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Applying Software Development Paradigms to Open Educational Resources

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This article is a case study in the development of the OER Handbook1 on the website WikiEducator. WikiEducator is a website run by the Commonwealth of Learning dedicated to the creation of OER for the classroom. Open educational resources2 are defined as content that is licensed that allows for modification and distribution without the copyright holder's permission. The handbook is meant to guide educators (an admittedly broad category) in finding, creating, adapting and sharing open educational resources. Parallels are drawn between the development of the OER Handbook and typical open source software development, especially in the development of a polished product. The idea of open texts having a release cycle similar to open source software is explored. Comparisons between how open source software handles errors and feedback from users are analysed with similar functionality in the OER Handbook project. Difficulties in wiki development, such as renaming of pages, organizing pages, formatting text and image manipulation are outlined, though it is noted that many wiki projects are successful. The suggestion to use Subversion, well-known tool for managing software development, as a model for a new tool to develop OER is also addressed. This paper discusses the similarities between the software development process and tools with OER creation and provides best practices from both perspectives.
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Applying Software Development Paradigms to Open Educational
Resources

Seth Gurell
Center for Open and Sustainable Learning, Utah State University


Summary
This article is a case study in the development of the OER Handbook1 on the website
WikiEducator. WikiEducator is a website run by the Commonwealth of Learning dedicated to
the creation of OER for the classroom. Open educational resources2 are defined as content that
is licensed that al ows for modification and distribution without the copyright holder's
permission. The handbook is meant to guide educators (an admittedly broad category) in
finding, creating, adapting and sharing open educational resources. Parallels are drawn
between the development of the OER Handbook and typical open source software
development, especially in the development of a polished product. The idea of open texts
having a release cycle similar to open source software is explored. Comparisons between how
open source software handles errors and feedback from users are analysed with similar
functionality in the OER Handbook project.

Difficulties in wiki development, such as renaming of pages, organizing pages, formatting text
and image manipulation are outlined, though it is noted that many wiki projects are successful.
The suggestion to use Subversion, well-known tool for managing software development, as a
model for a new tool to develop OER is also addressed. This paper discusses the similarities
between the software development process and tools with OER creation and provides best
practices from both perspectives.

Keywords: OER, open source, wiki, educational resources, open texts


1 Background

Before launching into a discussion of a OER Handbook project it is a appropriate to give
background on WikiEducator3. Though WikiEducator uses the same MediaWiki4 software as
Wikipedia, Wikibooks, etc., each wiki carries its own history and culture that influences the
dynamics of content creation.

1.1 WikiEducator

WikiEducator has its origins within the Commonwealth of Learning (COL)5, which is an
intergovernmental organization dedicated to e-Learning. At the time Wikimedia, Inc., creators of
Wikipedia, Wikibooks and WikiNews, was struggling with the placement educational materials
beyond encyclopedia entries. Wayne Mackintosh, a member of COL, didn't find a website that
completely matched his vision, though there were many good OER sites available. So he
created WikiEducator as a means of creating, distributing and promoting OER. The website
went online May 2006 (Mackintosh, 2007).

1
http://www.wikieducator.org/OER_Handbook/educator
2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources
3
http://www.wikieducator.org
4
http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki
5
http://www.col.org/colweb/site

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Since its inception, WikiEducator has boasted high number of active contributors in comparison
to other larger wiki projects (Mackintosh, 2008). The result is an amicable community that is
supportive of newcomers questions, technical or otherwise.

1.2 OER Handbook

The OER Handbook project was initiated by the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning
(COSL)6 with funding by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation7. The purpose of the project,
in the author's words was “to provide a beginner's guide to creating OER material.” In the
handbook, OER is defined as “educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi,
instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and
sharing” (Gurell, 2008). In this paper, OER specifical y refers to largely text projects, such as
textbooks, though the author recognizes that images often accompany these projects. The
audience is educators in general who have a basic understanding. The goal is provide a
general overview of OER development and distribution, though it is only an introduction.
Depending on the OER being produced, educators will need to learn new software and consult
with their institution's legal department.

