REQUIREMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR TYPOGRAPHY IN
BRIEFS AND OTHER PAPERS
Federal Rule of Appellate Procedure 32 contains detailed requirements for
the production of briefs, motions, appendices, and other papers that will be
presented to the judges. Rule 32 is designed not only to make documents
more readable but also to ensure that different methods of reproduction (and
different levels of technological sophistication among lawyers) do not affect
the length of a brief. The following information may help you better under-
stand Rule 32 and associated local rules. The Committee Note to Rule 32 pro-
vides additional helpful information.
This section of the handbook also includes some suggestions to help you
make your submissions more legible--and thus more likely to be grasped and
retained. In days gone past lawyers would send their work to printers, who
knew the tricks of that trade. Now composition is in-house, done by people
with no education in printing. Some of the printer's toolkit is simple to use,
however. Subsection 5, below, contains these hints.
1. Rule 32(a)(1)(B) requires text to be reproduced with "a clarity that
equals or exceeds the output of a laser printer." The resolution of a laser
printer is expressed in dots per inch. First generation laser printers broke
each inch into 300 dots vertically and horizontally, creating characters from
this 90,000-dot matrix. Second generation laser printers use 600 or 1200 dots
per inch in each direction and thus produce a sharper, more easily readable
output; commercial typesetters use 2400 dots per inch.
Any means of producing text that yields 300 dots per inch or more is ac-
ceptable. Daisy-wheel, typewriter, commercial printing, and many ink-jet
printers meet this standard, as do photocopies of originals produced by these
methods. Dot matrix printers and fax machines use lower resolution, and
their output is unacceptable. Although Rule 32(a) applies only to briefs and
motions, we urge counsel to maintain this standard of clarity in appendices.
A faxed copy of the district court's opinion, or text from Lexis or Westlaw
printed by a dot-matrix printer, is needlessly hard to read. Use photocopies of
the district court's original opinion and other documents in the record.
2. Rule 32(a)(5) distinguishes between proportional and monospaced fonts,
and between serif and sans-serif type. It also requires knowledge of points
Proportionally spaced type uses different widths for different characters.
Most of this handbook is in proportionally spaced type. A monospaced face, by
contrast, uses the same width for each character. Most typewriters produce
monospaced type, and most computers also can do so using fonts with names
such as "Courier," "Courier New," or "Andale Mono." The rule leaves to each
lawyer the choice between proportional and monospaced type.
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This sentence is in a proportionally spaced font; as you can see,
the m and i have different widths.
This sentence is in a monospaced font; as you can
see, the m and i have the same width.
Serifs are small horizontal or vertical strokes at the ends of the lines that
make up the letters and numbers. The next line shows two characters en-
larged for detail. The first has serifs, the second does not.
Studies have shown that long passages of serif type are easier to read and
comprehend than long passages of sans-serif type. The rule accordingly limits
the principal sections of submissions to serif type, although sans-serif type
may be used in headings and captions. This is the same approach magazines,
newspapers, and commercial printers take. Look at a professionally printed
brief; you will find sans-serif type confined to captions, if it is used at all.
This sentence is in New Century Schoolbook, a proportionally
spaced font with serifs. Baskerville, Bookman, Caslon, Gara-
mond, Georgia, and Times are other common serif faces.
This sentence is in Helvetica, a proportionally spaced sans-serif
font. Arial, Eurostile, Trebuchet, Univers, and Verdana are other
common sans-serif faces.
Variations of these names imply similar type designs.
Type must be large enough to read comfortably. For a monospaced face,
this means type approximating the old "pica" standard used by typewriters,
10 characters per horizontal inch, rather than the old "elite" standard of 12
characters per inch. Because some computer versions of monospaced type do
not come to exactly 10 characters per inch, Rule 32(a)(5)(B) allows up to 101/2
per inch, or 72 characters (including punctuation and spaces) per line of type.
Proportionally spaced characters vary in width, so a limit of characters per
line is not practical. Instead the rules require a minimum of 12-point type.
Circuit Rule 32 permits the use of 12-point type in text and 11-point type in
footnotes; Fed. R. App. P. 32(a)(5)(A) standing alone would have required you
to use 14-point type throughout.
"Point" is a printing term for the height of a character. There are 72 points
to the inch, so capital letters of 12-point type are a sixth of an inch tall. This
advice is in 12-point type. Your type may be larger than 12 points, but it can-
not be smaller. See Circuit Rule 32(b). Word processing and page layout pro-
grams can expand or condense the type using tracking controls, or you may
have access to a condensed version of the face (such as Garamond Narrow).
Do not use these. Condensed type is prohibited by Rule 32(a)(6). It offers no
benefit to counsel under an approach that measures the length of briefs in
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words rather than pages, and it is to your advantage to make the brief as leg-
ible as possible.
This is 9-point type.
This is 10-point type.
This is 11-point type.
This is 12-point type.
This is 12-point type, condensed. Condensed type is not acceptable.
