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Bridge Design Manual - LRFD

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Bridge Design Manual, Load and Resistance Factor for civil engineers, bridge engineers of highway engineers, also available various engineers handbook for free to download
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Content Preview
Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
Revised May 2009
© 2009 by Texas Department of Transportation
(512) 302-2453 all rights reserved

Manual Notice 2009-1
From:
David P. Hohmann, P.E.
Manual:
Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
Effective Date: May 01, 2009
Purpose
This manual documents policy on bridge design in Texas. It assists Texas bridge designers in apply-
ing provisions documented in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, to which
designers should adhere unless directed otherwise by this document.
Changes
This manual revises policy on foundation load calculations; revises policy on live load deflection
check; revises policy on use of empirical design method for slab design; updates prestressed con-
crete design criteria; revises debonding limits for prestressed concrete design; adds requirements
for considering corrosion protection measures; clarifies policy on bearing pad design; revises pol-
icy on calculating live load distribution factors for double-tee beams; and corrects minor editorial
errors.
This manual has been revised to be current with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications,
4th Edition (2007) and 2008 Interim Revisions.
This revision supersedes version 2008-1.
Contact
For more information about any portion of this manual, please contact the Design Section of the
Bridge Division.
Archives
Past manual notices are available in a PDF archive.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 — About this Manual
Section 1 — Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Chapter 2 — Limit States and Loads
Section 1 — Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Section 2 — Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Braking Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Vehicular Collision Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Earthquake Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Vessel Collision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Chapter 3 — Superstructure Design
Section 1 — Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Section 2 — Concrete Deck Slabs on Stringers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Section 3 — Concrete Deck Slabs on U Beams (U40 and U54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Section 4 — Concrete Deck Slabs on Slab Beams, Double-Tee Beams, and Box Beams . . . . . . 3-7
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Section 5 — Prestressed Concrete I Beams and I Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
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Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Section 6 — Prestressed Concrete U Beams (Types U40 and U54). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Section 7 — Prestressed Concrete Slab Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Section 8 — Prestressed Concrete Double-Tee Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Section 9 — Prestressed Concrete Box Beams (Types B20, B28, B34, and B40) . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Section 10 — Cast-in-Place Concrete Slab and Girder Spans (Pan Forms) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Section 11 — Cast-in-Place Concrete Slab Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Section 12 — Straight Plate Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32
Section 13 — Curved Plate Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
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Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
Chapter 4 — Substructure Design
Section 1 — Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Section 2 — Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Section 3 — Abutment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Section 4 — Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Bent Caps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Section 5 — Inverted Tee Reinforced Concrete Bent Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Section 6 — Columns for Multi-Column Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Chapter 5 — Other Designs
Section 1 — Widenings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Design Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Section 2 — Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings for Prestressed Concrete Beams . . . . . . . . 5-3
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Section 3 — Strut-and-Tie Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
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Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Section 4 — Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
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Chapter 1
About this Manual
Contents:
Section 1 — Introduction
Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
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TxDOT 05/2009

Chapter 1 — About this Manual
Section 1 — Introduction
Section 1
Introduction
Implementation
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is a design methodology that makes use of load and
resistance factors based on the known variability of applied loads and material properties. In 1994,
the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) published the
first AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Bridge Design Specifications. The Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) has mandated the use of LRFD for all bridges for which the Texas Depart-
ment of Transportation (TxDOT) initiates preliminary engineering after October 2007.
Purpose
This manual documents policy on bridge design in Texas. It assists Texas bridge designers in
applying provisions documented in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 4th edition,
which designers should adhere to unless directed otherwise by this document. Recommendations
and examples are available on the TxDOT web site at http://www.txdot.gov/business/contractors_
consultants/bridge/default.htm.
Updates
Updates to this manual are summarized in the following table.
Manual Revision History
Version
Publication Date
Summary of Changes
2005-1
July 2005
New manual
2005-2
September 2005
Revision adding information on deck slabs on slab beams, double-
tee beams, and box beams. Also added information on prestressed
slab beams, prestressed concrete double-tee beams, prestressed con-
crete box beams, and cast-in-place concrete slab and girder spans
(pan forms).
2006-1
June 2006
Revision adding information on cast-in-place concrete spans,
straight plate girders, and curved plate girders.
2006-2
July 2006
Revision adding information in Chapter 3 on prestressed concrete U
beams (types U40 and U54) and on concrete deck slabs on U beams
(types U40 and U54), and making minor adjustments to references in
the Chapter 3 section on geometric constraints for steel-reinforced
elastomeric bearings and to the Chapter 4 sections on design criteria
for abutments and design criteria for inverted tee reinforced concrete
bent caps.
Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
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TxDOT 05/2009

