Army Regulation 600–100
Department of the Army
8 March 2007
SUMMARY of CHANGE
This major revision, dated 8 March 2007--
o Updates the definition of leadership and introduces the concept of the
Pentathlete (para 1-4).
o Adds the Army Values, Warrior Ethos, Soldiers Creed, and the Civilian Creed
o Adds Core Leader Competencies (para 1-6).
o Updates the levels of leadership (para 1-7).
o Adds the Leader Development Model; updates the three leader development
domains; and adds counseling, coaching, and mentorship as tools for
development, assessment, and feedback (para 1-8).
o Designates additional Army Leadership responsibilities (paras 2-2, 2-10, 2-
12, 2-18, 2-20).
o Updates appendix A and glossary.
*Army Regulation 600–100
Department of the Army
8 March 2007
Effective 22 March 2007
m a y m o d i f y c h a p t e r s a n d p o l i c i e s c o n -
this regulation and establishment of com-
tained in this regulation.
mand and local forms are prohibited with-
Proponent and exception authority.
o u t p r i o r a p p r o v a l f r o m H e a d q u a r t e r s ,
The proponent of this regulation is the
D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e A r m y , A T T N :
Deputy Chief of Staff, G–1. The propo-
DAPE–HRI, 300 Army Pentagon, Wash-
nent has the authority to approve excep-
ington, DC 20310–0300.
tions or waivers to this regulation that are
consistent with controlling law and regu-
lations. The proponent may delegate this
invited to send comments and suggested
approval authority, in writing, to a divi-
improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recom-
sion chief within the proponent agency or
m e n d e d C h a n g e s t o P u b l i c a t i o n s a n d
its direct reporting unit or field operating
Blank Forms) directly to the Deputy Chief
agency, in the grade of colonel or the
of Staff, G–1, ATTN: Human Resources
civilian equivalent. Activities may request
P o l i c y D i r e c t o r a t e ( D A P E – H R I ) , 3 0 0
a waiver to this regulation by providing
A r m y P e n t a g o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D C
justification that includes a full analysis of
H i s t o r y . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s a m a j o r
t h e e x p e c t e d b e n e f i t s a n d m u s t i n c l u d e
f o r m a l r e v i e w b y t h e a c t i v i t y ’ s s e n i o r
Distribution. This publication is availa-
S u m m a r y . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s
legal officer. All waiver requests will be
ble in electronic media only and is in-
Army leadership policy and sets forth re-
e n d o r s e d b y t h e c o m m a n d e r o r s e n i o r
tended for command levels A, B, C, D,
sponsibilities for all aspects of leadership
leader of the requesting activity and for-
and E for the Active Army, the Army
and leader development policy, doctrine,
warded through their higher headquarters
National Guard/Army National Guard of
training, and research.
t o t h e p o l i c y p r o p o n e n t . R e f e r t o A R
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d t h e U . S . A r m y
25–30 for specific guidance.
Applicability. This regulation applies to
t h e A c t i v e A r m y , t h e A r m y N a t i o n a l
Army management control process.
Guard/Army National Guard of the United
This regulation contains management con-
States, and the U.S. Army Reserve, unless
trol provisions, but does not identify key
otherwise stated. This regulation also ap-
m a n a g e m e n t c o n t r o l s t h a t m u s t b e
plies to the Department of the Army civil-
ians. During mobilization, the proponent
S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n . S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f
Contents (Listed by paragraph and page number)
General, page 1
Purpose • 1–1, page 1
References • 1–2, page 1
Explanation of abbreviations and terms • 1–3, page 1
Leadership overview • 1–4, page 1
Army Culture and leadership • 1–5, page 1
Core leader competencies • 1–6, page 3
Leadership levels • 1–7, page 3
Leader development • 1–8, page 4
*This publication supersedes AR 600–100, 17 September 1993.
