Belch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003PrefaceThe Changing World finally begun to acknowledge that this isn’t a recessionwe’re in, and that we’re not going back to the good oldof Advertising and Promotiondays.”Nearly everyone in the modern world is influenced toIn addition to redefining the role and nature of theirsome degree by advertising and other forms of promo-advertising agencies, marketers are changing the waytion. Organizations in both the private and public sectorsthey communicate with consumers. They know they arehave learned that the ability to communicate effectivelyoperating in an environment where advertising messagesand efficiently with their target audiences is critical toare everywhere, consumers channel-surf past most com-their success. Advertising and other types of promotionalmercials, and brands promoted in traditional ways oftenmessages are used to sell products and services as wellfail. New-age advertisers are redefining the notion ofas to promote causes, market political candidates, andwhat an ad is and where it runs. Stealth messages aredeal with societal problems such as alcohol and drugbeing woven into the culture and embedded into moviesabuse. Consumers are finding it increasingly difficult toand TV shows or made into their own form of entertain-avoid the efforts of marketers, who are constantlyment. Many experts argue that “branded content” is thesearching for new ways to communicate with them.wave of the future, and there is a growing movement toMost of the people involved in advertising and promo-reinvent advertising and other forms of marketing com-tion will tell you that there is no more dynamic and fasci-munication to be more akin to entertainment. Companiesnating a field to either practice or study. However, theysuch as BMW, Levi Straus & Co., Nike, and Skyy Spiritswill also tell you that the field is undergoing dramaticare among the marketers using “advertainment” as a waychanges that are changing advertising and promotion for-of reaching consumers: They create short films or com-ever. The changes are coming from all sides—clientsmercials that are shown on their websites.demanding better results from their advertising and pro-Marketers are also changing the ways they allocatemotional dollars; lean but highly creative smaller adtheir promotional dollars. Spending on sales promotionagencies; sales promotion and direct-marketing ﬁrms, asactivities targeted at both consumers and the trade haswell as interactive agencies, which want a larger share ofsurpassed advertising media expenditures for years andthe billions of dollars companies spend each year pro-continues to rise. In his book The End of Marketing asmoting their products and services; consumers who noWe Know It, Sergio Zyman, the former head of market-longer respond to traditional forms of advertising; anding for Coca-Cola, declares traditional marketing is “notnew technologies that may reinvent the very process ofdying, but dead.” He argues that advertising in general isadvertising. As the new millennium begins, we are expe-overrated as part of the marketing mix and notes that allriencing perhaps the most dynamic and revolutionaryelements of the marketing mix communicate, such aschanges of any era in the history of marketing, as well asbrand names, packaging, pricing, and the way a productadvertising and promotion. These changes are being is distributed. The information revolution is exposingdriven by advances in technology and developments thatconsumers to all types of communications, and mar-have led to the rapid growth of communications throughketers need to better understand this process. interactive media, particularly the Internet.A number of factors are impacting the way marketersFor decades the advertising business was dominatedcommunicate with consumers. The audiences that mar-by large, full-service Madison Avenue–type agencies.keters seek, along with the media and methods forThe advertising strategy for a national brand involvedreaching them, have become increasingly fragmented.creating one or two commercials that could be run onAdvertising and promotional efforts have become morenetwork television, a few print ads that would run inregionalized and targeted to specific audiences. Retail-general interest magazines, and some sales promotioners have become larger and more powerful, forcingsupport such as coupons or premium offers. However, inmarketers to shift money from advertising budgets totoday’s world there are a myriad of media outlets—print,sales promotion. Marketers expect their promotionalradio, cable and satellite TV, and the Internet—compet-dollars to generate immediate sales and are demandinging for consumers’ attention. Marketers are lookingmore accountability from their agencies. The Internetbeyond the traditional media to ﬁnd new and better waysrevolution is well under way and the online audience isto communicate with their customers. They no longergrowing rapidly, not only in the United States and West-accept on faith the value of conventional advertisingern Europe but in many other countries as well. Manyplaced in traditional media. The large agencies are rec-companies are coordinating all their communicationsognizing that they must change if they hope to survive inefforts so that they can send cohesive messages to