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Beyond Oil -
Viability of Local Government Areas in
Nigeria

Data mapping and analysis of twenty six interrelated elements catalytic to
grassroots sustainable development




































Published by the






Centre for Development




And Corporate Responsibility


Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Foreword



Beyond Oil - Viability of Local Government Areas in Nigeria is an action-planning publication.
It assesses the economic potentials and development/infrastructural needs of local government
areas with a view to creating a knowledge base and an impetus for public-private partnerships in
agriculture, agro-based industrial activities and small and medium scale financing. It is unique in
that it will help reverse rural to urban drift; cut harvest wastages by 90 percent; generate both
subsistence and cash crops for domestic and export markets, and in the long run support the self
reliance of local government areas as viable economic entities.
The local government is the third tier of the administrative structure in Nigeria. Part of its
constitutional role is to consider and make recommendations on economic development of the
State and the development of agriculture and natural resources, other than the exploitation of
minerals. This makes the local government the pivot of socio-economic planning and
development. Being also the tier of government closest to the people, it is considered a most
important facilitator of economic and social development at the grassroots.
Despite the all important position and role of local governments in development, there is a
crucial lack of a body of knowledge about the economic potentials embedded in them and how to
harness this huge wealth to impact on positive social change, good governance and
individual/country-wide prosperity in Nigeria. This knowledge is crucial to inform the strategies
and activities of individuals, communities, civil society, government, development agencies and
the private sector in advancing sustainable development and good governance. The consequence
of lack of knowledge remains absolute dependence on revenue allocation derived principally
from crude oil export. This means the inability of the local government to sustain itself.
Data and analysis accruing from this publication will provide government at all levels, financial
institutions, development agencies, the private sector, civil society practitioners, citizens,
researchers and the donor community with unique perspectives for agro-based industrial growth
and economic development of local government areas and the challenges faced by investors and
community people.

Beyond Oil - Viability of Local Government Areas in Nigeria holds the promise to becoming a
widely used benchmark not just of the current state of local government areas in Nigeria but a
map for advancing their development for many years to come.























Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




CONTENTS

Foreword
Acknowledgement
Introduction
Agricultural Produce captured
Solid Minerals captured and their uses
Geopolitical Zone: South East
Abia State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Anambra State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Ebonyi State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Enugu State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Imo State
Recommendation for South East Zone Cluster Formation
Geopolitical Zone: South South
Akwa Ibom state
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Bayelsa State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Cross River State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Delta State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Edo State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Rivers State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Recommendation for South South Cluster Formation
Geopolitical Zone: North West
Jigawa State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Kaduna State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Kano State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Katsina State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Kebbi State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Sokoto State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Zamfara State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Recommendation for North West Cluster Formation
Geopolitical Zone: North Central
Plateau State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Niger State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Benue State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Kogi State
Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Federal Capital Territory
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Kwara State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Nassarawa State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Recommendation for North Central Cluster Formation
Geopolitical Zone: South West
Ekiti State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Lagos State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Ogun State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Ondo State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Osun State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Oyo State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Recommendation for South West Cluster Formation
Geopolitical Zone: North East
Adamawa State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Bauchi State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Borno State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Gombe State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Taraba State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Yobe State
Recommendation for State Cluster Formation
Recommendation for North East Cluster Formation









Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Introduction


This publication, Beyond Oil - Viability of Local Government Areas in Nigeria, aims to prove
that the local government set up in Nigeria can actually fulfil its role as the pivot of socio-
economic planning and development if it can take its eyes off crude oil revenue and mobilize its
energies around the potentials within. For this to be possible, a body of knowledge that
highlights interrelated elements catalytic to grassroots sustainable development needed to be put
together for the use of policy makers, investors, community people and civil society advocating
good governance. This is what this publication is: that body of knowledge.

Twenty six related development elements were researched. This covered agricultural and solid
mineral resources, education, healthcare, tourism, infrastructure (road, electricity, water),
population, government presence, culture, communication, language, religion, investments,
presence of financial institution, typography and climatic conditions, size of local government,
revenue earning for ten years (since end of military rule) May 1999 to April 2010), etc.

The research was a blend of innovative mix of participatory methods and data sourcing to
comprehensively assess the economic potentials of local government areas. It placed strong
emphasis on widespread and meaningful participation of a broad range of stakeholders, ranging
from non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community based organisation (CBOs),
government, private sector, development agencies and academia. To structure these various
consultations, questionnaire, focus group discussion, interviews, literature review and a national
stakeholders' workshop were used.