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
Responsibilities, page 6
General • 2–1, page 6
Secretary of the Army • 2–2, page 6
Chief of Staff, Army • 2–3, page 6
Deputy Chief of Staff, G–1 • 2–4, page 6
Commanding General, Human Resources Command • 2–5, page 7
Director, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences • 2–6, page 7
Deputy Chief of Staff, G–3/5/7 • 2–7, page 7
Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command • 2–8, page 7
Commanding General, U.S. Army Accessions Command/Deputy Commanding General, Initial Military Training
• 2–9, page 8
Commanding General, Combined Arms Support Command • 2–10, page 8
Commanding General, Combined Arms Center/Commandant, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College
• 2–11, page 8
Director, Center for Army Leadership • 2–12, page 9
Commandant, U.S. Army War College • 2–13, page 9
Superintendent, United States Military Academy • 2–14, page 10
Chief of Military History • 2–15, page 10
The Inspector General • 2–16, page 10
The Judge Advocate General • 2–17, page 10
Chief of Chaplains • 2–18, page 10
The Surgeon General/Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command • 2–19, page 10
Chief, National Guard Bureau • 2–20, page 11
State Adjutants General • 2–21, page 11
Chief, Army Reserve • 2–22, page 11
Commanders • 2–23, page 11
References, page 12
Figure 1–1: Army Values, page 2
Figure 1–2: Warrior Ethos, page 2
Figure 1–3: Soldier’s Creed, page 2
Figure 1–4: Civilian Creed, page 3
Figure 1–5: Army training and leader development process, page 5
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
a. Establishes Army policy for leadership, by defining key terms associated with leadership, assigning responsibili-
ties for management of leadership policy, and clarifying responsibilities and definitions among the Army leadership
policy proponent, Deputy Chief of Staff (DCS), G–1, the Army leader development policy proponent (DCS, G–3/5/7),
and the Center for Army Leadership proponent, the United States (US) Army Training and Doctrine Command/
Combined Arms Center (TRADOC/CAC) with the goal of successfully synchronizing all leadership and leader
b. Provides direction and guidance to the Center for Army Leadership (CAL) (through TRADOC/CAC) for
research, doctrine development, leadership assessment, training, and evaluation in all areas pertaining to Army
Required and related publications and prescribed and referenced forms are listed in appendix A.
1–3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms
Abbreviations and terms used in this regulation are explained in the glossary.
1–4. Leadership overview
a. The Army defines leadership as influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation, while
operating to accomplish the mission and improve the organization.
b. The Department of the Army (DA) mission is to provide necessary forces and capabilities to combatant
commanders to support national security and defense strategies. The Army’s strategic objectives clearly state the
Army’s purpose: provide relevant and ready land power for the 21st century security environment; train and equip
Soldiers to serve as warriors and grow as adaptive leaders; sustain an all-volunteer force composed of highly competent
Soldiers that are provided an equally high quality of life; and provide infrastructure and support to enable the force to
fulfill its strategic roles and missions. The means of this strategy are people more specifically, leaders. This regulation
focuses on leaders at all levels and in all cohorts: officers, warrant officers, noncommissioned officers, Soldiers, and
DA civilians. These leaders represent the means for the Army to achieve its desired end.
c. The DA develops competent and multifaceted military and civilian leaders who personify the Army values and
the warrior ethos in all aspects from warfighting, to statesmanship, to enterprise management. The Army develops
qualities in its leaders to enable them to respond effectively to what they will face. The DA describes the leaders it is
creating as “Pentathletes,” whose versatility and athleticism - qualities that reflect the essence of our Army - will
enable them to learn and adapt in ambiguous situations in a constantly evolving environment. Pentathlete leaders are
innovative, adaptive, and situationally aware professionals who demonstrate character in everything that they do, are
experts in the profession of arms, boldly confront uncertainty, and solve complex problems. They are decisive and
prudent risk takers who effectively manage, lead, and change organizations. Pentathletes are professionally educated,
and dedicated to lifelong learning; resilient, mentally and physically agile, empathetic, and self-aware; and confidently
lead Soldiers and civilians, build teams, and achieve the Army’s over-arching strategic goals, while engendering loyalty
d. Leaders must be able to operate independently in an ambiguous, dynamic, and politically sensitive environment.
Leaders at all levels must be able to communicate, coordinate, and negotiate with a variety of personnel, including joint
and coalition forces, interagency partners, nongovernmental organizations, local leaders, U.S. and foreign media,
civilians, contractors, and people of different cultures and languages.
e. Leaders must maintain tactical and technical competence, as applicable in their designated fields; keep abreast of,
and remain adept in advances in information technology; and maintain their knowledge of the standards of conduct,
policy, law, rules of engagement, and the Geneva Conventions.
f. Leaders must be competent, full spectrum warfighters, and professionals who understand the strategic implications
of their actions, behaviors, and decisions on Army, Department of Defense (DOD), and national objectives. They must
understand that failure to act can impede operational progress by delaying development and delivery of required
resources, through increased anti-American sentiment and enemy resistance, and by strengthening the appeal of ideas
propagated by U.S. adversaries. Leaders must reinforce the view that actions which are counter to Army values and the
standards of conduct can compromise the nation’s strategic objectives. Requirements of today’s leaders are extensive
but necessary, given the contemporary operating environment (COE) in which they will lead.
