BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE
by Anastasia Spencer, Dr. Alan Gillen, and Hilary Spencer
This study guide was designed for use with Body by Design: Fearfully and Wonderfully Made. It is
hoped that this guide/solutions manual will not only provide clear answers to end-of-chapter questions,
but also will encourage and interest students to study further. Humanity is the pinnacle of God’s creation.
Today, after centuries of study, much is known, but many things are still not understood about the human
body. The study of the body is full of thrilling discoveries and realizations for the careful student. Most
importantly, this study gives us a deeper awe of our Creator who wove “wisdom in the inward parts.”
A key concept in Body by Design is that of the interwoven complexity in anatomy. In fact, the
“fabrica” concept is “woven” throughout both the text and the questions. Much of the information needed
to aid in answering these questions can be found in Table 1.1 on page 10. To answer these questions fully,
though, you often may wish to study further in other texts. Indeed, Body by Design’s thought-provoking
questions are intended to be a springboard into more intensive studies. It is strongly recommended that
you invest in a good college-level anatomy and physiology textbook. (See list of recommended reading
below.) After reading a chapter in Body by Design, read the related chapter(s) in the anatomy and
physiology textbook before trying to answer the questions. Also, try to not “look back” while answering
the questions. If you can accomplish this, you will be promoting long-term retention, which should be your
goal. Skimming the questions before reading the chapter is also a good idea. This helps you pick up the
main points in the chapter as you read.
In the study guide, you will notice that, where appropriate, the questions have answers on two
different levels. These levels are high school level (HS), and college level (CL), and should give an example
of what can reasonably be expected of a junior or senior in high school or a freshman or sophomore in
college. Here are some study methods that many have found valuable.
“The notebook” — Any spiral bound notebook will do, preferably one without perforated
pages. Write, write, and write while you read. Outline and summarize what you are studying.
Number the pages and write on only one side of the pages. Also, leave space between points. This
gives you room to add more as you learn, and it makes memorizing your notes much easier. Most
find that memorizing the notes out loud is very helpful. However, memorizing the notes verbatim is
usually not the best idea. Instead, constantly summarize and review.
“Flash cards” — This method is an old “tried-and-true.” It is especially well adapted for
the study of anatomy. Many like to put their cards on a metal ring and keep them with them
“Teach it” — This may seem odd at first, but is really one of the best ways to learn. Choose a
limited subject and find a good appreciative wall for an audience. By the time you have explained your
subject to the wall a couple times, you will find that you have it memorized and understand it, too.
The best thing you can do for yourself, though, is to read as much as you can about anatomy
and physiology and related sciences. There are also several good video series on the human body and
pathology. For instance, the TIME LIFE MEDICAL video series with C. Everett Coop, M.D., covers
subjects such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and arthritis. The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) and
Answers in Genesis (AIG) offer outstanding video series on creation versus evolution.
Here is a list of resources that will help you as you work through Body by Design. You will find a
longer, different list on page 153 of Body by Design. If you live near a university, many of these resources
will be readily available. If you are far from a university or a good library, the Internet offers several
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 2
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition, by G.J. Tortora and S.R. Grabowski,
published by John Wiley & Sons. This is an excellent college level textbook
Introduction to the Human Body: The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, by G.J. Tortora, pub-
lished by Harper Collins College Publishers.
Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology, fifth edition, by Kent M. Van De Graaff and Stuart
Ira Fox, published by Wm. C. Brown Publishers. This is an excellent source with clear in-depth text and
excellent pictures and diagrams. This text alone has nearly everything you will need for answering the
questions in Body by Design.
Wm. C. Brown Publishers also offer a good set of 300 anatomy and physiology flash cards that are
useful with any text, and a computerized study guide.
Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, fifth or sixth edition, by S.L. Robbins, R. Cotran, and V. Kumar,
published by W.B. Saunders Co. This is one of the best pathology texts available. Although it is a
medical school level text, it is well-written and very clear, even for undergraduates. I used it quite a bit
while preparing the study guide. I recommend, though, that you look for it in a university or medical
school library rather than buying it, unless you are seriously planning to attend medical school within
a few years.
Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy, by Frank H. Netter. This is one of the most popular anatomy
atlases among medical students. It is available at www.netterart.com.
Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy — This is a close runner-up to Netter’s. It is an outstanding, very detailed
work.Gray’s Anatomy, fifteenth edition. This is the classic text on anatomy and is fairly inexpensive.
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, seventh edition, by J. Hole, D. Shier, and R. Lewis, published
by Wm. C. Brown Publishers. This text is well-suited for advanced high school or college students.
Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, seventh edition, by J. Hole, D. Shier, and R.
Lewis, published by Wm. C. Brown Publishers. This text is well-suited for middle-level high school or
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, seventh edition, by J. Hole, D. Shier, and R. Lewis, published
by Wm. C. Brown Publishers. This text is well-suited for upper-level high school students.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
Chapter 1, page 15
1. Design can be recognized in several ways. First, design is evidenced by a structure’s perfect suitability for
certain tasks. Second, design is revealed in the balanced interplay of several different systems or structures
to reach a common goal.
2. The 11 body systems are as follows:
A. Integumentary system: protects the body from the external environment, and helps maintain
B. Muscular system: provides movement through contraction or relaxation.
C. Skeletal system: provides support for the body and protection for vital organs.
D. Circulatory system: carries nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body and removes waste.
E. Respiratory system: provides oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
F. Lymphatic and immune system: protects the body from pathogens. The lymphatic system also
returns interstitial fluid to the blood.
G. Digestive system: works to break down food into components that can be absorbed by the
H. Excretory system: filters and removes nitrogenous waste from the body.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 3
I. Endocrine system: secretes hormones that regulate and influence different body functions.
J. Nervous system: coordinates the body’s internal functions and its response to external stimuli.
K. Reproductive system: provides for the continuation of human race.
The skeletal system is the most widely recognized system of the body. Both the endocrine and the immune
systems are less easily recognized.
3. As seen in the text:
a. The relationship of structure to function.
c. Interdependence among body parts.
d. Short-term physiological adaptation.
e. Maintenance of boundaries.
f. Order, organization, and integration.
All of these apply for all body systems.
4. As the systems work together to form a whole, it uncovers a wise plan. Every part is perfectly designed
for its role and place. The systems do not interfere with each other, but perfectly complement each other.
Through its interwoven, interdependent design, the body reveals Divine wisdom in its inward parts.
5. Vesalius was probably a creationist as revealed by his strong belief in God and in his carefully recorded
discoveries of the exquisite design in the human body. Vesalius’s bold challenge to the accepted view of
his day encouraged later scientists to think critically and to use more scientific methods of study. By
using a human cadaver, he proved that there are many differences between humans and animals and
one cannot be used to authoritatively describe the other. Thus, he based human anatomy on a far more
6. Science must be based on facts and careful observations. Thus, like Vesalius, scientists today must be
willing to scrutinize all the evidence to discover the truth whether it conflicts with the popular view or
not. Nowhere should scientists be more careful in this than in a quick acceptance of the evolutionary
theory. Here, they should seek to know both sides, and then, laying aside philosophy, compare the two
views with scientific fact.
Chapter 2, page 21
1. The theory of evolution has had a profound influence on the 20th century. For instance, the Holocaust
was openly and firmly based on the Darwinian concepts of superior races and the survival of the
fittest. Today, evolutionary thinking is the basis for the growing acceptance of abortion and euthanasia.
Unfortunately, the belief of evolution has often caused scientists to abandon the scientific method for the
sake of evolutionary “proofs.” Unless honesty and truth regain their rightful place in science, such frauds
and genocides will probably increase in the 21st century.
2. Evolutionists and creationists both agree that changes do occur. However, creationists point out that
such changes are limited, cause the loss of information, and cannot change one organism into a different
organism. Yet, evolutionists argue that such changes could, over eons of time, result in massive and
3. Small variations or loss of information in a closed gene pool constitute microevolution. Microevolution
never increases information, but either loses it or presents it in a different combination. In contrast,
macroevolution represents huge changes that require vast new information. Macroevolution is the concept
that over time, one life form can change into another very different life form.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 4
4. Humans exhibit many variations in such things as height, skin, and eye and hair color. Yet these
differences are very small, and humans remain irrevocably human. This is similar to the concept of
microevolution — small changes within a kind.
