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Blood and Lymphatic System

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Blood is one of the most important tissues in our body. It consists of red blood cells (carrying gases and giving it the red color), white blood cells (leukocytes that fight disease) and platelets (clotting agents), which are all suspended in fluid called plasma. Blood has many functions: carrying of oxygen to tissues, supplying nutrients to cells, waste removal, immunological functions, coagulation, messenger functions, pH regulation, body temperature regulation, and hydraulic functions. Blood is pumped through the body by the heart, gravity, and muscles. Problems with the composition or circulation of the blood can lead to tissue dysfunction and death, as well as a host of other problems in every cell and tissue throughout the body. The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymph nodes, ducts, and vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from the tissues to the circulatory system. It has three major functions: removal of excess tissue fluid, absorption and transport of fat to the circulatory system, and production of immune cells. Lymph originates as blood plasma from the capillaries and becomes the fluid that fills the spaces between cells and tissues. The thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix and bone marrow are part of the system and their proper function depends on the lymphatic system.
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  • Tags: blood, lymphatic system, anemia, blood coagulation disorders, dyslipidemia, hemophilia, hypovolemia
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Content Preview
Blood and
Lymphatic System

Blood is one of the most important tissues in our body. It consists of red blood cells (carrying gases and giving it the
red color), white blood cells (leukocytes that fight disease) and platelets (clotting agents), which are all suspended
in fluid called plasma. Blood has many functions: carrying of oxygen to tissues, supplying nutrients to cells, waste
removal, immunological functions, coagulation, messenger functions, pH regulation, body temperature regulation,
and hydraulic functions. Blood is pumped through the body by the heart, gravity, and muscles. Problems with the
composition or circulation of the blood can lead to tissue dysfunction and death, as well as a host of other problems in
every cell and tissue throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymph nodes, ducts, and vessels that produce and transport
lymph fluid from the tissues to the circulatory system. It has three major functions: removal of excess tissue fluid,
absorption and transport of fat to the circulatory system, and production of immune cells. Lymph originates as blood
plasma from the capillaries and becomes the fluid that fills the spaces between cells and tissues. The thymus, spleen,
lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix and bone marrow are part of the system and their proper function depends on the
lymphatic system.


130
Anemia
Anemia is characterized by a lower than normal red blood cell (erythrocyte) count in the blood.
This is usually measured by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin present, the red oxygen-
transporting pigment in blood cells. There are many different types of anemia, each with unique
causes and symptoms. Hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia
are examples of various types. Some potential causes are blood loss, nutritional deficiencies,
diseases, reactions to medication, and problems with the bone marrow. Women with heavy
menstrual periods typically experience iron deficiency anemia; other risk factors include
pregnancy, older age, and certain diseases.
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Anemia Affymax Inc.
Hematide
II
FibroGen, Inc.
YM311 / FG2216
II
FibroGen, Inc.
YM311 / FG2216
II
Nektar Therapeutics
CERA
PA
Blood Coagulation Disorders
After damage to a tissue, bleeding occurs. This bleeding is supposed to stop due to the
formation of solid blood clots through a coagulation process. Disorders in this blood
coagulation mechanism can lead to hemorrhaging (unstoppable flow of blood), thrombosis
(the formation of clots inside blood vessels) and embolism (blockage of a blood vessel by a
blood clot). This can lead to either tissue death or the death of an individual. Treatments focus
on ensuring that blood clots normally.
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Hemorrhage Renovis, Inc.
Cerovive / NXY-059 (disufenton sodium)
II
Blood Coagulation
Disorders Nuvelo Inc
Alfimeprase
III
Genentech, Inc.
Cathflo Activase (alteplase)
M
Dyslipidemia
Dyslipidemia refers to a disruption of the amount of lipids (fats) in the blood due to a disorder of
lipoprotein metabolism. In Western societies, this is usually due to an increased concentration
of lipids, hyperlypidemia, due to diet and lifestyle. Dyslipidemias are detected by elevated levels
of cholesterols and lipoproteins in the blood. Diabetes is often associated with this disease.
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Dyslipidemia Quark Biotech, Inc.
QC-BT16
II
Hemophilia
Hemophilia is a bleeding illness in which it takes a long time for blood to clot, causing abnormal
bleeding. Hemophilia A is due to a deficiency (lack) of the blood clotting factor VIII. This
disorder is caused by an inherited X-chromosome linked recessive trait, so males are primarily
affected (though women can be carriers). Symptoms include excessive bleeding and are often
diagnosed during infant circumcision. Hemophilia B is a hereditary blood coagulation disorder
caused by a deficiency of the blood plasma protein called factor IX that affects the clotting
property of blood. It also primarily affects males.

BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
131
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Genteric, Inc.
HepaFIX
I
Hemophilia
Bayer
Kogenate
M
Hypovolemia
Hypovolemia is a condition in which there is a significant decrease in the volume of blood
plasma in the body. Dehydration, bleeding, and severe burns can cause this, as well as drugs
such as diuretics or others used to treat hypertensive individuals. Sometimes, hypovolemia
occurs due to blood donation. If severe, low blood volume can lead to multiple organ failure,
damage of the kidneys or brain, and eventually, death.
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
BioTime, Inc.
PentaLyte
I
Hypovolemia
BioTime, Inc.
Hextend
M

Bayer: Science For A Better Life
For more information visit www.bayerhealthcare.com
kogenate half page.indd 1
10/23/06 4:33:26 PM

132
Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), formerly known as “preleukemia,” are a collection of blood
conditions united by the abnormal and ineffective production of blood cells and the risk of
transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia. Anemia is frequently associated with this
disease, often requiring frequent blood transfusions. Though MDS is not a true malignant
neoplasm, it is classified as a hematological neoplasm. Symptoms include anemia, neutropenia
(low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count).
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Telik, Inc.
Telintra
II
Thrombocythemia Impax Laboratories, Inc.
Anagrelide Hydrochloride Capsules
M
Myelodysplastic Syndrome SuperGen, Inc.
Dacogen (decitabine)
M
Neutropenia Nektar Therapeutics
Neulasta (pegfilgrastim)
M
Thrombocytopenia Berlex
Refludan Injection [lepirudin rDNA]
M
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disorder in which the body makes abnormally shaped
red blood cells. These deformed blood cells are shaped like a crescent and do not move easily
through the blood stream, often getting stuck and blocking the flow of blood to organs and
limbs. This leads to low blood count, organ damage, and pain. Individuals are born with the
disease. Sickle cell anemia is more common in African Americans, with 1 in 500 estimated to be
affected. Current treatments seek to improve blood flow.
COMPANY
PRODUCT
PHASE
Sickle Cell Anemia Angiogenix, Inc.
Angx3227
II
SuperGen, Inc.
Dacogen (decitabine)
II



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