1–5. Army Culture and leadership
a. Army culture is a consequence of customs, traditions, ideals, ethos, values, and norms of conduct that have
existed for more than 230 years. DA culture promotes certain norms of conduct, and leaders who manage operations
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
affected by the law of land warfare, require the highest level of individual and organizational discipline and moral
values. The law of land warfare, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and the standards of conduct structure the
discipline imperative to which leaders must adhere. The moral and ethical tenets of the U.S. Constitution, the
Declaration of Independence, and the Army Values (figure 1–1) characterize the Army’s professionalism and culture,
and describe the ethical standards expected of all Army leaders.
Figure 1–1. Army Values
b. Army culture includes a unique service ethic expected of every Soldier to make personal sacrifices in selfless
service to the nation. Commitment to this ideal is embodied in the Warrior Ethos (figure 1–2). Army leaders develop
and sustain the Warrior Ethos through discipline, realistic training, commitment to the Army Values, and pride in the
Army’s heritage. Soldiers show their commitment to these guiding values and standards by willingly performing their
duty and subordinating their personal welfare without expecting reward or recognition. Everything Soldiers do for the
nation is supported by Army civilians and family members; consequently, Army leaders are committed to developing
values-based leadership and seeing to the well-being of Soldiers and their families. Combined with the Warrior Ethos,
the Soldiers Creed (figure 1–3) and the Civilian Creed (figure 1–4) embody the Army service ethic.
Figure 1–2. Warrior Ethos
Figure 1–3. Soldier’s Creed
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
Figure 1–4. Civilian Creed
1–6. Core leader competencies
a. To support the Army’s strategic objective - “Trained and Equipped Soldiers and Developed Leaders” - the Army
has identified core leader competencies that pertain to all levels of leadership - military and civilian. Core leader
competencies are related leader behaviors that lead to successful performance, are common throughout the organiza-
tion, and are consistent with the organizational mission and values. Core leader competencies support the Executive
core competencies (ECQs) that civilian leaders are expected to master as they advance in their careers.
b. The following core leader competencies are described in more detail in Field Manual (FM) 6–22.
(1) Leads others: Leaders motivate, inspire, and influence others to take the initiative, work toward a common
purpose, accomplish tasks, and achieve organizational objectives.
(2) Extends influence beyond the chain of command: Leaders must extend their influence beyond direct lines of
authority and chains of command. This influence may extend to joint, interagency, intergovernmental, multinational,
and other groups, and helps shape perceptions about the organization.
(3) Leads by example: Leaders are role models for others. They are viewed as the example and must maintain
standards and provide examples of effective behaviors. When Army leaders model the Army Values, they provide
tangible evidence of desired behaviors and reinforce verbal guidance by demonstrating commitment and action.
(4) Communicate: Leaders communicate by expressing ideas and actively listening to others. Effective leaders
understand the nature and power of communication and practice effective communication techniques so they can better
relate to others and translate goals into actions. Communication is essential to all other leadership competencies.
(5) Creates a positive organizational climate: Leaders are responsible for establishing and maintaining positive
expectations and attitudes, which produce the setting for positive attitudes and effective work behaviors.
(6) Prepares self: Leaders are prepared to execute their leadership responsibilities fully. They are aware of their
limitations and strengths and seek to develop and improve their knowledge. Only through preparation for missions and
other challenges, awareness of self and situations, and the practice of lifelong learning and development can individuals
fulfill the responsibilities of leadership.
(7) Develops others: Leaders encourage and support the growth of individuals and teams to facilitate the achieve-
ment of organizational goals. Leaders prepare others to assume positions within the organization, ensuring a more
versatile and productive organization.
(8) Gets results: Leaders provide guidance and manage resources and the work environment, thereby ensuring
consistent and ethical task accomplishment.
1–7. Leadership levels
The three levels of leadership are direct, organizational, and strategic; leader competencies apply to all levels. Each
leadership level has requirements that differ in the mix, scope, depth, and breadth related to the core leader com-
petencies. As leaders progress through the levels, their assignments become more complex and interdependent, and
require more responsibility, accountability, and authority. Leaders at each level must be able to address unanticipated
situations, as many may have to make decisions in stressful situations that can easily have strategic or political
implications. Each leadership level is discussed in greater detail in FM 6–22.
a. Direct level leadership is frontline leadership that includes leaders from squad through battalion levels of tactical
units, and from branch through division levels in Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) organizations. Direct
leaders build cohesive teams, empower subordinates, and develop and execute plans which implement policies and
accomplish missions. The face-to-face interpersonal leadership required at this level influences human behavior, values,
and ethics. Direct-level leaders must develop and refine their analytical and intuitive decision-making techniques;
communication and interpersonal skills; and be able to operate independently - within the limits of the commander’s
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
intent, assigned missions, task organization, and available resources. Direct leaders focus on short-range planning and
mission accomplishment, from 3 months to 1 year or more.
