Big Five Personality Traits
O - C - E - A - N : Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Grew out of the Lexical Hypothesis which states that the fundamental elements of human
personality should be encoded in our language. Factor analysis extracted” these elements, or
traits, from adjectives taken from the dictionary.
McCosta and McCrae’s NEO-PI-r is a popular commercial measure of the Big Five. Available
from Sigma Assessments: http://www.sigmaassessmentsystems.com/assessments/neopir.asp
It measures the Big Five and six facets for each trait.ExtraversionAgreeablenessConscientiousness
Achievement StrivingNeuroticismOpenness to new Experiences
Lew Goldberg developed pools of items for all sorts of traits. These items are freely available at
his International Personality Item Pool website: http://ipip.ori.org/ Goldberg’s version of the
Big Five is often referred to as the Big Five Model. His measure of Openness is instead referred
to as Intellect (your self-reported view of your intelligence). His measure does not have facets.
Oliver John’s 44-item Big Five trait measure is freely available. The reference is: John, O. P., &
Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical
perspectives. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and
(2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford. You can find a copy at:
Gerald Saucier also developed a brief version of the Big Five. The reference is: Saucier, G.
(1994). Mini-markers: A brief version of Goldberg's unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 63 , 506-516.
A single-item approach using Idiogrid is currently being tested by Dr. Grice and his students at
Oklahoma State University. Thus far, the results look promising.
Raymond Cattell’s 16-PF (Personality Factors)
Commercially available from Pearson: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/16pf.aspxSixteen Specific Dimensions of Personality
Warmth (Reserved vs. Warm; Factor A)
Reasoning (Concrete vs. Abstract; Factor B)
Emotional Stability (Reactive vs. Emotionally Stable; Factor C)
Dominance (Deferential vs. Dominant; Factor E)
Liveliness (Serious vs. Lively; Factor F)
Rule-Consciousness (Expedient vs. Rule-Conscious; Factor G)
Social Boldness (Shy vs. Socially Bold; Factor H)
Sensitivity (Utilitarian vs. Sensitive; Factor I)
Vigilance (Trusting vs. Vigilant; Factor L)
Abstractedness (Grounded vs. Abstracted; Factor M)
Privateness (Forthright vs. Private; Factor N)
Apprehension (Self-Assured vs. Apprehensive; Factor O)
Openness to Change (Traditional vs. Open to Change; Factor Q1)
Self-Reliance (Group-Oriented vs. Self-Reliant; Factor Q2)
Perfectionism (Tolerates Disorder vs. Perfectionistic; Factor Q3)
Tension (Relaxed vs. Tense; Factor Q4)Five Global Factors
Cattell, H. E. P., & Schuerger, J. M. (2003) Essentials of 16PF Assessment
Hans Eysenck’s P-E-N model
Psychoticism - Extraversion - Neuroticism
Commercially available from Edits software distribution : http://www.edits.net/EPQ-R.htmlPsychoticism Extraversion Neuroticism
Lack of reflection
Lack of autonomy
One validity scale to detect unusual responding.
Auke Tellegen’s Multiple Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
It is listed as “under development” at the University of Minnesota Press site:
http://www.upress.umn.edu/tests/mpq.htmlEleven Primary Traits
SeparationThree Second-Order Traits
ConstraintFive Validity Scales
are also included for detecting unusual responding.
The items for a shortened version are published in a recent article: Patrick, C., Curtin, J., and
Tellegen, A. (2002). Development and validation of a brief form of the Multidimensional
Personality Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 14
Robert Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R)
Cloninger’s model was originally developed around a bio-chemical model:Temperament Neurotransmitter system
Low dopaminergic activity
High serotonergic activity
Reward dependence –>
Low noradrenergic activity
His TCI-R incorporates these three temperaments and adds Persistence:
He also adds three dispositions hypothesized to be related to overall well-being:
You can find more information about the test at: http://psychobiology.wustl.edu/joomla/
Fear of uncertainty
Openness to warm communication
Eagerness of effort
Enlightened second nature
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Created on the basis of Carl Jung’s theory of the psyche. This instrument is one of the most widely used
questionnaires despite many psychologists’ negative attitudes toward Jung’s theory. It is widely used in
marital counseling, career counseling, and industrial/organizational psychology.
