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Big Five Personality Traits
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Big Five Personality Traits
O - C - E - A - N : Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Grew out of the Lexical Hypothesis which states that the fundamental elements of human
personality should be encoded in our language. Factor analysis extracted” these elements, or
traits, from adjectives taken from the dictionary.
McCosta and McCrae’s NEO-PI-r is a popular commercial measure of the Big Five. Available
from Sigma Assessments: http://www.sigmaassessmentsystems.com/assessments/neopir.asp
It measures the Big Five and six facets for each trait.
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Gregariousness
Straightforwardness
Self-discipline
Activity Level
Trust
Dutifulness
Assertiveness
Altruism
Competence
Excitement Seeking
Modesty
Order
Positive Emotions
Tendermindedness
Deliberation
Warmth
Compliance
Achievement Striving
Neuroticism
Openness to new Experiences
Anxiety
Fantasy
Self-consciousness
Aesthetics
Depression
Feelings
Vulnerability
Ideas
Impulsiveness
Actions
Angry hostility
Values
Lew Goldberg developed pools of items for all sorts of traits. These items are freely available at
his International Personality Item Pool website: http://ipip.ori.org/ Goldberg’s version of the
Big Five is often referred to as the Big Five Model. His measure of Openness is instead referred
to as Intellect (your self-reported view of your intelligence). His measure does not have facets.
Oliver John’s 44-item Big Five trait measure is freely available. The reference is: John, O. P., &
Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical
perspectives. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and
research
(2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford. You can find a copy at:
http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html
Gerald Saucier also developed a brief version of the Big Five. The reference is: Saucier, G.
(1994). Mini-markers: A brief version of Goldberg's unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 63 , 506-516.
A single-item approach using Idiogrid is currently being tested by Dr. Grice and his students at
Oklahoma State University. Thus far, the results look promising.

Raymond Cattell’s 16-PF (Personality Factors)
Commercially available from Pearson: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/16pf.aspx
Sixteen Specific Dimensions of Personality
Warmth (Reserved vs. Warm; Factor A)
Reasoning (Concrete vs. Abstract; Factor B)
Emotional Stability (Reactive vs. Emotionally Stable; Factor C)
Dominance (Deferential vs. Dominant; Factor E)
Liveliness (Serious vs. Lively; Factor F)
Rule-Consciousness (Expedient vs. Rule-Conscious; Factor G)
Social Boldness (Shy vs. Socially Bold; Factor H)
Sensitivity (Utilitarian vs. Sensitive; Factor I)
Vigilance (Trusting vs. Vigilant; Factor L)
Abstractedness (Grounded vs. Abstracted; Factor M)
Privateness (Forthright vs. Private; Factor N)
Apprehension (Self-Assured vs. Apprehensive; Factor O)
Openness to Change (Traditional vs. Open to Change; Factor Q1)
Self-Reliance (Group-Oriented vs. Self-Reliant; Factor Q2)
Perfectionism (Tolerates Disorder vs. Perfectionistic; Factor Q3)
Tension (Relaxed vs. Tense; Factor Q4)
Five Global Factors
Extraversion
Anxiety
Tough-Mindedness
Independence
Self-Control
Important Book:
Cattell, H. E. P., & Schuerger, J. M. (2003) Essentials of 16PF Assessment. Wiley.

Hans Eysenck’s P-E-N model
Psychoticism - Extraversion - Neuroticism
Commercially available from Edits software distribution : http://www.edits.net/EPQ-R.html
Psychoticism
Extraversion
Neuroticism
Aggressive
Sociable
Anxious
Assertive
Irresponsible
Depressed
Egocentric
Dominant
Guilt Feelings
Unsympathetic
Lack of reflection
Low self-esteem
Manipulative
Sensation-seeking
Tense
Achievement-oriented
Impulsive
Moody
Dogmatic
Risk-taking
Hypochondriac
Masculine
Expressive
Lack of autonomy
Tough-minded
Active
Obsessive
One validity scale to detect unusual responding.

Auke Tellegen’s Multiple Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
It is listed as “under development” at the University of Minnesota Press site:
http://www.upress.umn.edu/tests/mpq.html
Eleven Primary Traits
Personal Well-being
Personal Distress
Socially Potency
Social Impotency
Achievement Orientation
Failure Orientation
Social Closeness
Social Aloofness
Stress Reaction
Stress Tolerance
Alienation
Integration
Aggression
Agreeableness
Control
Impulsive
Harmavoidance
Risk Taking
Traditionalism
Radicalism
Absorption
Separation
Three Second-Order Traits
Positive Emotionality
Negative Emotionality
Constraint
Five Validity Scales are also included for detecting unusual responding.
The items for a shortened version are published in a recent article: Patrick, C., Curtin, J., and
Tellegen, A. (2002). Development and validation of a brief form of the Multidimensional
Personality Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 14, 150-163.