The project was announced on Wiley's (2008) blog in January. WikiEducator was chosen as the
host site, because of its activity, licensing and the willingness of the Commonwealth of Learning
to assist in the project.

The handbook is organized around the OER life cycle developed by Wiley (2008) and Tucker
(2008). The idea behind the OER life cycle is that the development, use and distribution of OER
follows a general pattern. The author and Wiley chose the OER life cycle as the foundation for
the OER Handbook, because it provides a simple, cyclical method of OER production.
However, it is important to note that there is no definitive method of creating OER; the life cycle
is just one proposed strategy.

The initial version of the life cycle was created by Wiley and approved by the author in January
2008. The final version was created by input from the author, Wiley and Tucker through
discussion both online at WikiEducator and in face-to-face discussion in June 2008. Since the
handbook was organized according to the OER lifecycle, it was necessary to finalize a version
of the life cycle in time for publishing in August 2008. In a sense, the word “final” is somewhat
misleading, as the author expects the OER life cycle go through future iterations as more
research is conducted. The following table shows what was originally written on WikiEducator
about the life cycle compared to the version included in the life cycle.

Phase of Cycle
Initial Final
Get: Searching and finding OER. Getting OER
Find: start by looking for suitable resources which
may include using search engines, repositories
contribute to meeting the need or satisfying the
and finding individual websites. Some potential
desire. This may include using general search
OER material is not online, including things like
engines, searching specific repositories and finding
class projects. This handbook will show you how
individual websites. Some potential components
find quality OER materials.
may be available offline, including last year's

lecture notes, class projects, handouts for learners
and other resources prepared previously.
Localize: Localizing is a complex topic. Essentially Compose: with a collection of resources at your
localizing means making a resource more useful to disposal, start piecing them together to form a
a particular situation. For example, translating
learning resource for yourself, your fellow
instruction from one language to another.
educators and/or learners. This is a creative design

process of building an educational resource from
scratch and/or using components you have found.

6
http://cosl.usu.edu
7
http://www.hewlett.org/Default.htm

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Remix: Remixing is the act of taking two OER
Adapt: while composing OER, it will nearly always
materials and merging them to form a new OER.
be necessary to adapt components to your local
Arguably, remixing is one of the most enjoyable
context. This may involve minor corrections and
parts of OER.
improvements, remixing components, localization

and even complete rework for use in diverse
contexts.
Use: This section covers the actual use of OER.
Use: the actual use of OER in the

classroom,online,during informal learning activities,
etc.

Share: once an OER is finished, make it available
for the open education community to re-use and
begin the life cycle again.
License: Covers Creative Commons and GFDL
License: select a license based on how the OER is
licenses. Also explains the differences between
intended to be used and personal values.
Creative Commons licenses. The handbook will not
advocate one particular license over another, but
instead provide multiple perspectives, because
which license you choose is a personal choice.
Redistribute: Once the OER is finished it should be
distributed and made available for the open
education community to begin the lifecycle again.


Illustration 1. Illustration of the OER lifecycle from the OER Handbook

1.3 The relationship between FOSS and OER

Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)8 and OER have long been intertwined. There have
been some who have suggested that OER is best created by FOSS (Tucker, 2007).

But the relationship between FOSS and OER is not unidirectional. Stallman, often considered
one of the founders of the free software movement, offered the idea of a free online
encyclopedia prior to Wikipedia (Stallman, 2008).

Once open source software appeared, corresponding open documentation was not far behind.
That documentation has varied formats over time, but in general, it is tied to the software
release. For example, if Software X was a .5 Alpha release, then the documentation would be at

8
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOSS

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.5 Alpha as well. Software in its early stages might only have a plain text file, with eventual
growth into a multi-page guide, some even with screenshots or screencasts.

As the construction of the OER Handbook will show, this process-oriented model of
development can be applied to OER development.

2 Document Development Following Software Development

During initial talks in December between the author and Wiley regarding the development of the
OER Handbook, the goal was set to have a print version of the handbook available by the Open
Education 2008 Conference9 in September. A rough timeline was laid out, complete with
milestones. In this respect it was a very traditional single-iteration publishing plan with very little
thought was given beyond the September release.