Commercially available from CPP: https://www.cpp.com/products/mbti/index.aspx
Online “for fun” version can be found at: http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm
You can also take it at OSU’s Career Counseling Services. Although not based on Jung’s theory, a very
similar approach is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter: http://www.keirsey.com/default.aspx
The MBTI measures four bipolar dimensions:
Introversion - Extraversion
Thinking - Feeling
Sensing - Intuition
Judging - Perceiving
These bipolar dimensions are crossed to create 16 types; e.g., ITSJ, EFIP, IFSP, etc. A brief summary
of your type is presented with the test results.
Briggs-Myers, Isabel (1995) Gifts Differing
. Davies-Black Publishing.
Henry Murray's Psychogenic Needs
Everything below is copied from: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/murray.htmlNeeds
To surrender and accept punishment
To overcome obstacles and succeed
To obtain possessions
To make associations and friendships
To injure others
To resist others and stand strong
To avoid blame and obey the rules
To build or create
To be unique
To defend honor
To justify actions
To follow a superior, to serve
To control and lead others
To attract attention
To provide information, educate
To avoid pain
To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness
To protect the helpless
To arrange, organize, and be precise
To relieve tension, have fun, or relax
To gain approval and social status
To exclude another
To enjoy sensuous impressions
To form and enjoy an erotic relationship
To seek protection or sympathy
To analyze and experience, to seek knowledge
M urray contended that environmental forces played a significant role in the exhibition of the psychogenic needs. He called
the forces "press," referring to the pressure they put on us that forces us to act. He further argued for a difference between the
real environmental forces, alpha press, and those that are merely perceived, beta press.
Three of M urray's Psychogenic Needs have been the focus of considerable research: The Need for Power (nPow), Affiliation
(nAff) and Achievement (nAch).
The need for Power refers to the desire or need to impact other people, to control or be in a position of influence. Careers
that involve these aspects are better suited for high nPow people, such as teachers, psychologists, journalists, and supervisors.
They don't necessarily make the best leaders though. Research has found that those with high nPow are more likely to rate an
employee higher if that employee has a tendency to schmooz or flatter the subject where those with low or moderate nPow
rate employees the same. In this sense, those with high nPow would do well if they also had traits of self-control and
The need for affiliation has a long history of research, and studies show that those with a high nAff often have a larger social
circle. They spend more time interacting with other such as talking on the phone and writing letters, and they are more likely
to be members of social groups or clubs. Those with high nAff are also more likely to get lonely than those low in nAff, so
their need for affiliation may be related to their sense of self and their desire for external stimulation.
Those with a high need for achievement (nAch) demonstrate a consistent concern about meeting obligations and
accomplishing tasks. They are, however, more focused on internal motivation rather than external rewards. For example,
those high in nAch are more likely to value intelligence and personal achievement over recognition and praise.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htmEric Erickson’s stages of Psychosocial developmentBasicImportantStageOutcomeConflictEventsInfancy (birth to
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide
reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physicalEarly Childhood
skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of(2 to 3 years)
autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Children need to begin asserting control and power over thePreschool (3 to 5
environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose.
Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval,
resulting in a sense of guilt.
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands.School Age (6 to
Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in11 years)
feelings of inferiority.
Teens needs to develop a sense of self and personal identity.Adolescence (12
Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failureto 18 years)
leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with otherYound Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Relationships
people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results(19 to 40 years)
in loneliness and isolation.
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, oftenM iddle
by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other
W ork andAdulthood (40 to
people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense ofM aturity(65 to
fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, whiledeath)
failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
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