theirthe 21st century. Keith Reinhard, chairman and CEO ofcustomers. Some companies are building brands withDDB Worldwide, notes that the large agencies “havelittle or no use of traditional media advertising. ManyviBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003advertising agencies have acquired, started, or becomeuse. We have tried not to overburden you with defini-affiliated with sales promotion, direct-marketing, inter-tions, although we do call out those that are especiallyactive agencies, and public relations companies to betterimportant to your understanding of the material.serve their clients’ marketing communications needs.We also remember that as students we were not reallyTheir clients have become “media-neutral” and are ask-excited about theory. But to fully understand how inte-ing that they consider whatever form of marketing com-grated marketing communications works, it is necessarymunication works best to target market segments andto establish some theoretical basis. The more you under-build long-term reputations and short-term sales.stand about how things are supposed to work, the easierThis text will introduce students to this fast-changingit will be for you to understand why they do or do notfield of advertising and promotion. While advertising isturn out as planned.its primary focus, it is more than just an introductoryPerhaps the question students ask most often is, “Howadvertising text because there is more to most organiza-do I use this in the real world?” In response, we providetions’ promotional programs than just advertising. Thenumerous examples of how the various theories and con-changes discussed above are leading marketers and theircepts in the text can be used in practice. A particularagencies to approach advertising and promotion from anstrength of this text is the integration of theory with prac-integrated marketing communications (IMC) perspec-tical application. Nearly every day an example of adver-tive, which calls for a “big picture” approach to planningtising and promotion in practice is reported in the media.marketing and promotion programs and coordinating theWe have used many sources, such as Advertising Age,various communication functions. To understand theAdweek, Brandweek, The Wall Street Journal, Business-role of advertising and promotion in today’s businessWeek, Fortune, Forbes, Sales & Marketing Manage-world, one must recognize how a firm can use all thement, Business 2.0, eMarketer, The Internet Advertisingpromotional tools to communicate with its customers.Report, Promo, and many others, to ﬁnd practical exam-ples that are integrated throughout the text. We have spo-To the Student: Preparing ken with hundreds of people about the strategies andrationale behind the ads and other types of promotionsYou for the New World of we use as examples. Each chapter begins with a vignetteAdvertising and Promotionthat presents an example of an advertising or promo-tional campaign or other interesting insights. EverySome of you are taking this course to learn more aboutchapter also contains several IMC Perspectives thatthis fascinating ﬁeld; many of you hope to work in adver-present in-depth discussions of particular issues relatedtising or some other promotional area. The changes in theto the chapter material and show how companies areindustry have profound implications for the way today’susing integrated marketing communications. Globalstudent is trained and educated. You will not be workingPerspectives are presented throughout the text in recog-for the same kind of communication agencies that existednition of the increasing importance of international mar-5 or 10 years ago. If you work on the client side of theketing and the challenges of advertising and promotionbusiness, you will ﬁnd that the way they approach adver-and the role they play in the marketing programs oftising and promotion is changing dramatically.multinational marketers. Ethical Perspectives focusToday’s student is expected to understand all theattention on important social issues and show howmajor marketing communication functions: advertising,advertisers must take ethical considerations into accountdirect marketing, the Internet, interactive media, saleswhen planning and implementing advertising and pro-promotion, public relations, and personal selling. Youmotional programs. Diversity Perspectives discuss thewill also be expected to know how to research and evalu-opportunities, as well as the challenges, associated withate a company’s marketing and promotional situationmarketers’ efforts to reach culturally and ethnicallyand how to use these various functions in developingdiverse target markets. There are also a number ofeffective communication strategies and programs. ThisCareer Profiles, which highlight successful individualsbook will help prepare you for these challenges.working in various areas of the field of advertising andAs professors we were, of course, once students our-promotion.selves. In many ways we are perpetual students in thatEach chapter features beautiful four-color illustrationswe are constantly striving to learn about and explain howshowing examples from many of the most current andadvertising and promotion work. We share many of yourbest-integrated marketing communication campaignsinterests and concerns and are often