Despite this traditional publishing plan, software analogies still appeared. In April, when asked
to describe the state of the handbook, the author described it as being “definitely not a Beta, but
probably an Alpha release.” In retrospect, the author chose this analogy because its audience
was familiar with software development and that it was far more accurate of the situation. One
alternative, a percentage, is inaccurate because it tends to indicate a complete, finalized status
is possible. A percentage may be appropriate for software documentation when it meant to
correspond with software or a novel. But with educational materials, a clear end-goals are not
always apparent, and an analogy to open source development is more appropriate.

The unconscious move towards an open source software development model was not simply a
matter of familiarity or coincidence. An open source software development model provides
affordances not granted to by a traditional publishing model. These affordances are necessary
to provide the efficiency needed for OER, particularly open textbooks, to become more
widespread.

2.1 Advantages of a Software Model

The first advantage is that conveys the understanding that
the material presented in constantly under development.
This understanding is particularly important when the
material is being developed on a wiki in which pages may
changed by any one member of a “flat10” community (in the
case of Wikipedia it can be virtually anyone).



Illustration 2. Sample software cycle.
Note that there is no single
model for software development


The second advantage is that conveys information about
completion without promising an end state. Indeed, having a
version 1.0 almost implicitly suggests the possibility of a
version 2.0. Authors and contributors can use 'Alpha,' 'Beta,'
and perhaps even 'Release Candidate' and 'Gold Master'
statuses to give readers an quick understanding of where
development stands11.


9
http://cosl.usu.edu/events/opened2008
10
http://www.thomaslfriedman.com/bookshelf/the-world-is-flat-3
11
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_release_life_cycle

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The third advantage is that it allows for the idea forks or branches from the main document.
Allowing for this idea in document development is important because open licenses, such as
the GFDL12 and some Creative Commons licenses13, are designed specifically for remixing and
reuse. Different versions of the same OER allows for better accommodation of diverse
audiences and matches the flexibility found in open source software. Development of
educational materials may be aided if reuse is considered forks with the option for merging.
Other projects are already exploring these ideas, such as CSCL's FLE3.

That is not to say that the software development analogy isn't without its deficits. Although open
source software is gaining adoption, the finer points of the development model are not
necessarily as widely known. Therefore, some of the information communicated through
borrowing software development terminology is not necessarily understood. Another
disadvantage is that the more formalized the OER development process, the higher likelihood it
will stifle creativity.

2.2 Issue Tracker

If open texts are developed using open source software development models, then it is only
appropriate that some of the support mechanisms used in open source software are used by
open texts. One of the most common features of an open source software program is a bug
tracker. A bug tracker is web page or web application in which problems with are listed.
Typically they include some type of status indication so anyone can see if a bug is in the
process of being fixed. There are multiple programs that automate the bug tracking process for
developers, many of them open source themselves.

For the OER Handbook it was necessary to create an issue tracker. Mediawiki software always
has a “Talk” page accompanying a content page to allow for discussion, debate and
coordination of a page. But as the OER Handbook was being developed issues arose that
applied to multiple pages, necessitating a place in which they could be discussed on a single
page. An 'issue tracker' was created. It was a single page on the Table of Contents in which
anyone could submit issues that span multiple pages within the document. A single issue
consisted of the following parts:

? Issue: a brief 3-10 word description of the problem.
? Submitter: who is placing the issue in the tracker
? Date submitted: when the issue was first put in the tracker (though relevant discussion
may have already occurred).
? Date Completed: when the issue was resolved.
? Comments: brief elaboration on the problem as well as any comments. Writers starting
using the automated signature feature next to their comments to clarify who is making
them and provide a time-stamp.


12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GFDL
13
http://creativecommons.org

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Illustration 3. Screenshot of Issue Tracker.


The formatting of the issue was not uniform, but similar. Some submitters chose to simply use
the time-stamp in their signature rather than a Date submitted field. However, the overall idea
was the same. Each section was separated by a horizontal lines. Shortly after the issue tracker
was created it was was separated into two sections: one for 'open' or outstanding issues, and
one for 'closed' or completed section. By using headings for the issue field, a hyperlinked table
of contents was automatically generated.