5. In the evolutionary view, man is the product of random, chance processes. Thus, the body should be
full of junk relics from earlier stages of evolution. They term such alleged relics “vestigial.” Tonsils and
wisdom teeth are two examples of such supposed vestigial parts. In contrast, the creation view holds that
there is a purposeful design for everything, though it may not be understood yet. This view has proven
true with both tonsils and wisdom teeth. Tonsils are important to the immune system, and wisdom teeth
are fully functional molars.
6. Though Darwin was very familiar with William Paley’s book Natural Theology, he rejected it because he
rejected God. His writings on evolution were his attempt to rationalize that rejection.
7. One’s world view on origins will profoundly influence his values, lifestyle, and actions. If one accepts the
evolutionary view that no power higher than chance has brought about life, then man is accountable to no
one. In a world ruled by chance, there is no need or place for absolutes such as right and wrong. On the
other hand, if one believes in an omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent Creator, then one realizes that he is
accountable to that Creator and must obey His laws.
Chapter 3, page 29
1. A mosaic has thousands of tiny parts which form an intricate, rich pattern. These little pieces are
meaningless on their own, yet in the hands of a master craftsman; they can become a complex, beautiful
design. Mosaics require careful, thorough planning. When cells are compared to mosaics, this comparison
makes a strong argument for intelligent design of the cell.
(HS) 2. The main covering of the cell is two layers of lipids with embedded proteins. These proteins,
however, are not stationary and can move in the lipid bilayer, forming complicated and functional mosaics.
Hence the term, “fluid mosaic membrane.”
(CL) 2. The main covering of the cell is the phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipids have a polar end and a
nonpolar end. The polar ends face out while their nonpolar ends face in toward each other. This helps
the cell restrict water and mineral movement across the membrane. Proteins embedded in the bilayer
membrane selectively transport materials across the membrane, act as receptors, and can move in the
bilayer as necessary. Completing the mosaic of the cell membrane are surface glycolipid and glycoprotein
3. No one thinks that a car came into existence by random chance. One realizes from uniform experience
that cars require a designer who has planned carefully in advance, and builders who put that plan into
action. If we saw a specialized machine fulfilling its task, we would conclude (even though we had never
seen it before) that there was intelligent design behind its construction. The human body is far more
specialized and intricate than any machine. Thus, we conclude that the human body is the product of
(HS) 4. Design is seen in DNA in its tight intertwining double helix, its careful base pairing, its stored
information, and its outstanding “proofreading” system.
(CL) 4. The vast information stored in the twisting double helix of DNA gives a strong argument for
design. Not only can design be seen in the nearly infinite number of base sequences possible, but also in
DNA’s proofreading system that allows it to be replicated over and over with few mistakes.
(HS) 5. Pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium, simple cuboidal epithelium, simple squamous epithelium,
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 5
and simple columnar epithelium. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium has many cilia that enable it to
move foreign particles out of the respiratory tract. Simple cuboidal epithelium, with its square shape, is
important in secretion. Simple squamous epithelium’s flattened shape promotes rapid diffusion in such
places as the lungs. Simple columnar epithelium’s volume and shape make it very absorptive.
(CL) 5. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines the trachea and the bronchial tubes. With its
cilia it functions to force bacteria and dust from the bronchi and trachea. Simple cuboidal epithelium
lines tubules and ducts that are actively involved in secretion. Its cube shape enables it to perform this
process efficiently. Simple squamous epithelium lines the walls of blood vessels and alveoli in the lungs.
Its irregular flattened shape promotes rapid diffusion. Simple columnar epithelium lines the stomach and
intestines where it serves as a very absorptive surface.
6. Let us begin with DNA in a multinucleate muscle cell or fiber. This is the molecular level. This DNA is
contained in a nucleus of the muscle fiber. The rest of the muscle fiber consists of thousands of myofibrils.
This is the cellular level. Each muscle fiber is bound to other muscle fibers to form a muscle bundle. This
muscle bundle is then connected by fascia to other muscle bundles to form a complete muscle — for
instance the triceps brachii. This muscle, in turn, is part of something much larger: the entire muscular
Chapter 4, page 35
(HS) 1. Male: Testes, penis, accessory reproductive glands. Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina.