excited (and bored)being used around the world. We have included moreby the same things. Having taught in the advertising andthan 350 advertisements and examples of numerous otherpromotion area for a combined 50-plus years, we havetypes of promotion, all of which were carefully chosen todeveloped an understanding of what makes a book inillustrate a particular idea, theory, or practical applica-this ﬁeld interesting to students. In writing this book, wetion. Please take time to read the opening vignettes tohave tried to remember how we felt about the variouseach chapter, the IMC, Global, Ethical, and Diversitytexts we used throughout the years and to incorporate thePerspectives, and the Career Profiles and study thegood things and minimize those we felt were of littlediverse ads and illustrations. We think they will stimulateviiBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003your interest and relate to your daily life as a consumerlicity/public relations. These chapters stress the integra-and a target of advertising and promotion.tion of advertising with other promotional mix elementsand the need to understand their role in the overall mar-To the Instructor: A Text Thatketing program.Reﬂects the Changes in the WorldOrganization of This Textof Advertising and PromotionThis book is divided into seven major parts. In Part OneOur major goal in writing the sixth edition of Advertisingwe examine the role of advertising and promotion inand Promotion was to continue to provide you with themarketing and introduce the concept of integrated mar-most comprehensive and current text on the market forketing communications. Chapter 1 provides an overviewteaching advertising and promotion from an IMC per-of advertising and promotion and its role in modern mar-spective. This sixth edition focuses on the many changesketing. The concept of IMC and the factors that have ledthat are occurring in areas of marketing communicationsto its growth are discussed. Each of the promotional mixand how they influence advertising and promotionalelements is defined, and an IMC planning model showsstrategies and tactics. We have done this by continuingthe various steps in the promotional planning process.with the integrated marketing communications perspec-This model provides a framework for developing thetive we introduced in the second edition. More and moreintegrated marketing communications program and iscompanies are approaching advertising and promotionfollowed throughout the text. Chapter 2 examines thefrom an IMC perspective, coordinating the various pro-role of advertising and promotion in the overall market-motional mix elements with other marketing activitiesing program, with attention to the various elements ofthat communicate with a ﬁrm’s customers. Many adver-the marketing mix and how they interact with advertis-tising agencies are also developing expertise in directing and promotional strategy. We have also includedmarketing, sales promotion, event sponsorship, thecoverage of market segmentation and positioning in thisInternet, and other areas so that they can meet all theirchapter so that students can understand how these con-clients’ integrated marketing communication needs—cepts fit into the overall marketing programs as well asand, of course, survive.their role in the development of an advertising and pro-The text is built around an integrated marketing com-motional program. munications planning model and recognizes the impor-In Part Two we cover the promotional program situa-tance of coordinating all of the promotional mixtion analysis. Chapter 3 describes how ﬁrms organize forelements to develop an effective communications pro-advertising and promotion and examines the role of adgram. Although media advertising is often the most visi-agencies and other ﬁrms that provide marketing and pro-ble part of a ﬁrm’s promotional program, attention mustmotional services. We discuss how ad agencies arealso be given to direct marketing, sales promotion, pub-selected, evaluated, and compensated as well as thelic relations, interactive media, and personal selling.changes occurring in the agency business. Attention isThis text integrates theory with planning, manage-also given to other types of marketing communicationment, and strategy. To effectively plan, implement, andorganizations such as direct marketing, sales promotion,evaluate IMC programs, one must understand the overalland interactive agencies as well as public relations ﬁrms.marketing process, consumer behavior, and communica-We also consider whether responsibility for integratingtions theory. We draw from the extensive research inthe various communication functions lies with the clientadvertising, consumer behavior, communications, mar-or the agency. Chapter 4 covers the stages of the con-keting, sales promotion, and other ﬁelds to give studentssumer decision-making process and both the internala basis for understanding the marketing communicationspsychological factors and the external factors that influ-process, how it influences consumer decision making,ence consumer behavior. The focus of this chapter is onand how to develop promotional strategies.how advertisers can use an understanding of buyerWhile this is an introductory text, we do treat eachbehavior to develop effective advertising and othertopic in some