Chapter 1 — About this Manual
Section 1 — Introduction
Manual Revision History
Version
Publication Date
Summary of Changes
2007-1
April 2007
Revisions to the design criteria for concrete deck slabs on stringers,
cast-in-place concrete slab spans, rectangular reinforced concrete
bent caps and inverted tee reinforced concrete bent caps. Revisions
to the structural analysis of prestressed concrete I beams, U beams,
slab beams and box beams (Types B20, B28, B34 and B40). Revi-
sions to the geometric constraints for abutment and rectangular
reinforced concrete bent caps. Revisions to the design recommenda-
tions for widenings.
2008-1
April 2008
Revisions to manual to conform with the 4th Edition of the AASHTO
LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
. Adds information in Chapter 5
for strut-and-tie design method. Revision to requirements for foun-
dation load calculations. Revision to interface shear transfer
requirements for prestressed beams. Clarifies policy on live load dis-
tribution factors for beam design. Revision to policy on debonding
design. Corrects inverted tee design formulas.
2009-1
May 2009
Revisions to the manual to revise policy on
foundation load calculations; revises policy
on live load deflection check; revises policy
on use of empirical design method for slab
design; updates prestressed concrete design
criteria; revises debonding limits for pre-
stressed concrete design; adds requirements
for considering corrosion protection measures;
clarifies policy on bearing pad design;
revises policy on calculating live load dis-
tribution factors for double-tee beams; and
corrects minor editorial errors.
Organization
The information in this manual is organized as follows:
Chapter 1, About this Manual. Introductory information on the purpose and organization of the
manual.
Chapter 2, Limit States and Loads. General information on limit states and on load factors.
Chapter 3, Superstructure Design. Policy on LRFD design of specific bridge superstructure
components.
Chapter 4, Substructure Design. Policy on LRFD design of specific bridge substructure
components.
Chapter 5, Other Designs. Design guidelines for bridge widenings and steel-reinforced elasto-
meric bearings for prestressed concrete beams and strut-and-tie method. This chapter
also addresses corrosion protection measures.
Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
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TxDOT 05/2009

Chapter 1 — About this Manual
Section 1 — Introduction
Feedback
Direct any questions or comments on the content of the manual to the Director of the Bridge Divi-
sion, Texas Department of Transportation.
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TxDOT 05/2009

Document Outline

  • Bridge Design Manual - LRFD
    • Manual Notice 2009-1
      • Purpose
      • Changes
      • Contact
      • Archives
    • Chapter 1-About this Manual
      • Section 1-Introduction
        • Implementation
        • Purpose
          • Updates
        • Organization
        • Feedback
    • Chapter 2-Limit States and Loads
      • Section 1-Limit States
        • Limit States
      • Section 2-Loads
        • Live Loads
        • Braking Force
        • Vehicular Collision Force
        • Earthquake Effects
        • Vessel Collision
    • Chapter 3-Superstructure Design
      • Section 1-Overview
        • Introduction
      • Section 2-Concrete Deck Slabs on Stringers
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 3-Concrete Deck Slabs on U Beams (U40 and U54)
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 4-Concrete Deck Slabs on Slab Beams, Double-Tee Beams, and Box Beams
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 5-Prestressed Concrete I Beams and I Girders
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 6-Prestressed Concrete U Beams (Types U40 and U54)
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 7-Prestressed Concrete Slab Beams
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 8-Prestressed Concrete Double-Tee Beams
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 9-Prestressed Concrete Box Beams (Types B20, B28, B34, and B40)
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 10-Cast-in-Place Concrete Slab and Girder Spans (Pan Forms)
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 11-Cast-in-Place Concrete Slab Spans
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 12-Straight Plate Girders
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 13-Curved Plate Girders
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
    • Chapter 4-Substructure Design
      • Section 1-Overview
        • Introduction
      • Section 2-Foundations
        • Guidance
      • Section 3-Abutment
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Design Criteria
      • Section 4-Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Bent Caps
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 5-Inverted Tee Reinforced Concrete Bent Caps
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 6-Columns for Multi-Column Bents
        • Materials
        • Structural Analysis
    • Chapter 5-Other Designs
      • Section 1-Widenings
        • Design Recommendations
      • Section 2-Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings for Prestressed Concrete Beams
        • Materials
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
        • Detailing
      • Section 3-Strut-and-Tie Method
        • Geometric Constraints
        • Structural Analysis
        • Design Criteria
          • Guidelines
      • Section 4-Corrosion Protection
        • Guidance

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