Though the issue tracker was help in project management, it was slightly frustrating to add an
issue. Each issue, included formatting, needed to be manually edited into the page.
Occasionally, a line break or link would be forgotten. Mackintosh, the head of WikiEduator,
purposed automating the process through the use of a form. Unfortunately, there was
insufficient time and resources to create the form during the development of the first version of
the OER Handbook.

2.3 Future Editions

Besides a bug tracker, another common feature in open source software development is the
feature request. A feature request is a suggestion for functionality to be added to a program. In
the case of the OER Handbook, a future editions page was added to capture potential
improvements for future editions of the handbook.

With open source projects the feature request guides future development. But feature requests
also provide an equally important function: prioritization of issues, problems and concerns. Prior
to the addition of the future editions page there was pressure on project participants to solve
every disagreement and concern before creating the first print version. Once participants took a
more procedural, and less product oriented view of the OER Handbook, issues began to be

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divided into what could be done for the first version and what should be done in subsequent
versions.

It is important to note that there is a difference between the feature request and future edition
suggestions. Feature requests, in general, are very incremental suggestions, such as
interoperability with a particular website or service. Future edition requests may involve very
drastic changes to an OER. For example, one of the contributors to the OER Handbook
proposed several significant changes to the OER life cycle that governed the organization of the
handbook. Though these changes were interesting and brought up good points about OER
development, implementing these changes in time for the first version of the handbook would
have been very difficult. Instead, changes that can be easily implemented are incorporated into
the current version of the handbook and rest are put in the future editions page, as well as links
to relevant discussion and sources.

3 Best Practices

These practices can be generalized to other OER development. One of the best practices in
OER is to have intermediate goals, such as a version 1.0. Setting realistic goals is important, as
creating OER in addition to other responsibilities can be very demanding. Occasional
milestones also provide opportunities to reflect and determine the future direction of the OER.
When creating these goals it is important to include volunteers who contribute to the OER, as
they will want to inform any decisions that take place. It is also advantageous to keep the
development process as open as possible. As the OER Handbook was being developed,
people across the world took note of the project and found that it informed their own endeavors
while simultaneously encouraging the author.

4 The Next Generation of Tools

Though elements of the wiki have been extremely beneficial to the development of the OER
Handbook, development was not without difficulties. For example, the authors found difficulty
with ensuring naming consistency between page titles, URLs and template names. Wikis tend
to support a flat page hierarchy, meaning any page is accessible from any other page, and
there was some disagreement about how to organize the pages. Linking across deeply nested
pages can be confusing, at least to the beginner. Image and table manipulation also has a
learning curve. Pages, if incorrectly moved, do not keep their reversion history. RSS14 and
Atom15 standards, because of security, are difficult to implement. None of these challenges
suggest that wikis cannot be used for development. Indeed, the success of WikiEducator,
Wikiversity and Wikibooks would indicate that wikis can be used to develop OER successfully.

But given the difficulties of working with wikis, it may be time to evaluate what kinds of tools are
needed. Mediawiki software, because it is open source, can be modified and adapted to
address some of these concerns, and plugins can be added to provide additional functionality.
However, adding plugins to any software is known to reduce stability and coordinating
functionality across plugins can be demanding.

Therefore, an entirely new software tool, specifically designed for OER, may be warranted.
Such a tool would have the advantage of being built with the best practices and needs of
previous OER projects. Given the wide variety of contexts in which OER are designed for,
software management would need to be capable in handling a wide variety of organizations and
writing styles.

In open source software, one of the most popular programs for managing different versions of
software is Subversion16. Subversion was created by CollabNet, Inc.17 in 2000. It was meant to

14
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS
15
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom_(standard)
16
http://subversion.tigris.org/

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succeed CVS, which was the popular version control program at the time. CVS, though
popular, had limitations and problems, necessitating a replacement (Collins-Sussman,
Fitzpatrick, & Pilato, 2007). Subversion allows for flexibility in file organization and handles
both text and image files. Text files, usually the source code, can be compared and merged.
Dozens of people can contribute to a single project in a productive manner, but repositories are
generally open access, allowing anyone to view or download.