depth. We believe the marketing andforms of promotion. advertising student of today needs a text that providesPart Three analyzes the communications process.more than just an introduction to terms and topics. TheChapter 5 examines various communication theories andbook is positioned primarily for the introductory adver-models of how consumers respond to advertising mes-tising, marketing communications, or promotions coursesages and other forms of marketing communications.as taught in the business/marketing curriculum. It canChapter 6 provides a detailed discussion of source, mes-also be used in journalism/communications courses thatsage, and channel factors. take an integrated marketing communications perspec-In Part Four we consider how ﬁrms develop goals andtive. Many schools also use the text at the graduate level.objectives for their integrated marketing communicationsIn addition to its thorough coverage of advertising, thisprograms and determine how much money to spend try-text has chapters on sales promotion, direct marketinging to achieve them. Chapter 7 stresses the importance ofand marketing on the Internet, personal selling, and pub-knowing what to expect from advertising and promotion,viiiBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003the differences between advertising and communicationglobal marketplace and the role of advertising and otherobjectives, characteristics of good objectives, and prob-promotional mix variables such as sales promotion, pub-lems in setting objectives. We have also integrated thelic relations, and the Internet in international marketing.discussion of various methods for determining and allo-The text concludes with a discussion of the regula-cating the promotional budget into this chapter. Thesetory, social, and economic environments in which adver-ﬁrst four sections of the text provide students with a solidtising and promotion operate. Chapter 21 examinesbackground in the areas of marketing, consumer behav-industry self-regulation and regulation of advertising byior, communications, planning, objective setting, andgovernmental agencies such as the Federal Trade Com-budgeting. This background lays the foundation for themission, as well as rules and regulations governing salesnext section, where we discuss the development of thepromotion, direct marketing, and marketing on the Inter-integrated marketing communications program.net. Because advertising’s role in society is constantlyPart Five examines the various promotional mix ele-changing, our discussion would not be complete withoutments that form the basis of the integrated marketinga look at the criticisms frequently levied, so in Chaptercommunications program. Chapter 8 discusses the plan-22 we consider the social, ethical, and economic aspectsning and development of the creative strategy and adver-of advertising and promotion.tising campaign and examines the creative process. InChapter 9 we turn our attention to ways to execute theChapter Featurescreative strategy and some criteria for evaluating cre-ative work. Chapters 10 through 13 cover media strategyThe following features in each chapter enhance students’and planning and the various advertising media. Chapterunderstanding of the material as well as their reading10 introduces the key principles of media planning andenjoyment.strategy and examines how a media plan is developed.Chapter 11 discusses the advantages and disadvantagesChapter Objectivesof the broadcast media (TV and radio) as well as issuesregarding the purchase of radio and TV time and audi-Objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapterence measurement. Chapter 12 considers the same issuesto identify the major areas and points covered in thefor the print media (magazines and newspapers). Chap-chapter and guide the learning effort.ter 13 examines the role of support media such as out-door and transit advertising and some of the many newChapter Opening Vignettesmedia alternatives.Each chapter begins with a vignette that shows the effec-In Chapters 14 through 17 we continue the IMCtive use of integrated marketing communications by aemphasis by examining other promotional tools that arecompany or ad agency or discusses an interesting issueused in the integrated marketing communications process.that is relevant to the chapter. These opening vignettes areChapter 14 looks at the rapidly growing areas of directdesigned to draw the students into the chapter by present-marketing. This chapter examines database marketing anding an interesting example, development, or issue thatthe way by which companies communicate directly withrelates to the material covered in the chapter. Some of thetarget customers through various media. Chapter 15 pro-companies, brands, and organizations proﬁled in the open-vides a detailed discussion of interactive media and mar-ing vignettes include the U.S. Army, BMW, Samsung,keting on the Internet and how companies are using theTiVo, Red Bull, Nike, Skyy Spirits, and Rolling StoneWorld Wide Web as a medium for communicating withmagazine. In addition, some of the chapter openers dis-customers. We discuss how this medium is being used forcuss current topics and issues such as branding, conver-a variety of marketing activities including advertising,gence, the role of advertising versus public relations, andsales