The publication has three components: is innovative action-planning Directory will have three
component parts: Data of each of the 774 Local Government Areas in Nigeria; Analysis of data
showing the strength, weakness, opportunities, threats of each local government and;
recommended cluster formation, which groups local government areas and states along the
agricultural produce line. A national stakeholders' workshop was organized to validate the data
collected and formed the basis for its analysis and the recommended raw material clustering
strategy.

Beyond Oil - Viability of Local Government Areas in Nigeria expects to deliver the following
outcomes: Increased and effectively shared knowledge on the economic potentials of local
government areas and possible strategies for sustainable development; Increased self-awareness
by local government/community actors of their role in development; Improved public-private
partnership in local government and SME development; Reduced national unemployment figure;
Improved level of conflict prevention and security; Improved level of export of non-oil products;
and Increased real earning power at the grassroots.





Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Agricultural Produce Identified and their Uses


Cassava


Bitter Kola
Kolanut


Poultry


Livestock


Timber
Palm Produce,
Fruits
Water melon
Melon
Cocoa
Rubber
Maize
Rice
Yam

Plantain
Banana
Ginger
Cowpea
Coconut
Bamboo
Soya beans
Groundnut
Sugarcane
Vegetables
Okra

Tomato
Pepper
Benniseed
Pumpkin
Cocoyam
Garden Egg
Bambara Nut
Irish Potato
Sweet potato
Breadfruit (mulberry)
Legumes
Beans
Coffee
Millet
Guinea Corn
Shea butter
Locust Bean
Sorghum
Sheanuts
Castor Seed
Cotton
Kenaf
Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Pigeon Pea
Amaranthus

Onion

Wheat

Acha


Lettuce
Carrot
Cabbage
Sorrel
Baobab Tree

Neem Tree
Tea

Gum Arabic

Avocado
Pear

Sesame
Tamarind
Cucumber
Acacia Nilotica
Black Caraway
Aya

Jute

Date

Borassus Palm
Guna Seed
Bagaruwa
Garlic
Sea Food












Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Solid Minerals and their Uses


Agate,
rock composed of layers of quartz, sometimes of different colors. The composition of
agate varies greatly, but silica is always predominant, usually with alumina and oxide of iron.
Other types of silica--chalcedony, carnelian, amethyst, jasper, opal, and flint--often occur as
layers in agate. Agate can be polished to a high gloss, and it is often used for ornamental
purposes (Gems).

Aluminum, Its high strength-to-weight ratio makes aluminum useful in the construction of
aircraft, railroad cars, and automobiles, and for other applications in which mobility and energy
conservation are important. Because of its high heat conductivity, aluminum is used in cooking
utensils and the pistons of internal-combustion engines. Aluminum conductors are now used to
transmit electricity at 700,000 V or more. It is important architecturally for both structural and
ornamental purposes: Aluminum siding, storm windows, and foil make excellent insulators.
Aluminum foil, now a common household convenience, protects food and other perishable items
from spoilage. Because of its light weight, ease of forming, and compatibility with foods and
beverages, aluminum is widely used for containers, flexible packages, and easy-to-open bottles
and cans. Aluminum's resistance to corrosion in salt water also makes it useful in boat hulls and
various aquatic devices.

Amethyst, It's a variety of quartz, differing from common quartz and rock crystal chiefly
because of its violet to purple color, which is caused by the presence of compounds of iron or
manganese. It is used to make seals and rings (Gems).
Anhydrite (could become gypsum): Use: cement, fertilizers
Aquamarine: Use for Gems.
Asbestos: has been used in building-construction materials, textiles, missile and jet parts, asphalt
and caulking compounds and paints, and in friction products such as brake linings.

Barite is used chiefly as an ingredient of the mud used in drilling shafts for gas wells and oil
wells. Barite is also the main source of the element barium and is used in the manufacture of
paint, paper, cloth, and cosmetics. In medicine, it is used for radiology. Patients swallow
solutions containing barite, or solutions are injected or administered rectally, and the patient is
then X rayed. Because barite is opaque to X rays, it makes soft-tissue organs visible to X-ray
machines as it passes through them.
Bauxite, can be easily purified and converted directly into either alum or metallic aluminum.
Bentonite: Usage - oil drilling, paper, pharmaceutical industries
Beryl, In certain varieties, a valuable gem material. (Emerald, Aquamarine, Golden beryl and
morganite or rose beryl are less valuable. Colorless beryl is occasionally used as a gem under the
name goshenite)
Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




Bitumen, Examples include crude petroleum, asphalt, and tar. Bitumens are characteristically
dark brown or black and contain little nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. Commercially the term
bitumen refers chiefly to hydrocarbons in a solid or semisolid state, but in a wider sense it refers
to all natural hydrocarbons, which may also occur in a liquid or gaseous state.
Calcite fulfills a variety of construction, industrial, agricultural and optical needs. In
construction, it provides the primary ingredient in cement. It can also serve as a decorative
building stone. In industry, calcite is valuable because it facilitates removal of silica and
aluminum impurities in iron, neutralizes acids, and aids in the manufacture of paper and glass. In
agriculture, calcite can reduce soil acidity. In optics, crystals of Iceland Spar are used in
equipment that requires double refraction.
Calcium Sulfate: It is being used to an increasing extent as a deoxidizer for copper, nickel, and
stainless steel. Because calcium hardens lead when alloyed with it, lead-calcium alloys are
excellent for bearings, superior to ordinary lead antimony for grids in storage batteries, and more
durable as sheathing for lead-covered cable.