OER are already in development using Subversion. KnowledgeForge18 hosts several projects,
some of which are designed to create open texts. However, this approach is not perfect. In
order for a Subversion-like open text development tool to be successful, it needs to improve on
subversion and have a simple user interface. Subversion can used in two ways: at the line-
command (similar to the MS-DOS prompt of computers from the 1980s and early 1990s), or
through GUI19. The GUI is usually part of IDE, or Integrated Development Environment20, such
as Eclipse21. Unfortunately, even these interfaces can be confusing for beginners. Problems
configuring Subversion in the first place can be difficult as well as committing changes to the
repository. A WYSIWG (What You See Is What You Get) interface, similar to a word processor,
would be preferable to learning a markup language. Initial instal ation may be unavoidably
complex, but changing the repository should be fairly straightforward. Other improvements
would have be changed as new practices and preferences develop. Although it does not
incorporate all of the features, the web application Beanstalk22 is a step towards this type of
tool.

Final y, in addition to a simpler development process, themes should be customizable. Though
potentially infinite customization is possible of MediaWiki software, the resulting book should be
able to be displayed as a web page, through custom themes, much like a WordPress
template23.

5 Conclusion

The future success of open text development will be based on its ability to derive the best tools
and practices of “Web 2.0” technologies. Open source software development has intriguing
parallels that offer a perspective on how collaborative projects can be successfully managed
and coordinated. Although it is important to note that creativity should still be considered a part
of the By improving on these processes, and contextualizing them for open education, an
important part of achieving critical mass will be reached.

References

Collins-Sussman, B., Fitzpatrick, B.W. & Pilato, M.C. (2007). What is Subversion? Version Control with
Subversion. Retrieved June 29, 2008 from http://svnbook.redbean.com/en/1.4/svn.intro.whatis.html

Gurell, S. (2008). Defining OER. The OER Handbook Version 1.0. Retrieved August 31, 2008, from
http://www.wikieducator.org/OER_Handbook/educator_version_one/Introduction/Defining_OER

Mackintosh, W. (2008). 4,000+ users; congratulations on another milestone, retrieved June 29, 2008
from http://groups.google.com/group/wikieducator/browse_thread/thread/8138d4e80c57b74e?hl=en

Mackintosh, W. (2007). WikiEducator: Memoirs, myths, misrepresentations and the magic, retrieved June
29, 2008 from http://blog.worldcampus.psu.edu/index.php/2007/04/04/wikieducator/


17
http://www.collab.net/
18
http://www.knowledgeforge.net/
19
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUI
20
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/interactive%20development%20environment
21
http://wiki.eclipse.org/FAQ_Where_did_Eclipse_come_from%3F
22
http://www.beanstalkapp.com
23
http://wordpress.org/extend/themes/

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Stallman, Richard. (Last updated 2008 June 28). The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Project.
Retrieved June 29, 2007 from http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html

Tucker, K. (2007). FLOSS, OER and Digital Inclusion, retrieved June 29, 2008 from
http://blog.worldcampus.psu.edu/index.php/2007/05/02/floss-oer-equality-and-digital-inclusion/

Tucker, K. (2008). Personal communication.

Wiley, D. (2008 January 17). OER Handbook. Iterating Towards Openness. Retrieved August 31, 2008
from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/440

Wiley, D. (2008 January). Personal communication.



Author


Seth Gurell
Graduate Assistant
Center for Open and Sustainable Learning, Utah State University
sethgurell@gmail.com



Copyrights

The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 2.5 licence.
They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the e-journal that
publishes them, eLearning Papers, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not
permitted. The full licence can be consulted on http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-
nd/2.5/


Edition and production

Name of the publication: eLearning Papers
ISSN: 1887-1542
Publisher: elearningeuropa.info
Edited by: P.A.U. Education, S.L.
Postal address: C/ Muntaner 262, 3º, 08021 Barcelona, Spain
Telephone: +34 933 670 400
Email: editorial@elearningeuropa.info
Internet: www.elearningpapers.eu







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