promotion and even the selling of products and ser-the controversy over the advertising of hard liquor on net-vices. Chapter 16 examines the area of sales promotionwork television. including both consumer-oriented promotions and pro-grams targeted to the trade (retailers, wholesalers andIMC Perspectivesother middlemen). Chapter 17 covers the role of publicityand public relations in IMC as well as corporate advertis-These boxed items feature in-depth discussions of inter-ing. Basic issues regarding personal selling and its role inesting issues related to the chapter material and the promotional strategy are presented in Chapter 18.practical application of integrated marketing communi-Part Six of the text consists of Chapter 19, where wecations. Each chapter contains several of these insightsdiscuss ways to measure the effectiveness of various ele-into the world of integrated marketing communications.ments of the integrated marketing communications pro-Some of the companies/brands whose IMC programs aregram, including methods for pretesting and posttestingdiscussed in these perspectives include Jet Blue, Delladvertising messages and campaigns. In Part Seven weComputer, Jupiter Media Matrix, BMW Mini-Cooper,turn our attention to special markets, topics, and per-Intel, USA Today, PT-Cruiser, and Dunkin’ Donuts.spectives that are becoming increasingly important inIssues such as the use of music to enhance the effective-contemporary marketing. In Chapter 20 we examine theness of commercials, the value of stadium naming rights,ixBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003public relations blunders, and problems that companiesKey Termshave encountered when using contests and sweepstakesare also discussed in the IMC Perspectives. Important terms are highlighted in boldface throughoutthe text and listed at the end of each chapter with a pagereference. These terms help call students’ attention toGlobal Perspectivesimportant ideas, concepts, and deﬁnitions and help themThese boxed sidebars provide information similar to thatreview their learning progress.in the IMC Perspectives, with a focus on internationalaspects of advertising and promotion. Some of the com-Chapter Summariespanies/brands whose international advertising programsare covered in the Global Perspectives include MTV,These synopses serve as a quick review of important top-Microsoft, Sony, McDonald’s, and Nike. Topics such asics covered and a very helpful study guide.the Cannes international advertising awards, celebritieswho appear in commercials in Japan while protectingDiscussion Questionstheir image in the United States, advertising in China,Questions at the end of each chapter give students anand the challenges of communicating with consumers inopportunity to test their understanding of the materialThird World countries are also discussed.and to apply it. These questions can also serve as a basisfor class discussion or assignments.Ethical PerspectivesThese boxed items discuss the moral and/or ethicalFour-Color Visualsissues regarding practices engaged in by marketers andPrint ads, photoboards, and other examples appearare also tied to the material presented in the particularthroughout the book. More than 400 ads, charts, graphs,chapter. Issues covered in the Ethical Perspectivesand other types of illustrations are included in the text.include subliminal advertising, the battle between televi-sion networks and advertisers over tasteful advertising,and controversies arising from the increase in direct-to-Changes in the Sixth Editionconsumer advertising of prescription drugs and the com-We have made a number of changes in the sixth editionmercialization of schools.to make it as relevant and current as possible, as well asmore interesting to students:Diversity Perspectives• Updated Coverage of the Emerging Field of These boxed items discuss topics related to the opportu-Integrated Marketing Communications Thenities and challenges facing companies as they developsixth edition continues to place a strong emphasis integrated marketing communications programs for mar-on studying advertising and promotion from an kets that are becoming more ethnically diverse. Theintegrated marketing communications perspective.Diversity Perspectives include the rapid growth of theWe examine developments that are impacting theHispanic market and issues involved in communicatingway marketers communicate with their customers,with this important segment, the emergence of Spanish-such as the movement toward “branded content,”language television stations in the United States, and thewhereby marketers and agencies are becoming moreuse of sales promotion to target the African-Americaninvolved in creating an entertainment product andmarket.integrating their messages into it. New technologiessuch as personal video recorders and the conver-Career Proﬁlesgence of television, computers, and the Internet arechanging the way companies are using advertisingAlso included are Career Proﬁles of successful individu-along with other marketing tools to communicateals working in the communications industry. The indi-with their customers. In this new edition we examineviduals featured in Career Profiles include an accounthow these cutting-edge developments are impactingexecutive for the Leo Burnett advertising agency, athe IMC