Cassiterite, Cassiterite is the only commercially important ore of tin. It has been mined in
Cornwall, England, since ancient times, but the principal sources today are Bolivia, the Malay
Peninsula, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the Republic of the Congo.

Chalcopyrite, It is the most widely distributed mineral of copper, and one of the principal
sources of copper.
Chalk, a soft white or gray fine-grained sedimentary rock consisting of nearly pure calcium
carbonate originally formed under the sea and containing minute fossil fragments of marine
organisms
Chromite, It is the only ore mineral of chromium, consisting of ferrous chromite, FeCr2O4, and
belonging to the spinel group. Use: source of chromium.
Clay: a fine-grained material consisting mainly of hydrated aluminum silicates that occurs
naturally in soil and sedimentary rock. Use: in making bricks, ceramics, and cement.
Coal Most coal is burned by electric utility companies to produce steam to turn their generators.
Some coal is used in factories to provide heat for buildings and industrial processes. A special,
high-quality coal is turned into metallurgical coke for use in making steel.

Columbite, is the principal commercial source of tantalum and niobium.

Copper is one of the most widely used of metals. Copper is one of the transition elements of the
periodic table. Because of its many desirable properties, such as its conductivity of electricity
and heat, its resistance to corrosion, its malleability and ductility, and its beauty, copper has long
been used in a wide variety of applications. The principal uses are electrical, because of copper's
extremely high conductivity, which is second only to that of silver. Because copper is very
ductile, it can be drawn into wires of any diameter from about 0.025 mm (about 0.001 in)
Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)




upward. It can be used in outdoor power lines and cables, as well as in house wiring, lamp cords,
and electrical machinery such as generators, motors, controllers, signaling devices,
electromagnets, and communications equipment. Copper has been used for coins throughout
recorded history and has also been fashioned into cooking utensils, vats, and ornamental objects.
Corundum, Next to the diamond, corundum is the hardest natural substance. The gem-quality,
transparent crystals of the mineral also form sapphires and rubies. Common corundum and
emery are both used as abrasives. (Gems, abrasive)

Diatomite: a soft powdery porous rock. Source: accumulated shells of diatoms. Use: in fireproof
cements, insulating materials, dynamite, as insecticide.
Dolomite: a white, reddish, or greenish mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate.
Source: sedimentary rocks. Use: building stone, cement, fertilizers.
Emerald: a precious stone that is a form of beryl colored green by chromium. Use: gems
Epsom: common name for colorless or white crystalline salt found in the minerals kieserite and
epsomite and in mineral waters. It is used in medicine as a cathartic, in hypertonic baths to
reduce swelling, and in dyeing as a color fixative.

Feldspar: an extremely common aluminosilicate mineral containing varying proportions of
calcium, sodium, potassium, and other elements. Feldspar minerals are subdivided into two
groups, orthoclase feldspars and plagioclase feldspars.

Ferrous Oxide: a black solid containing iron and oxygen. Use: manufacture of steel and
enamels.

Galena: a lustrous blue-gray crystalline mineral consisting of lead sulfide. Use: source of lead
and silver.
Garnet: group of related minerals, often used as gemstones or abrasives. Large quantities of
garnets are ground up and made into a variety of sandpaper.
Grossularite: is a light-colored or colorless garnet, usually found in shades of green, red,
yellow, or brown. Yellow gems of this variety are often called hyacinths, and yellow and
cinnamon-brown specimens are marketed under the names hessonite and cinnamon stone.
Pyrope: is the variety of garnet most often used for gem purposes and is prized for its ruby red
color. It occurs in igneous rock, particularly peridotite, and in alluvial deposits. Pure pyrope has
no color, but all specimens contain impurities that produce shades from red to black.
Spessartite: Mn3Al2(SiO4)3, is not a popular gemstone because of its color, which is usually
brownish, although it occasionally has a reddish cast. It is found in pegatites and alluvial deposits
in the Alps, in Sri Lanka, and in Nevada and Virginia.
Centre For Development And Corporate Responsibility (CDCR)



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