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/5AN Prill manufacturing SchematicVAPOURISED AMMONIA83% - 86% AN solutionAQUOUS NITRIC ACIDEvaporatorIndustrial or Blasting gradePrilling TowerPrilled at 96 -97% MeltDryerPre-DryerCoolerCoaterScreenTo StorageOver-size & Fines to recyclePARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/6AN Prill manufacturing Blasting grade AN prills are made by spraying molten AN into a prilling tower. Droplets fall under carefully controlled cooling conditions. ThT e ANA N solidifies whw ile falling, t aking on an approximately spherical shape of relatively uniform size. Prilling tower conditions must be such that will produce a "porous" prill that will absorb the proper amount of fuel oil (6 percent by weight). High density prills will not properly absorb the fuel oil and blasting performance will suffer PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/7Properties of explosive-grade prill Properties important for explosive-grade AN prills are: Low clay content,Low moisture content,FrF eee -e flowo w s izingn ,gOil absorbency,Low particle density,Good friability andNon-caking consistency.PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/8Temperature Cycling of AN AN responds to temperature changes by changing its crystalline structure.The phenomenon is called Cycling.The t wt o t et mpm eratut re at t w hici h c yclilni g occur under normal condition are 0 and 32 degree C.Therefore, product stored over four seasons or in tropical atmosphere undergo some degree of cycling.PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/9Thermal and Moisture stability of AN In addition, AN is hygroscopic; can attract moisture from atmosphere and slowly dissolve itself.Foro r t ht ih s rs er ae soanso ,n , b lb asta ist ngn g g rg ar da ed e p rp ir lls hs ah vea vesome protective coating which offers some amount of water resistance. When AN prill has been exposed to both humidity and temperature, crystalline structure changes, this is the first cycle.PARTHA DAS SHARMAhttp://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/10

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