Bolman & Deal Chapters 1 & 2 Reframing Organizations Ladder of Inference Ladder of Inference
Some thoughts on 3 rd & 4 th editions
3 rd Edition
Table of contents more detailed
Conclusion at end of chapters
Idea of reframing the central theme
4 th Edition
Same chapters – order different in Symbolic Frame
Summary at end of chaper
Central theme the same
Ladder of Inference
Observable Data & Experiences
At your tables:
Why do smart people do dumb things?
Which examples from Bolman & Deal were of particular interest to you?
What are some current examples – in your district, the state, the country – either in the educational sector or in the larger political arena?
What’s the most recent example of where you completely misread (mis-framed) a situation?
The Power of Reframing
Smart people do dumb things when they misread things, or use the wrong frame
We need to use multiple lenses if we are to understand complex problems
Organizational life is complicated, ambiguous, and unpredictable
Organizations need leadership AND management
Organizational theory has implications for practice
Overview of the 4 frames (p. 16 or 18) Structural Human Resource Political Symbolic Metaphor for Organization Factory or machine Family Jungle Carnival, temple, theatre Central Concepts Rules, roles, goals, policies, technology, environment Needs, skills, relationships Power, conflict, competition, organizational politics Culture, meaning, metaphor, ritual, ceremony, stories, heroes Image of Leadership Social architecture Empowerment Advocacy Inspiration Basic Leadership Challenge Attune structure to task, technology, environment Align organizational and human needs Develop agenda and power base Create faith, beauty, meaning
Why we need 4 frames
Each of the frames is both powerful and coherent
Collectively, they make it possible to reframe, viewing the same thing from multiple perspectives
Reframing is a powerful tool for gaining clarity, generating new options, and finding strategies that work
Educational leaders need to have the ability to frame and reframe the issues they encounter
Reframing involves another skill: the ability to break frames
Properties of Organizations
Organizations are complex
Organizations are surprising
Organizations are deceptive
Organizations are ambiguous
At your tables: examine the chart on page 27 or 33: Sources of Ambiguity
How do these elements apply to our current educational environment?
Avoiding the common fallacies in organizational diagnosis
Blame the bureaucracy
Blame it on human nature, i.e. the “thirst for power”
Why do we resort to these sources of blame?
Have you had any experiences like the “Helen Demarco” scenario (p. 23 or 29) when addressing an organizational problem?
Traditional “mental models” of leadership are limiting
Effective leaders can be architects, servants, advocates, and prophets
Learning to apply all four frames deepens the appreciation for and understanding of the organizations we lead (and apply to your case study/project)
Bolman & Deal have synthesized organizational theory into a useful set of frames or lenses through which we can better understand the complex organizations within which we work, and the challenges we currently face
The 4 frames will expand our “mental models” of organizations and leadership
For next session: Read Section 2 Structural Frame (Chapters 3,4,&5) Administrators Parents Teachers CEO Director Director Director Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Director Superintendent Central Office Schools