(CL) 1. The primary male reproductive organs are the paired testes. The spermatic ducts, penis, and
accessory reproductive glands comprise the secondary male reproductive organs. The female reproductive
organs are the paired ovaries, uterine tube, uterus, and vagina. Associated organs, while not technically
a part of the reproductive system, include the placenta and umbilical cord. These organs are present
only in pregnancy.
2. The overall function of the reproductive system is to ensure the continuation and survival of the
3. The uterine blood supply is a beautifully interwoven component of the reproductive system. The
branching vessels of the uterine arteries run over both the uterine tube and ovary before they join together,
or anastomose, at the upper portion of the uterus. Its weaving pathway supplies the uterus with plenty of
oxygen-rich blood. The complex intertwining of the seminiferous tubules also supply a good example of
an interwoven portion of the reproductive system.
4. The growing fetus is surrounded by an amniotic sac derived from ectoderm and mesoderm. This
amniotic sac is filled with amniotic fluid that cushions and protects the fetus. The amniotic fluid ensures
that a constant pressure and temperature is maintained about the fetus. Surrounding the amniotic sac is
the chorion. Because of this protective sac, the fetus is able to develop freely without constriction. The
amniotic sac and chorion are a superb protection for the fetus and are strong evidence for intelligent
5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, STDs
6. Recapitulation theory, that human development is a “replay” of macroevolution, was first proposed by
Ernst Haeckel. This theory claims that as the fetus develops it reveals different stages of evolution. This
faulty theory is based on the vague resemblance of certain fetal structures to animal parts, and Haeckel’s
fraudulent embryological drawings. It has no basis in fact, and is an example of very poor science. Its
modern-day proponent is Dr. Ken Miller.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 6
Chapter 5, page 45
1. This question is best seen in the light of components. The bones of the skeletal system are composed of
several types of unique cells. These cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, work together to form the
Haversian system of the bone. Osteoblasts form bone, osteoclasts destroy old bone tissue to make room for
new, and osteocytes are mature osteoblasts with bone tissue secretions surrounding them.
2. The skeleton provides structure, protects internal organs, and is the center for the production of marrow.
3. Interwoven design is best seen in the structure of compact bone tissue. This bone tissue is a complex
arrangement of cylindrical osteons interlaced with thousands of canaliculi that join the osteocytes inside
the lacunae in concentric circles. Perforating canals weave through the bone, joining each osteon’s central
canal. This intricate and beautiful design is a good example of the fabrica concept: the bone is a skillfully
(HS) 4. There are several structural differences between male and female pelvic girdles that point to
intelligent design. For instance, the female pelvic outlet is wider than the males. The pubic arch in the
female is greater than 90 while in the male it is less than this. These and other differences show that the
female pelvic girdle is designed for the needs of pregnancy and childbirth.
(CL) 4. The male and female pelves have several differences. First of all, the male pelvis is more massive
and has more prominent processes than the female’s, which is more delicate. Also, the male pelvic inlet
is heart-shaped, while the female’s is oval; the male’s pelvic outlet is narrow, compared to the female’s
wider outlet. In the male pelvis, the anterior superior iliac spines are closer together than in the female.
In addition, the obturator foramina are oval in the male but are triangular in the female. The male’s
symphysis pubis is deeper and longer than the female’s. The male’s acetabula faces laterally, while the
female’s faces somewhat anteriorly. Finally, the male’s pubic arch is less than 90 while the female’s is
greater than 90 . It is clear that God intelligently designed the female pelvis for the needs of childbirth.
(HS) 5. Arthritis is the most common form of joint degeneration. Its symptoms are pain, stiffening, and
swelling at the joints.
(CL) 5. The most common degenerative condition of the joints is arthritis, a common term that covers
several inflammatory joint diseases. Prevalent among these is osteoarthritis. Its symptoms include pain,
restricted movement of the joints, and deforming calcification at the joints.
(HS) 6. The thumb has a unique joint, the saddle joint, that allows it to have a wide range of motion.
Because of this joint, and the thumb’s position, the thumb can oppose the other fingers. Without this
ability, it would be very difficult to pick things up. The thumb is powerful proof of a wise designer.
(CL) 6. The thumb is one of the amazing wonders of the human body. First, the thumb is joined to the
hand by a unique joint found nowhere else in the human body. This joint, the saddle joint, has a surface
that is convex in one direction and concave in the other. This gives the thumb a very wide range of motion.