b. Organizational level leadership exists in more complex organizations and includes leaders at brigade through
corps levels, directorate through installation levels (TDA organizations), and assistant through undersecretary of the
Army level. In addition to direct level leader requirements, organizational leaders tailor resources to organizations and
programs, manage multiple priorities, establish long-term vision, and empower others to perform the mission. They
deal with more complexity, more people, greater uncertainty, and a greater number of unintended consequences. Their
influence is exhibited more through policy-making and systems integration than face-to-face contact. Organizational
leaders must be competent in synchronizing systems and organizations and in planning, programming, budgeting, and
execution (PPBE). Their policies influence the command climate, and they must be adept in communication, negotia-
tion, critical reasoning, and interpersonal skills. They must be skilled at complex decision-making and problem solving
and have a good understanding of the entire range of full-spectrum operations. These leaders focus on midrange
planning and mission accomplishment ranging from 1 to 5 years or more.
c. Strategic level leadership exists at the highest levels of the Army and includes military and civilian leaders at
division and corps level through the national level. Strategic leaders set the organizational structure, allocate resources,
and articulate the strategic vision. Strategic leadership involves running the Army; developing strategic plans, policies,
guidance, and laws; determining force structure designs based on future mission requirements and capabilities;
prioritizing over-arching Army programs against competing interests; and articulating Army programs and policies to
the highest levels of DOD and the government. Strategic leaders scan the external environment to maintain focus and
understand the context of future organizational roles. They must be adept in corporate level business management and
prudent managers of taxpayer dollars. They work closely with higher-level leadership and dignitaries, and their
decisions impact the political arena, personnel and resources, and have wide-ranging consequences. In addition to direct
and organizational level responsibilities, strategic leaders must possess knowledge of the force structure change process
and DOD, governmental, and legislative processes. Interpersonal skills must facilitate consensus building, negotiation,
and influence peers and policy makers. Strategic leaders must be adept at complex decision-making, problem solving,
and critical reasoning, and set the example by their words, decisions, and actions. They must convey messages
indicating their professional integrity, priorities, and direction, and that support Army traditions, values, and ethics.
Strategic leaders focus on the long-range vision for their organization ranging from 5 to 20 years or more.
1–8. Leader development
a. Leader development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process, grounded in Army values,
that grows Soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. Leader development
is achieved through lifelong synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through institutional training
and education, organizational training, operational experience, and self-development. Commanders and other organiza-
tional leaders play the key role in leader development that ideally produces competent, confident, and agile leaders who
act with boldness and initiative in dynamic and complex situations.
b. The Army training and leader development model (figure 1–5) identifies important interactions for training
Soldiers and developing leaders. It requires lifelong learning and identifies three developmental domains that shape
critical learning experiences: operational, institutional, and self-development. The model portrays the development of
trained and ready units led by competent and confident leaders, and depicts a continuous cycle of education,
assessment, and feedback. For each domain, specific measurable actions are required and each domain uses assessment
and feedback from various sources to maximize mission readiness and to develop leaders. (See DA Pamphlet (Pam)
350–58 for a detailed discussion of the model.)
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
Figure 1–5. Army training and leader development process
(1) Training and leader development domains. The three domains of leader development (institutional training and
education, operational assignments, and self-development) are dynamic and interconnected. The individual gains
knowledge and skills and enhances abilities at the institution and practices them during operational assignments. Self-
development enhances, sustains, and expands the knowledge, skills, and abilities gained from assignments and institu-
(a) Institutional training and education. The Army’s school system provides leaders with the education (how to
think) and training (how to do) needed to perform duty position requirements. The Army’s progressive, sequential, and
parallel education systems that support Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN) will help ensure future leaders are
armed with the knowledge base they will need to succeed in modular formations. Leaders attend institutional training
courses following appropriate career development models.
(b) Operational assignments. Operational assignments translate theory into practice by placing leaders in positions
to apply the knowledge and skills they acquired during institutional training and education. Repetitive performance of
duty position requirements - coupled with self-awareness, assessment, and feedback - refines leader skills, broadens
knowledge, and shapes attitudes and subsequent behavior.
(c) Self-development. Self-development initiatives focus on maximizing leader strengths, reducing weaknesses, and
achieving individual leader development goals. Self-development is a continuous process that takes place during
institutional training and education, and during operational assignments; it should stretch and broaden the individual
beyond the job or training. Another aspect of self-development that helps Army leaders prepare for future responsibili-
ties and grow professional expertise is civilian education or training at universities or colleges.