program of marketers.director of corporate communications for JetBlue air-lines, the vice president of the iDeutsch interactive• Updated Chapter on the Internet andagency, the manager of Corporate Communications andInteractive Media The sixth edition includes up-Creative Services for Savin Corporation, a media sales-to-date information on the Internet and other formsperson for Rolling Stone magazine, the vice president ofof interactive media and how they are being usedmarketing and communication for Cox Target Media, aby marketers. We also discuss developments suchmarketing and sales promotion analyst for Chicken ofas wireless communications as well as regulationsthe Sea International, the president of eMarketer, and theaffecting the use of the Internet and importantpresident of the Ipsos-ASI, Inc., global marketing andissues such as privacy. This chapter also discussesadvertising research ﬁrm.the latest developments in areas such as audiencexBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003measurement and methods for determining the• New and Updated Global and Ethicaleffectiveness of Internet advertising. Discussion ofPerspectives Nearly all of the boxed items focus-the emerging role of the Internet as an importanting on global and ethical issues of advertising andintegrated marketing communications tool and ofpromotion are new; those retained from the ﬁfththe ways it is being used by marketers is integratededition have been updated. The Global Perspectivesthroughout the sixth edition.examine the role of advertising and other promo-tional areas in international markets. The Ethical• Diversity Perspectives—New to This EditionPerspectives discuss speciﬁc issues, developments,In this edition we introduce a new feature calledand problems that call into question the ethics ofDiversity Perspectives. These boxed items aremarketers and their decisions as they develop anddesigned to focus attention on the increase in theimplement their advertising and promotionaldiversity of the consumer market in the Unitedprograms.States. The 2000 census showed that the Hispanicmarket grew by 58 percent over the past decade,• New Career Profiles The sixth edition has alland another 35 percent increase is forecast over thenew Career Profiles that discuss the career path ofnext 10 years. Marketers are recognizing the impor-successful individuals working in various areas oftance of being able to communicate with a diverseadvertising and promotion, including clients,market that includes Hispanics, African-Americans,advertising agencies, and the media. TheseAsian-Americans, and other ethnic groups. Thisprofiles provide students with insight into variousnew feature focuses on the opportunities and chal-types of careers that are available in the area oflenges facing companies as they develop integratedadvertising and promotion on the client andmarketing communications programs for marketsagency side as well as in media. They discuss thethat are becoming more ethnically diverse.educational backgrounds of the individualsprofiled, some of the responsibilities and require-• Online Cases Six short cases written toments of their positions, and their career paths.correspond to various sections of the text are avail-This feature has been very popular among studentsable online and can be downloaded for classroomand in this edition we provide eight new profiles.use and assignments. These cases are designed toThese profiles have been written by the individu-build on the material presented in the text and pro-als themselves and provide students with insightvide students with the opportunity to apply variousinto the educational background of the personsIMC tools and concepts. The cases include compa-profiled, how they got started in the field of adver-nies and organizations such as Gateway, the U.S.tising and promotion, their current responsibilities,Armed Forces, Chicken of the Sea International,and interesting aspects of their jobs as well asthe Partnership for a Drug Free America, and theexperiences.U.S. Ofﬁce of National Drug Control Policy. Theonline cases include information beyond that• Contemporary Examples The ﬁeld ofprovided in the text and require that students evalu-advertising and promotion changes very rapidly,ate an advertising and promotional issue and makeand we continue to keep pace with it. Wherevera decision and recommendation.possible we updated the statistical information pre-sented in tables, charts, and ﬁgures throughout the• New Chapter Opening Vignettes All of the chap-text. We reviewed the most current academic andter opening vignettes in the sixth edition are newtrade literature to ensure that this text reﬂects theand were chosen for their currency and relevance tomost current perspectives and theories on advertis-students. They demonstrate how various companiesing, promotion, and the rapidly evolving area ofand advertising agencies use advertising and otherintegrated marketing communications. We alsoIMC tools. They also provide interesting insightsupdated most of the examples and ads throughoutinto some of the current trends and developmentsthe book. Advertising and Promotion continues tothat are taking place in the advertising world.be the most contemporary text on the market,• New and Updated IMC Perspectives All of theoffering students as timely a