Most important of these motions is the thumb’s ability to oppose, or move in the opposite direction of, the
other fingers and hand. Without this ability, it would be almost impossible to grasp objects and hold them
firmly. Also, several muscles in the hand are involved with the intricate manipulation of the thumb. The
thumb is powerful proof of a wise designer.
(HS) 7. A suspension bridge’s long arches evenly distribute the weight and can withstand shock. In the
foot, longitudinal and transverse arches support the body weight by evenly distributing it. These arches
protect your feet from the wear and shock of daily use by providing great flexibility and elasticity.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 7
(CL) 7. The foot has two arches, transverse and longitudinal, that give the foot leverage, and spread and
support the body’s weight. Like a suspension bridge, the arches are somewhat elastic, spreading under
weight and springing back into place as soon as the weight is removed. These arches are very important for
the foot’s protection, because they absorb shock.
Chapter 6, page 53
1. The main components of the muscular system are skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, cardiac and smooth are involuntary.
2. The overall function of the muscular system is to provide movement for the body via contraction.
3.(HS). One of the finest examples of interwoven design in the muscular system is that of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum and transverse tubules in the muscle fiber. The sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubules are
woven around and between the individual myofibrils in a muscle fiber. This interwoven design allows all
myofilaments to be rapidly activated to shorten.
3.(CL) One of the finest examples of interwoven design in the muscular system is that of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum and transverse tubules in the muscle fiber. A muscle fiber or cell is composed of many column-
like myofibrils which in turn are made of thousands of myofilaments. Contraction is caused by the
shortening of these filaments. Yet, contraction would not be possible without the interwoven design of
the sarcoplasmic reticulum and T.tubules. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is woven tightly around each myofibril.
Running alongside of the sarcoplasmic reticulum are the T.tubules that carry the nerve impulse. Thus,
when a nerve impulse reaches the muscle fiber, it is transmitted quickly to the reticulum, which in turn
releases Ca2+, causing the muscle to contract. What a complex, interwoven design!
4. (HS) The skeletal muscle is composed of several smaller muscle bundles called fasciculi. These fasciculi
in turn are formed from many distinct muscle fibers or cells. Muscle fibers contain myofibrils which in turn
hold thousands of myofilaments, actin and myosin, which slide together to contract the muscle fiber. This
superbly strong design is evidence for creation of the muscles.
4. (CL) The skeletal muscle is covered with a fascia called epimysium. This epimysium extends into
the muscle separating it into bundles called fasciculi. Continuous with the epimysium is the perimysium
which surrounds each fasciculus. The fasciculi are further subdivided by endomysium into distinct muscle
fibers. Skeletal muscle fibers appear striated and have myofibrils that contain thousands of myofilaments
arranged in sarcomeres. Thick myofilaments are made of the protein myosin, and the thin of the
protein actin. The sliding together of these myofilaments causes contraction of the muscle. Surely, such
interdependent complexity reveals a wise Creator.
5. (HS) Muscle fatigue is caused by an accumulation of lactic acid formed in the muscles during overexertion.
5. (CL) Muscle contractions require large amounts of energy in the form of ATP. This ATP is generated
normally in a three-stage aerobic cellular respiration. However, during exertion not enough oxygen is pres-
ent to meet the demand, and the three stages cannot be completed. Instead, the cell resorts to anaerobic
respiration to supply the needed ATPs. This form of respiration produces lactic acid as a byproduct. As the
lactic acid accumulates, it causes muscle fatigue and pain.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 8
Chapter 7, page 61
1. The digestive organs are these: Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large
intestine. Accessory organs to the digestive system include the tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pan-
creas, and gallbladder.
2. The overall function of the digestive system is to break down foods through hydrolysis into molecules
that can be absorbed easily into the blood or lymph.
3. The small and large intestines are excellent examples of intertwining members of the digestive system.
The intertwining of the small intestine allows it to maximize the volume allotted it. This, of course,
increases the available surface area needed for absorption of nutrients.
