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App Note: Analyzing chocolate with the Morphologi® G3 and wet ...

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The Morphologi G3 equipped with the wet cell accessory can successfully be used to measure size and shape and of particles in different samples of chocolate as well as the intensity of the particle images. Differences in terms of size, shape and intensity could be seen between these three samples, which with sufficient information could be correlated with subjective quality tests such as 'mouth feel'.
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Analyzing chocolate with the
Morphologi® G3 and wet cell accessory.

Introduction
As well as particle size, the
Morphologi G3 also calculates various
Particle size measurement is already
shape factors for each and every
established as a useful tool for testing
particle measured. One such shape
the final product quality of chocolate.
parameter is High Sensitivity (HS)
In particular particle size
Circularity, which is essentially a
measurements made using a laser
measure of how close the 2D
diffraction technique can be correlated
projection of the particle image is to a
with subjective tasting panel
perfect circle. Figure 3 shows the HS
observations such as ‘mouth feel’. 1
circularity distributions for the three

The Malvern Morphologi® G3
different chocolate samples.
Automated Particle Characterization

Interestingly, Brand #1 shows a
System equipped with the wet cell
different particle morphology from the
Figure 1: the Morphologi G3 wet cell
accessory can be used to further
two other brands, the particles being
characterize chocolate in terms of the
Analysis of the samples was carried
more ‘rounded’ with higher HS
shape of the particles. Additionally,
out according to a standard operating
Circularity values than the other two
the intensity of the grey scale images
procedure (SOP) that defined all the
brands. This could be due to using
recorded during the analysis provides
software and hardware variables. The
ingredients of a different origin, or
further information.
SOP required the 5X objective and
perhaps due to different pre-
the system to scan in a set area of the
processing of the dry ingredients. A
more spherical particle morphology
Analyzing chocolate
wet cell until 30,000 particles had
been measured.
might also be expected to lead to an
Methodology
improved ‘mouth feel’ with less ‘sharp
Three different samples of milk
Results and discussions
edged’ particles than the other
chocolate from different
brands.
An overlay of the particle size
manufacturers, a leading brand (#1),
distributions measured by the

a supermarket brand (#2) and a
Morphologi G3, expressed in volume
luxury brand (#3), were selected for
weighted Circle Equivalent (CE)
analysis. The samples were dispersed
diameter, together with
Table 1: Particle size statistics of 3
in sunflower oil by immersion in an
representative particle images of
different chocolate samples.
ultrasonic bath for 10 minutes, such
each chocolate sample are shown in
that a suspension of the non fat-
D[v,
0.1]
D[v, 0.5]
D[v, 0.9]
figure 2. The three samples have
soluble solid components was
(μm)
(μm)
(μm)
very similar median particle sizes,
produced. The samples were then
seen in the D[v, 0.5] values shown
Brand
8.747 21.68
46.77
diluted to a concentration suitable for
in Table 1. However, there are
# 1
the analysis and 2ml of the
significant differences in the size
suspension was injected into the
distributions for the three samples.
Brand
8.230 23.69
39,76
Morphologi G3’s wet cell accessory
This is particularly evident in the
# 2
(Figure 1). The wet cell has two glass
D[v, 0.9] values which show that
windows separated by a 250 μm
Brand
9.835 22.23
33.75
Brand #3 has a significantly smaller
gasket spacer and held together by a
# 3
proportion of very large particles
magnetic clamping assembly. It is
than the other two brands. This result
designed to take a fixed volume of a
is consistent with the fact that Brand
liquid suspension.
#3 is marketed as a luxury brand, and
therefore the consumer would expect
that the chocolate feels ‘smoother’ in
the mouth.

1
Morphologi G3 application note MRK1223-01





Figure 2: Volume weighted particle size distributions for the 3 chocolate samples along with example particle images.
A similar trend is also seen in the
It is possible to filter the results post
Differences are also observed in the
Elongation distributions for the three
analysis in order to concentrate only
convexity distributions for the larger
samples as shown in Figure 4. Brand
on particles meeting certain criteria. In
than 20 µm fractions of the samples,
#1 has a lower Elongation than the
this case a further post-analysis filter
which were not apparent when
two other brands, which again
was applied to remove particles
including all particles (figure 7). The
indicates either ingredients of a
images with a CE Diameter of less
leading brand appears to have
different origin, or different processing
than 20 µm from the results.
particles with different convexity (edge
such as milling for example.
Interesting, trends were found in the
roughness) than the two other brands.
Mean Intensity of the particles which
This might again be related to
A qualitative view of the particle
are not apparent when all of the
different processing.
images for all three samples, shown
particle images are included.
in figure 5 appears to agree with the

Generally the leading brand’s
overall trend that the particles in
particles are darker than the others

Brand #1 particles have a different
and the standard deviation of the
morphology than the particles in
Mean Intensity is higher. The luxury

Brand #2 and Brand #3. In the
brand shows the lowest standard
Morphologi G3 experiment, images of
deviation of mean intensity perhaps,
all particles are stored (in this case
reflecting more homogeneous
30,000 per measurement) and can be
ingredients. The supermarket brand
compared in terms of size and shape
has the lightest particles overall -
parameters across the measured
probably due to a higher sugar
samples.
content.

2
Morphologi G3 application note MRK1223-01





Figure 3: HS Circularity distributions for the three
Figure 4: Elongation distributions for the three chocolate
chocolate samples.
samples.



a) Brand # 1
b) Brand # 2
c) Brand # 3
Figure 5: Images of the largest particles analyzed in each of the three chocolate samples.



Figure 6: Intensity Mean distributions for the three chocolate
Figure 7: Convexity undersize distributions for the three
samples.
chocolate samples.







3
Morphologi G3 application note MRK1223-01




Conclusions
The Morphologi G3 equipped with the
wet cell accessory can successfully
be used to measure size and shape
and of particles in different samples of
chocolate as well as the intensity of
the particle images. Differences in
terms of size, shape and intensity
could be seen between these three
samples, which with sufficient
information could be correlated with
subjective quality tests such as
‘mouth feel’.



1 Chocolate characterisation
using the Mastersizer 2000,
www.malvern.co.uk/malvern/kbase.nsf/
allbyno/KB000890/$file/MRK672-
01_Chocolate_applcation_note.pdf
Malvern Instruments Ltd
Enigma Business Park • Grovewood Road • Malvern • Worcestershire • UK • WR14 1XZ
Tel: +44 (0)1684 892456 • Fax: +44 (0)1684 892789
Malvern Instruments Worldwide
Sales and service centers in over 50 countries for details visit www.malvern.com/contact
© Malvern Instruments Ltd 2009

more information at www.malvern.com
4
Morphologi G3 application note MRK1223-01



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