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ap physics b/c equation sheet

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The accompanying Table of Information and Equation Tables will be provided to students when

they take the AP Physics Exams. Therefore, students may NOT bring their own copies of these

tables to the exam room, although they may use them throughout the year in their classes in

order to become familiar with their content.

cover of the multiple-choice section and on the green insert provided with the free-response

section. The tables are identical for both exams except for one convention as noted.

on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The equation tables may be used by

students when taking the free-response sections of both exams but NOT when taking the

multiple-choice sections.

The equations in the tables express the relationships that are encountered most frequently in

AP Physics courses and exams. However, the tables do not include all equations that might

possibly be used. For example, they do not include many equations that can be derived by

combining other equations in the tables. Nor do they include equations that are simply special

cases of any that are in the tables. Students are responsible for understanding the physical

principles that underlie each equation and for knowing the conditions for which each equation is

applicable.

The equation tables are grouped in sections according to the major content category in which

they appear. Within each section, the symbols used for the variables in that section are defined.

However, in some cases the same symbol is used to represent different quantities in different

tables. It should be noted that there is no uniform convention among textbooks for the symbols

used in writing equations. The equation tables follow many common conventions, but in some

cases consistency was sacrificed for the sake of clarity.

Some explanations about notation used in the equation tables:

1. The symbols used for physical constants are the same as those in the Table of

Information and are defined in the Table of Information rather than in the right-hand

columns of the tables.

2. Symbols in bold face represent vector quantities.

3. Subscripts on symbols in the equations are used to represent special cases of the

variables defined in the right-hand columns.

4. The symbol D before a variable in an equation specifically indicates a change in the

variable (i.e., final value minus initial value).

5. Several different symbols (e.g.,

length. The particular symbol used in an equation is one that is commonly used for

that equation in textbooks.

(c) 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, and the acorn logo are registered

trademarks of the College Board.

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Proton mass,

27

1.67 10

kg

Electron charge magnitude,

19

1.60 10

C

Neutron mass,

27

1.67 10

kg

19

1 electron volt, 1 eV

1.60 10

J

Electron mass,

31

9.11 10

kg

Speed of light,

8

3.00 10 m s

Avogadro's number,

23

-1

Universal gravitational

11

3

2

0

6.02 10 mol

constant,

6.67 10

m kg s

Universal gas constant,

8.31 J (mol K)

Acceleration due to gravity

2

at Earth's surface,

9.8 m s

Boltzmann's constant,

23

1.38 10

J K

1 unified atomic mass unit,

27

2

1 u

1.66 10

kg

931 MeV

Planck's constant,

34

15

6.63 10

J s

4.14 10

eV s

25

3

1.99 10

J m

1.24 10 eV nm

Vacuum permittivity,

12

2

2

0

8.85 10

C N m

Coulomb's law constant,

9

2

1 4

2

0

9.0 10 N m C

Vacuum permeability,

7

0

4

10 (T m) A

Magnetic constant,

7

0

10 (T m) A

1 atmosphere pressure,

5

2

5

1 atm

1.0 10 N m

1.0 10 Pa

meter,

m

mole,

mol

watt,

W

farad,

F

kilogram,

kg

hertz,

Hz

coulomb,

C

tesla,

T

UNIT

second,

s

newton,

N

volt,

V

degree Celsius,

C

SYMBOLS

ampere,

A

pascal,

Pa

ohm,

W

electron-volt,

eV

kelvin,

K

joule,

J

henry,

H

PREFIXES

VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON ANGLES

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

0

30

37

45

53

60

90

9

10

giga

G

sin

0

1 2

3 5

2 2

4 5

3 2

1

6

cos

1

3 2

4 5

10

mega

M

2 2

3 5

1 2

0

3

10

kilo

k

tan

0

3 3

3 4

1

4 3

3

2

10

centi

c

The following conventions are used in this exam.

3

10

milli

m

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is

6

10

micro

m

assumed to be inertial.

9

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive

10

nano

n

charge (conventional current).

12

10

pico

p

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at

an infinite distance from the charge.

*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations,

done on a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a

Physics C topic.

0

1

1 2

2

4

1 2

0

0

2

2

2

0

2

0

1

1

4

0

= length

= length

2

1

4

0

0

D

D

1

1

1

2

2

potential difference

2

2

2

D

D

D

D

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

sin

0

2

1

2

cos

1

D

D

0

focal length

1

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

2

sin

const.

2

1

kinetic energy

1

1

1

D

refraction

0

D

0

curvature

0

0

2

system

3

2

3

3

Rectangle

velocity

D

Triangle

D

1

2

expansion

Circle

2

= length

2

Parallelepiped

Cylinder

2

2

2

Sphere

4

3

max

3

4

Right Triangle

2

2

2

2

D

(D

sin

cos

90

ta

n

0

1

1 2

2

4

1 2

0

0

2

2

2

0

2

0

0

= length

= length

D

1

4

0

1

1

4

1

2

2

1

1

D

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

0

1

2

0

2

4

2

2

2

1

0

2

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

0

1

1

2

1 2

2

0

0

2

2

Rectangle

Triangle

1

2

Circle

= length

2

1

1n

2

Parallelepiped

sin

cos

Cylinder

cos

sin

2

1

,

1

1

2

2

Sphere

4

3

ln

3

2

4

cos

sin

Right Triangle

sin

cos

2

2

sin

90

cos

tan

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