perspective as boxed items focusing on speciﬁc examples of howpossible.companies and their communications agencies areusing integrated marketing communications areSupport Materialnew or updated, and they provide insight into manyof the most current and popular advertising andA high-quality package of instructional supplementspromotional campaigns being used by marketers.supports the sixth edition. Nearly all of the supplementsThe IMC Perspectives also address interestinghave been developed by the authors to ensure their coor-issues related to advertising, sales promotion, directdination with the text. We offer instructors a supportmarketing, marketing on the Internet, and personalpackage that facilitates the use of our text and enhancesselling.the learning experience of the student.xiBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003Instructor’s Manualor charts appearing in the text are also provided as colortransparencies. Slip sheets are included with each trans-The instructor’s manual is a valuable teaching resourceparency to give the instructor useful background infor-that includes learning objectives, chapter and lecturemation about the illustration and how it can be integratedoutlines, answers to all end-of-chapter discussion ques-into the lecture.tions, transparency masters, and further insights andteaching suggestions. Additional discussion questionsVideo Supplementsare also presented for each chapter. These questions canbe used for class discussion or as short-answer essayA video supplement package has been developed speciﬁ-questions for exams.cally for classroom use with this text. The first set ofvideos contains nearly 200 television and radio commer-Manual of Testscials that are examples of creative advertising. It can beused to help the instructor explain a particular concept orA test bank of more than 1,500 multiple-choice questionsprinciple or give more insight into how a company exe-has been developed to accompany the text. The questionscutes its advertising strategy. Most of the commercialsprovide thorough coverage of the chapter material,are tied to the chapter openings, IMC and Global Per-including opening vignettes and IMC, Global, Diversity,spectives, or speciﬁc examples cited in the text. Insightsand Ethical Perspectives.and/or background information about each commercialare provided in the instructor’s manual written specifi-Computerized Test Bankcally for the videos. The second set of videos containsA computerized version of the test bank is available tolonger segments on the advertising and promotionaladopters of the text.strategies of various companies and industries. Includedon this video are three segments showing campaignschosen as Ogilvy Award Winners by the AdvertisingInstructor CD-ROMResearch Foundation. Each segment shows howThis exciting presentation CD-ROM allows the profes-research was used to guide the development of an effec-sor to customize a multimedia lecture with originaltive advertising campaign. Other segments include high-material from the supplements package. It includeslights of promotions that won Reggie Awards (givenvideo clips, commercials, ads and art from the text, elec-each year to the best sales promotion campaigns) andtronic slides and acetates, the computerized test bank,case studies of the integrated marketing communicationsand the print supplements.programs used by the U.S. Army, Skyy Spirits, Mazda,and Chicken of the Sea International.Electronic SlidesAcknowledgmentsA disk containing nearly 300 PowerPoint® slides isavailable to adopters of the sixth edition for electronicWhile this sixth edition represents a tremendous amountpresentations. These slides contain lecture notes, charts,of work on our part, it would not have become a realitygraphs, and other instructional materials.without the assistance and support of many other people.Authors tend to think they have the best ideas, approach,Home Pageexamples, and organization for writing a great book. ButA home page on the Internet can be found at we quickly learned that there is always room for ourwww.mhhe.business/marketing/ideas to be improved on by others. A number of col-It contains Web Exploration Links (hot links to otherleagues provided detailed, thoughtful reviews that werewebsites) as well as various other items of interest. Forimmensely helpful in making this a better book. We areinstructors, the home page will offer updates of exam-very grateful to the following individuals who workedples, chapter opener vignettes and IMC, Global, and Eth-with us on earlier editions. They include ical Perspectives; additional sources of advertising andpromotion information; and downloads of key supple-Lauranne Buchanan, University of Illinoisments. Adopters will be able to communicate directlyRoy Busby, University of North Texaswith the authors through the site (contact your McGraw-Lindell Chew, University of Missouri–St. LouisHill/ Irwin representative for your password).Catherine Cole, University of IowaJohn Faier, Miami UniversityFour-Color TransparenciesRaymond Fisk, Oklahoma State UniversityGeoff Gordon, University of KentuckyEach adopter may request a set of over 100 four-colorDonald Grambois, Indiana Universityacetate transparencies that present print ads, photo-Stephen Grove, Clemson Universityboards, sales promotion offers, and other materials