This is 13-point type.
This is 14-point type.
3. Rule 32(a)(6) provides that the principal type must be a plain, roman
style. In other words, the main body of the document cannot be bold, italic,
capitalized, underlined, narrow, or condensed. This helps to keep the brief or
motion legible. Italics or underlining may be used only for case names or oc-
casional emphasis. Boldface and all-caps text should be used sparingly.
4. Rule 32(a)(7) determines the maximum length of a brief. It permits you
to present as much argument as a 50-page printed brief. The variability of
proportionally spaced type makes it necessary to express this length in words
rather than pages. Other rules extend this approach to other documents. For
example, Fed. R. App. P. 29(d) provides that an amicus brief may be no more
than half the length allowed by Rule 32(a)(7).
Lawyers who choose monospaced type may avoid word counts by counting
lines of type. Unless the brief employs a lot of block quotes or footnotes it will
be enough to count pages and multiply by the number of lines per page. (Fifty
pages at 26 lines per page is 1,300 lines.) The line-count option is not avail-
able when the brief uses proportional type.
Principal briefs of 30 pages or less, and reply briefs of 15 pages or less,
need not be accompanied by a word or line count. Think of Rule 32(a)(7)(A) as
a safe harbor. Lawyers who need more should use Rule 32(a)(7)(B). A brief
that meets the type volume limitations of Rule 32(a)(7)(B) is acceptable with-
out regard to the number of pages it contains.
5. What has gone before has been a description of requirements in Fed. R.
App. P. 32 and Circuit Rule 32. Now we turn to advice, offered for mutual
benefit of counsel seeking to make persuasive presentations and judges who
want the most legible briefs so that they can absorb what counsel have to of-
fer. Nothing in what follows is mandatory.
Typographic decisions should be made for a purpose. The Times of London
chose the typeface Times New Roman to serve an audience looking for a
quick read. Lawyers don't want their audience to read fast and throw the
document away; they want to maximize retention. Achieving that goal re-
quires a different approach--different typefaces, different column widths, dif-
ferent writing conventions. Briefs are like books rather than newspapers. The
most important piece of advice we can offer is this: read some good books and
try to make your briefs more like them.
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This requires planning and care. A business consultant seeking to per-
suade a client prepares a detailed, full-color presentation using the best
available tools. An architect presenting a design idea to a client comes with
physical models, presentations in software, and other tools of persuasion.
Law is no different. Choosing the best type won't guarantee success, but it is
worth while to invest some time in improving the quality of the brief's ap-
pearance and legibility.
Judges of this court hear six cases on most argument days and nine cases
on others. The briefs, opinions of the district courts, essential parts of the ap-
pendices, and other required reading add up to about 1,000 pages per argu-
ment session. Reading that much is a chore; remembering it is even harder.
You can improve your chances by making your briefs typographically supe-
rior. It won't make your arguments better, but it will ensure that judges
grasp and retain your points with less struggle. That's a valuable advantage,
which you should seize.
Two short books by Robin Williams can help lawyers and their staffs pro-
duce more attractive briefs. The PC is not a Typewriter (1990), and Beyond
the PC is not a Typewriter (1996), contain almost all any law firm needs to
know about type. These books have counterparts for the Mac OS: The Mac is
not a Typewriter and Beyond the Mac is not a Typewriter. Larger law firms
may want to designate someone to learn even more about type. For this pur-
pose, Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style, offers the same
value for a brief's layout and type as Strunk & White's The Elements of Style
and Bryan A. Garner's The Elements of Legal Style do for its content. Ruth
Anne Robbins, Painting with print: Incorporating concepts of typographic and
layout design into the text of legal writing documents, 2 J. Ass'n Legal Writing
Directors 108 (2004), sums up much of this learning with special reference to
legal documents. For the convenience of counsel (and with the permission of
Professor Robbins) a copy of this article is posted on the court's web site.
Another way to improve the attractiveness and readability of your brief or
motion is to emulate high-quality legal typography. The opinions of the Su-
preme Court, and the briefs of the Solicitor General, are excellent models of
type usage. The United States Reports are available online in Acrobat ver-
sions that retain all of their original typography. You can find them at
<http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/boundvolumes.html>. Briefs of the
Solicitor General also are available online in Acrobat versions. Go to
<http://www.usdoj.gov/osg/briefs/search.html>. The Supreme Court's opinions
and the SG's briefs follow all of the conventions mentioned below, as do the
printed opinions of the Seventh Circuit.
Herewith some suggestions for making your briefs more readable.
* Use proportionally spaced type. Monospaced type was created for type-
writers to cope with mechanical limitations that do not affect type set by com-
puters. With electronic type it is no longer necessary to accept the reduction
in comprehension that goes with monospaced letters. When every character is
the same width, the eye loses valuable cues that help it distinguish one letter
from another. For this reason, no book or magazine is set in monospaced
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type. If you admire the typewriter look, choose a slab-serif face with propor-
tional widths. Caecilia, Clarendon, Lucida, Officina Serif, Rockwell, and
Serifa are in this category.