(2) The Army training and leader development management process was developed and implemented as a means to
recommend improvements to training and leader development policy, strategy, and capabilities needed to provide
trained and ready Soldiers, leaders, and units to combatant commanders. The management process starts with Councils
of Colonels (COC) and culminates with providing recommendations to the Army leadership through the Training and
Leader Development General Officer Steering Committee (for more information, see DA Pam 350–58).
c. All leaders have a responsibility to develop those junior to them to the fullest extent possible. In addition to
institutional training and education, leaders can facilitate development through the knowledge and feedback they
provide through counseling, coaching, and mentoring.
(1) Counseling. Counseling is a standardized tool used to provide feedback to a subordinate. Counseling focuses on
the subordinate by producing a plan outlining actions the subordinate can take to achieve individual and organizational
goals. It is central to leader development and should be part of a comprehensive program for developing subordinates.
A consistent counseling program includes all subordinates, regardless of the level of each ones potential.
(2) Coaching. The original meaning of coaching refers to the function of helping someone through a set of tasks. In
the military, coaching occurs when a leader guides another persons development in new or existing skills during the
practice of those skills. Unlike mentoring or counseling where the mentor/counselor generally has more experience than
the supported person, coaching relies primarily on teaching and guiding to help bring out and enhance current
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007
capabilities. A coach helps those being coached to understand and appreciate their current level of performance and
their potential, and instructs them on how to reach the next level of knowledge and skill.
(3) Mentorship. Mentorship is the voluntary developmental relationship that exists between a person of greater
experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect. The focus of mentorship
is voluntary mentoring that extends beyond the scope of chain of command relationships and occurs when a mentor
provides the mentee advice and counsel over a period of time. Effective mentorship will positively impact personal and
professional development. Assessment, feedback, and guidance are critical within the mentoring relationship and
should be valued by the mentee in order for growth and development to occur.
d. As future battlefields evolve into increasingly dynamic and fluid environments, systems that facilitate the
acceleration of leader development are needed. The Army training and leader development model and tools, such as
counseling, coaching, and mentorship, are development multipliers that can enhance and influence maturity, self-
awareness, adaptability, and conceptual and team-building skills in all leaders.
Every leader will—
a. Set and exemplify the highest ethical and professional standards as embodied in the Army Values.
b. Accomplish the unit mission.
c. Ensure the physical, moral, personal, and professional wellbeing of subordinates.
d. Effectively communicate vision, purpose, and direction.
e. Build cohesive teams and empower subordinates.
f. Teach, coach, and counsel subordinates.
g. Build discipline while inspiring motivation, confidence, enthusiasm, and trust in subordinates.
h. Develop their own and their subordinates’ skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
i. Anticipate and manage change and be able to act quickly and decisively under pressure.
j. Use initiative to assess risk and exploit opportunities.
k. Treat subordinates with dignity, respect, fairness, and consistency.
l. Foster a healthy command climate.
2–2. Secretary of the Army
The Secretary of the Army is the proponent for civilian Executive and Senior Professional (ESP) management, and will
provide policy, program oversight, guidance, and direction for ESPs Army-wide. The Secretary, or his designated
representative, will objectively manage all ESPs to ensure their professional and leadership development needs are met,
and their assignments fully utilize their skills and capabilities.
2–3. Chief of Staff, Army
The Chief of Staff, Army, will provide for general officer leadership, leader development policy, and training.
2–4. Deputy Chief of Staff, G–1
The leadership mission of the DCS, G–1 is to enhance the readiness of the Army by embedding the human dimension
into all leadership and leader development policies (in coordination with the DCS, G–3/5/7), programs, and initiatives
to better enable the Army to meet its objectives in the joint COE. In order to accomplish this mission, the DCS, G–1
a. Exercise general staff supervision and responsibility for developing and promoting Army leadership policies.
b. Serve as the Army Staff (ARSTAF) policy proponent for both military and civilian leadership, to include
oversight of AR 600–100 and AR 600–89.
c. Serve as ARSTAF proponent for the Civilian Creed.
d. Select points of contact to coordinate with and advise the DCS, G–3/5/7 and the Commandant, Command and
General Staff College, regarding leadership and leader development issues.
e. Participate in or support appropriate leadership and leader development conferences.
f. Coordinate and prioritize leadership research with special emphasis on the activities of the U.S. Army Research
Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI). Approves leadership research conferences that ARI organizes
and conducts with the goal of coordinating research of participating agencies and organizations, and to review findings.
g. Evaluate leadership policies and programs as they affect units and organizations in the field. Approves, schedules,
AR 600–100 • 8 March 2007