4. The structure of an intestinal villus is far more complex than it first appears. Each villus is formed from
a fold in the mucosa. Inside each villus is a lymph vessel called the lacteal. A venule runs up one side of
the lacteal and an arteriole runs up the other. The venule and arteriole are woven together by hundreds
of capillaries that surround the lacteal. Digested fatty acids cannot enter the blood immediately and are
absorbed by the lacteal. Other nutrients absorbed by the villus pass at once into the bloodstream. This
complex design requires that all parts be fully functioning at the same time. It is impossible that all these
delicate parts could evolve at the same time in the proper place.
5. (HS) Some bacteria are not classified as germs because they do not harm humans. In fact, some bacteria
in our intestines provide us with essential vitamins.
5. (CL) Some bacteria are not classified as germs because they are non-pathogenic. Moreover, many of
these bacteria are beneficial to humans because they retard the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Also,
some bacteria in the intestine help to disassemble certain sugars and cellulose that could not otherwise
be digested. Most importantly, certain bacteria are essential for life. Bacteria in the intestines synthesize
NAD, a crucial component of cellular respiration.
6. (HS) Dental caries form when sugary food is allowed to accumulate on the tooth, providing a rich
feeding ground for bacteria in the mouth. As the bacteria break down the sugar, they form lactic acid,
which eventually forms holes in the tooth’s enamel.
6. (CL) Dental caries are the result of lactic acid formed as a byproduct when bacteria such as Streptococ-
cus mutans break down sugars left on the teeth. The lactic acid gradually breaks through the teeth’s
enamel. Another bacteria, Lactobacillus, speeds up the decay.
Chapter 8, page 67
1. The organs of the excretory system are these: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The functional
unit of the kidney is the nephron.
2. The overall function of the excretory system is to filter waste from the blood and then remove it
from the body.
3. (HS) The nephron and peritubular capillaries are a good example of intertwining design in the excretory
system. The nephrons are twisting tubular structures surrounded by a woven mesh of capillaries.
3. (CL) An intricately intertwined component of the excretory system is the nephron with its associated
peritubular capillaries. The Bowman’s capsule of the nephron surrounds the glomerulus, a twisted,
interwoven ball of capillaries. Filtrate forced through the fenestrate of the capillaries is drawn down the
proximal convoluted tubule that leads off the Bowman’s capsule. This tubule weaves through an intricate
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 9
fabric of peritubular capillaries as it forms the nephron loop and distal convoluted tubule before emptying
into the collecting duct.
4. (HS) The kidney clearly shows irreducible complexity. If any component of the kidney’s delicate system
were missing, the kidney could not function. For example, if the kidney were not highly vascular, not
enough water could be reabsorbed, and one would quickly die of enormous water loss. The kidney is
truly irreducibly complex.
4. (CL) The kidney clearly shows irreducible complexity. If any component of the kidney’s delicate system
were missing, the kidney could not function. For example, the glomerular capillaries have very large
pores that make these capillaries hundreds of times more permeable than normal. Thus, these pores, or
fennestrae, enable the filtrate to pass out of the blood. If these fennestrae were missing, filtration could
not take place. If they were larger, blood cells and platelets would escape. Another example of irreducible
complexity of the kidney is its vast number of nephrons. If it had fewer, the kidney could not filter
the blood fast enough or often enough. Also, if the kidney were not highly vascular, the necessary
reabsorption could not occur; and one would die rapidly from enormous water loss.
5. (HS) Urinary tract infections are caused mainly by bacteria (mostly E.coli) from fecal matter.
5. (CL) Urinary tract infections are of two main types: cystitis (involving the bladder) and pyelonephritis
(involving the kidneys). In 85% of UTIs, the infection is caused by gram-negative bacteria such as E.coli,
Proteus, and Enterobacter. Less frequently, Staphylococcus or Streptococcus fecalis can produce renal
6. (D) Normally, urine is completely free of glucose, however, in diabetes mellitus, inadequate insulin
secretion results in a very high glucose concentration in the blood and thus glucose is in the urine. Also
,the blood glucose level of sample B exceeds healthy blood glucose levels. The normal range for blood
glucose is 70–110 mg per 100 ml.
7.(B) Notice that the blood glucose level is very low in sample C’s data. Hypoglycemia is caused by
overdose or over secretion of insulin.
8. Several of these answers are acceptable, the best being (B) or (A). (E) is a poor answer, since normal
urine would contain no glucose either.