thatRon Hill, University of Portlanddo not appear in the text. A number of important modelsPaul Jackson, Ferris State CollegexiiBelch: Advertising and Front MatterPreface© The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionCompanies, 2003Don Kirchner, California State University–NorthridgeTaylor, Miami University, and Richard Wingerson,Clark Leavitt, Ohio State UniversityFlorida Atlantic University. A very special thank-youCharles Overstreet, Oklahoma State Universitygoes to Roberta Elins and the faculty at the FashionPaul Prabhaker, Depaul University, ChicagoInstitute of Technology, who provided many usefulScott Roberts, Old Dominion Universityinsights and interesting examples.Harlan Spotts, Northeastern UniversityWe would also like to acknowledge the cooperationMary Ann Stutts, Southwest Texas State Universitywe received from many people in the business, advertis-Terrence Witkowski, California State University–ing, and media communities. This book contains severalLong Beachhundred ads, illustrations, charts, and tables that haveRobert Young, Northeastern Universitybeen provided by advertisers and/or their agencies, vari-Terry Bristol, Oklahoma State Universityous publications, and other advertising and industryRoberta Ellins, Fashion Institute of Technologyorganizations. Many individuals took time from theirRobert Erffmeyer, University of Wisconsin–busy schedules to provide us with requested materialsEau Claireand gave us permission to use them. A special thanks toAlan Fletcher, Louisiana State Universityall of you.Jon B. Freiden, Florida State UniversityA manuscript does not become a book without a greatPatricia Kennedy, University of Nebraskadeal of work on the part of a publisher. Various individu-Susan Kleine, Arizona State Universityals at Irwin/McGraw-Hill have been involved with thisTina Lowry, Rider Universityproject over the past several years. Our sponsoring editorElizabeth Moore-Shay, University of Illinoison the sixth edition, Barrett Koger, provided valuableNotis Pagiavlas, University of Texas–Arlingtonguidance and was instrumental in making sure this wasWilliam Pride, Texas A&M Universitymuch more than just a token revision. A special thanksJoel Reedy, University of South Floridagoes to Nancy Barbour, our developmental editor, for allDenise D. Schoenbachler, Northern Illinoisof her efforts and for being so great to work with. ThanksUniversityalso to Natalie Ruffatto for doing a superb job of manag-James Swartz, California State University–Pomonaing the production process. We also want to acknowl-Robert H. Ducoffe, Baruch Collegeedge the outstanding work of Charlotte Goldman for herRobert Gulonsen, Washington Universityhelp in obtaining permissions for most of the ads thatCraig Andrews, Marquette Universityappear throughout the book. Thanks to the other mem-Subir Bandyopadhyay, University of Ottawabers of the product team, Keith McPherson, JudyBeverly Brockman, University of AlabamaKausal, Joyce Chappetto, Debra Sylvester, and CraigJohn H. Murphy II, University of Texas–AustinAtkins, for all their hard work on this edition.Glen Reicken, East Tennessee State UniversityWe would like to acknowledge the support we haveMichelle Rodriquez, University of Central Floridareceived from the College of Business at San DiegoElaine Scott, Blueﬁeld State CollegeState University. As always, a great deal of thanks goesto our families for putting up with us while we wereWe are particularly grateful to the individuals whorevising this book. Once again we look forward toprovided constructive comments on how to make thisreturning to normal. Finally, we would like to acknowl-edition better: Craig Andrews, Marquette University;edge each other for making it through this ordeal again.Christopher Cakebread, Boston University; Robert Cut-Our mother to whom we dedicate this edition, will beter, Cleveland State University; Don Dickinson, Port-happy to know that we still get along after all this—land State University; Karen James, Louisiana Statethough it is deﬁnitely getting tougher and tougher.University–Shreveport; Robert Kent, University ofDelaware; Herbert Jack Rotfield, Auburn University;George E. BelchLisa Sciulli, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; JaniceMichael A. BelchxiiiBelch: Advertising and I. Introduction to Integrated 1. An Introduction to © The McGraw−Hill Promotion, Sixth EditionMarketingIntegrated Marketing Companies, 2003CommunicationsCommunicationsAn Introduction to IntegratedMarketing Communications11Part Five Developing the Integrated Marketing Communications ProgramChapter Objectives1. To examine the promotional function and the4. To introduce the various elements of the promo-growing importance of advertising and othertional mix and consider their roles in an IMC promotional elements in the marketingprogram.programs of domestic and foreign companies.5. To examine how various marketing and promo-2. To introduce the concept of integratedtional elements must be coordinated to commu-marketing communications (IMC) and considernicate effectively.how it has evolved.6. To introduce a model of the IMC planning3. To examine reasons for the increasingprocess and examine the steps in developing aimportance of the IMC perspective in planningmarketing communications program.and executing advertising and promotional programs.