Robert Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R)
Cloninger’s model was originally developed around a bio-chemical model:
Temperament Neurotransmitter
system
Novelty seeking
–>
Low dopaminergic activity
Harm avoidance
–>
High serotonergic activity
Reward dependence –>
Low noradrenergic activity
His TCI-R incorporates these three temperaments and adds Persistence:
Novelty Seeking
Harm Avoidance
Reward Dependence
Persistence
He also adds three dispositions hypothesized to be related to overall well-being:
Self-Directedness
Cooperativeness
Self-Transcendence
You can find more information about the test at: http://psychobiology.wustl.edu/joomla/
Novelty seeking
Harm Avoidance
Reward dependence
Exploratory excitability
Anticipatory worry
Sentimentality
Impulsiveness
Fear of uncertainty
Openness to warm communication
Extravagance
Shyness
Attachment
Disorderliness
Fatigability
Dependence
Persistence
Self-directedness
Cooperativeness
Eagerness of effort
Responsibility
Social acceptance
Work hardened
Purposeful
Empathy
Ambitious
Self-Acceptance
Helpfulness
Perfectionist
Enlightened second nature
Compassion
Pure-hearted conscience
Self-transcendence
Self-forgetful
Transpersonal identification
Spiritual acceptance

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Created on the basis of Carl Jung’s theory of the psyche. This instrument is one of the most widely used
questionnaires despite many psychologists’ negative attitudes toward Jung’s theory. It is widely used in
marital counseling, career counseling, and industrial/organizational psychology.
Commercially available from CPP: https://www.cpp.com/products/mbti/index.aspx
Online “for fun” version can be found at: http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm
You can also take it at OSU’s Career Counseling Services. Although not based on Jung’s theory, a very
similar approach is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter: http://www.keirsey.com/default.aspx
The MBTI measures four bipolar dimensions:
Introversion - Extraversion
Thinking - Feeling
Sensing - Intuition
Judging - Perceiving
These bipolar dimensions are crossed to create 16 types; e.g., ITSJ, EFIP, IFSP, etc. A brief summary
of your type is presented with the test results.
Important Book:
Briggs-Myers, Isabel (1995) Gifts Differing. Davies-Black Publishing.

Henry Murray's Psychogenic Needs
Everything below is copied from: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/murray.html
Needs
Abasement:
To surrender and accept punishment
Achievement:
To overcome obstacles and succeed
Acquisition (Conservance):
To obtain possessions
Affiliation:
To make associations and friendships
Aggression:
To injure others
Autonomy:
To resist others and stand strong
Blameavoidance:
To avoid blame and obey the rules
Construction:
To build or create
Contrariance:
To be unique
Counteraction:
To defend honor
Defendance:
To justify actions
Deference:
To follow a superior, to serve
Dominance (Power):
To control and lead others
Exhibition:
To attract attention
Exposition:
To provide information, educate
Harmavoidance:
To avoid pain
Infavoidance:
To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness
Nurturance:
To protect the helpless
Order:
To arrange, organize, and be precise
Play:
To relieve tension, have fun, or relax
Recognition:
To gain approval and social status
Rejection:
To exclude another
Sentience:
To enjoy sensuous impressions
Sex (Erotic):
To form and enjoy an erotic relationship
Similance:
To empathize
Succorance:
To seek protection or sympathy
Understanding (Cognizance):
To analyze and experience, to seek knowledge
M urray contended that environmental forces played a significant role in the exhibition of the psychogenic needs. He called
the forces "press," referring to the pressure they put on us that forces us to act. He further argued for a difference between the
real environmental forces, alpha press, and those that are merely perceived, beta press.
Three of M urray's Psychogenic Needs have been the focus of considerable research: The Need for Power (nPow), Affiliation
(nAff) and Achievement (nAch).
The need for Power refers to the desire or need to impact other people, to control or be in a position of influence. Careers
that involve these aspects are better suited for high nPow people, such as teachers, psychologists, journalists, and supervisors.
They don't necessarily make the best leaders though. Research has found that those with high nPow are more likely to rate an
employee higher if that employee has a tendency to schmooz or flatter the subject where those with low or moderate nPow
rate employees the same. In this sense, those with high nPow would do well if they also had traits of self-control and
objectivity.
The need for affiliation has a long history of research, and studies show that those with a high nAff often have a larger social
circle. They spend more time interacting with other such as talking on the phone and writing letters, and they are more likely
to be members of social groups or clubs. Those with high nAff are also more likely to get lonely than those low in nAff, so
their need for affiliation may be related to their sense of self and their desire for external stimulation.
Those with a high need for achievement (nAch) demonstrate a consistent concern about meeting obligations and
accomplishing tasks. They are, however, more focused on internal motivation rather than external rewards. For example,
those high in nAch are more likely to value intelligence and personal achievement over recognition and praise.

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Eric Erickson’s stages of Psychosocial development
Basic
Important
Stage
Outcome
Conflict
Events
Infancy (birth to
Trust vs.
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide
Feeding
18 months)
M istrust
reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Autonomy
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical
Early Childhood
vs. Shame
Toilet Training
skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of
(2 to 3 years)
and Doubt
autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the
Preschool (3 to 5
Initiative vs.
environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose.
Exploration
years)
Guilt
Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval,
resulting in a sense of guilt.
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands.
School Age (6 to
Industry vs.
School
Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in
11 years)
Inferiority
feelings of inferiority.
Identity vs.
Teens needs to develop a sense of self and personal identity.
Adolescence (12
Social
Role
Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure
to 18 years)
Relationships
Confusion
leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other
Yound Adulthood Intimacy vs. Relationships
people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results
(19 to 40 years)
Isolation
in loneliness and isolation.
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often
M iddle
Generativity
by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other
W ork and
Adulthood (40 to
vs.
people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
Parenthood
65 years)
Stagnation
accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the
world.
Ego
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of
M aturity(65 to
Reflection on
Integrity vs.
fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while
death)
Life
Despair
failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

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