9. (C) Diuretics inhibit water from being reabsorbed and therefore increase the volume of the urine.
10. (B) Tube C has the highest hydrogen ion concentration, [H+], as seen by its low pH. pH= -log[H+]
Chapter 9, page 77
1. Heart, veins, arteries, capillaries
2. (HS) Sickle cell anemia is an inherited anemia caused by a single mutation. It is characterized by sickled,
hardened red blood cells. These sickled cells can be clearly seen by using a light microscope.
2. (CL) Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single genetic mutation on the b chain of hemoglobin. This
mutation is the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the #6 position. The mutation results in sickled,
hardened RBCs. Sickle cell anemia is characterized by severe pain attacks, chronic hemolytic anemia,
organ and tissue deterioration, susceptibility to severe bacterial infection, and lowered life expectancy.
The sickled cells of the disease can be clearly seen through a light microscope. However, hemoglobin
electrophoresis and clinical findings are necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
BODY BY DESIGN STUDY GUIDE 10
3. (HS) One of the main jobs of the blood is transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to the
cell, and the removal of wastes from the cells. Blood also protects the body by destroying invaders and
through clotting to prevent excess blood loss. Blood is made of plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and
white blood cells.
3. (CL) The blood functions to transport oxygen and digested nutrients to the cell and to remove metabolic
wastes from the cell. The blood also carries hormones and helps stabilize the body’s temperature.
Another important function of the blood is protection through phagocytosis of foreign invaders. Blood is
made of a liquid part called plasma and a cellular part known as formed elements. Plasma is a yellowish
fluid made of water and solute such as Na+. Formed elements are the erythrocytes or red blood cells,
leukocytes or white blood cells, and platelets which are fragments off of large bone marrow cells.
4. The veins are a complex, interwoven structure of the circulatory system. Veins weave throughout the
entire body, reaching all organs and tissues. The veins are woven to the arteries by millions of capillaries.
Even the structure of the vein with its three tunics is a beautifully woven design. If it lacked one of these
tunics, the vein could not withstand the pressure or perform its job smoothly. The vein’s valves keep the
blood flowing in the right direction.
5. (HS) It has been proposed that sickle cell anemia is a beneficial trait because it provides the carrier with
some protection against malaria. Sickle cell anemia, however, cannot be considered beneficial. It results
in obstructed blood vessels, tissue death, severe pain crises, chronic anemia, leg ulcers, bone destruction,
gallstones, susceptibility to infection, and shortened life expectancy.
5. (CL) It has been claimed sometimes that the sickle cell trait is beneficial because it offers a slight
protection against falciparum malaria. This protection is strongest in the homozygous state of this trait,
sickle cell anemia. However, this small protection cannot compensate for the horrors of sickle cell anemia.
Normal RBCs are smooth and extremely flexible. Sickled cells are rough and somewhat rigid. This, and
their shape, causes them to form “log jams” in small blood vessels, cutting off the blood supply to organs
and tissues. Normal RBCs have a life span of 120 days, but sickled RBCs last only 20 days, leading
to chronic hemolytic anemia. Other results of SCA include massive leg ulcers, renal lesions, blindness,
collapse of the femoral head, extreme susceptibility to bacterial infections, dactylitis, and shortened life
expectancy. Beneficial? Hardly.
6. Homeostasis is a dynamic internal constancy that is essential for life. Thousands of feedback mecha-
nisms work to keep an average body temperature, blood glucose level, heart rate, etc. Blood clotting relates
to homeostasis because it is the process whereby blood loss is stopped, helping to keep the environment
stable. Most homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback mechanisms. For instance, if the body
becomes too hot, negative feedback loops work to remove this change in temperature by cooling it. On the
other hand, positive feedback increases the change in the body. Blood clotting is an example of positive
feedback. As one clotting factor is activated, it causes more and more clotting factors to be activated
until the blood clot is produced.
Chapter 10, page 84
1. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli)
2. The overall function of the respiratory system is gas exchange.
3. One interwoven aspect of the respiratory system is the trachea and bronchial tree. Its many subdividing
branches carry oxygen to all parts of the lungs. The arterioles and venules that extend throughout the
lungs are woven around these branches and their millions of alveoli to absorb the oxygen.