* Use typefaces that were designed for books. Both the Supreme Court and
the Solicitor General use Century. Professional typographers set books in
New Baskerville, Book Antiqua, Calisto, Century, Century Schoolbook,
Bookman Old Style and many other proportionally spaced serif faces. Any
face with the word "book" in its name is likely to be good for legal work.
Baskerville, Bembo, Caslon, Deepdene, Galliard, Jenson, Minion, Palatino,
Pontifex, Stone Serif, Trump Mediaval, and Utopia are among other faces de-
signed for use in books and thus suitable for brief-length presentations.
Use the most legible face available to you. Experiment with several, then
choose the one you find easiest to read. Type with a larger "x-height" (that is,
in which the letter x is taller in relation to a capital letter) tends to be more
legible. For this reason faces in the Bookman and Century families are pref-
erable to faces in the Garamond and Times families. You also should shun
type designed for display. Bodoni and other faces with exaggerated stroke
widths are effective in headlines but hard to read in long passages
Professional typographers avoid using Times New Roman for book-length
(or brief-length) documents. This face was designed for newspapers, which
are printed in narrow columns, and has a small x-height in order to squeeze
extra characters into the narrow space. Type with a small x-height functions
well in columns that contain just a few words, but not when columns are wide
(as in briefs and other legal papers). In the days before Rule 32, when briefs
had page limits rather than word limits, a typeface such as Times New Ro-
man enabled lawyers to shoehorn more argument into a brief. Now that only
words count, however, everyone gains from a more legible typeface, even if
that means extra pages. Experiment with your own briefs to see the differ-
ence between Times and one of the other faces we have mentioned.
* Use italics, not underlining, for case names and emphasis. Case names
are not underlined in the United States Reports, the Solicitor General's
briefs, or law reviews, for good reason. Underlining masks the descenders
(the bottom parts of g, j, p, q, and y). This interferes with reading, because we
recognize characters by shape. An underscore makes characters look more
alike, which not only slows reading but also impairs comprehension.
* Use real typographic quotes (" and ") and real apostrophes ('), not foot
and inch marks. Reserve straight ticks for feet, inches, and minutes of arc.
* Put only one space after punctuation. The typewriter convention of two
spaces is for monospaced type only. When used with proportionally spaced
type, extra spaces lead to what typographers call "rivers"--wide, meandering
areas of white space up and down a page. Rivers interfere with the eyes'
movement from one word to the next.
* Do not justify your text unless you hyphenate it too. If you fully justify
unhyphenated text, rivers result as the word processing or page layout pro-
gram adds white space between words so that the margins line up.
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* Do not justify monospaced type. Justification is incompatible with equal
character widths, the defining feature of a monospaced face. If you want vari-
able spacing, choose a proportionally spaced face to start with. Your computer
can justify a monospaced face, but it does so by inserting spaces that make
for big gaps between (and sometimes within) words. The effects of these
spaces can be worse than rivers in proportionally spaced type.
* Indent the first line of each paragraph inch or less. Big indents disrupt
the flow of text. The half-inch indent comes from the tab key on a typewriter.
It is never used in professionally set type, where the normal indent is one em
(the width of the letter "m").
* Cut down on long footnotes and long block quotes. Because block quotes
and footnotes count toward the type volume limit, these devices do not affect
the length of the allowable presentation. A brief with 10% text and 90% foot-
notes complies with Rule 32, but it will not be as persuasive as a brief with
the opposite ratio.
* Avoid bold type. It is hard to read and almost never necessary. Use italics
instead. Bold italic type looks like you are screaming at the reader.
* Avoid setting text in all caps. The convention in some state courts of set-
ting the parties' names in capitals is counterproductive. All-caps text attracts
the eye (so does boldface) and makes it harder to read what is in between--
yet what lies between the parties' names is exactly what you want the judge
to read. All-caps text in outlines and section captions also is hard to read,
even worse than underlining. Capitals all are rectangular, so the reader can't
use shapes (including ascenders and descenders) as cues. Underlined, all-
caps, boldface text is almost illegible.
One common use of all-caps text in briefs in argument headings. Please be
judicious. Headings can span multiple lines, and when they are set in all-caps
text are very hard to follow. It is possible to make headings attractive with-
out using capitals. Try this form:
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I. The Suit is Barred by the Statute of Limitations
A. Perkins had actual knowledge of the contamination more than six
years before filing suit
This form is harder to read:
I. THE SUIT IS BARRED BY THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
A. Perkins had actual knowledge of the contamination more than six
years before filing suit
If you believe that italics and underscores are important to getting your idea
across, try something like this (replacing underlining with a rule line beneath
I. The Suit is Barred by the Statute of Limitations
A. Perkins had actual knowledge of the contamination more than
six years before filing suit
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