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Careers Education and Guidanceand Work-related LearningA briefing for teachers in initial trainingApril 20051Why do trainee teachers need to know about Careers Education and Guidance and Work-related Learning?Statutory requirements for the curriculum require:• all students in Years 7-11 to have a careers education programme;• all 13-19 year olds to have access to careers information and careers guidance;• all Key Stage 4 students to have Work-related Learning.Most newly qualiﬁed secondary school teachers will contribute to careers education and guidance (CEG) and work-related learning (WRL) in their role as subject teacher and/or as tutor. This brieﬁng has been written to provide teachers in initial training with an introduction to these two inter-related aspects of the statutory school curriculum, and some suggestions for how to ﬁnd out more about CEG and WRL in practice.How to use this brieﬁng1. Read what follows to gain a basic knowledge of the nature of CEG and WRL, how it is provided for secondary school students and the teacher’s role in that provision.2. Use the questions in boxes at the end of some sections to help you relate what you have read to questions you will ask during your school-based enquiries.3. Use the suggested questions at the back of the brieﬁng to help with a directed task or school-based enquiry into CEG and WRL provision.4. To ﬁnd out more about CEG and/or WRL use the hyperlinks at the end of the brieﬁng to access three short publications which explore aspects of the work teachers can do to support students in their career planning. Careers Education and Guidance in a Nutshell explores CEG and the teacher’s role further. Into 14-19 Learning provides up-to-date information about the opportunities students might follow in Key Stage 4 and post-16 and the support available to them in planning their routes into further learning and work. It includes a useful chart of basic details of post-16 opportunities Understanding the Labour Market provides basic information about changes in the world of work and trends in the labour market which teachers helping to deliver CEG and/or WRL need to know.5. More detailed information about CEG and WRL can be found on the website of the Careers Education Support Programme: www.cegnet.co.uk for those choosing to undertake an elective assignment.2Preparing young people for their progression through learning and workYoung people between the ages of 11 and 19 need four things to help them make choices wisely about their progression through learning and work:• careers education – a planned programme in the curriculum that helps them gain knowledge and develop skills for planning and managing their careers;• work related learning – experiences within the curriculum and outside school which help them learn about, for and through work;• personalised support and guidance – help for individuals to enable them to review, plan and manage their learning and progression to the next stage;• careers guidance – help from specialist advisers with knowledge of the opportunities and the pathways to and through them, so they can identify their long-term goals and plan steps to attain them.Careers education and guidance (CEG)Rationale and purposeBoth learning and work are changing rapidly, and this has implications for individuals’ career paths. Young people in schools today face a future where they will experience several moves from one job to another, where they will have to continue to update their knowledge and skills, and where they are more likely to be self-employed at some point in their lives or at least manage several part-time or temporary contracts. They will need therefore, to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to make career decisions and to manage successfully their transitions from one stage of learning and work to the next. This is the purpose of careers education and guidance (CEG) and it begins in KS3 with preparing for the curriculum choices that young people make in Years 9 and 11, which have implications for their future progression routes.CEG programmes make a major contribution to young people’s personal development, i.e. to prepare them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. They also contribute signiﬁcantly to strategies for both achievement and inclusion, by raising aspirations, increasing motivation, challenging stereotyping and enabling young people to make the most appropriate choices from the increasing range of opportunities available to them.1. How does this description conﬁrm or change your understanding of CEG?2. What do you ﬁnd most useful? What questions do you want to ask to clarify your understanding of CEG?3Careers Education and Guidance (CEG)DeﬁnitionsCareer is deﬁned as an individual’s progression through learning and work.Careers education helps individuals to develop the knowledge and skills they need to make successful choices, manage transitions in learning and move into work.Careers guidance enables individuals to use the knowledge and skills developed through careers education to make the decisions about learning and work that are right for them.AimsCEG has three broad aims - to enable young people to:• Understand themselves and the inﬂuences on them (self development);• Investigate opportunities in learning and work (career exploration);• Make and adjust plans to manage change and transition (career management).CEG provisionTypically a school will provide: 1. access to a full-range of up to date careers information. This will be found within a Connexions resource centre, or careers library, that will also include information on other issues related to young people’s progression through learning and work e.g. ﬁnancial matters, health and welfare issues. It may be located within the main school library or learning resource centre or exist as a separate information base. 2. a planned programme of careers education within the curriculum. 3. access to guidance, which will be provided through a partnership between school staff and personal advisers from the local Connexions Service. 4. opportunities to experience work, often through a one, two or three week work experience placement in Key Stage 4.1. How does this description of provision compare with your own experience of schooling?2. What difference do you think it would make if all schools offered this standard of provision?3. Think how you could use this ‘framework’ to ﬁnd out more about how CEG is delivered in schools which you either visit or work in.4Careers Education and Guidance (CEG)Statutory requirementsSchools must provide a planned programme of careers education within the curriculum in Years 7 to 11. This statutory requirement is outside the National Curriculum so there is no statutory Programme of Study for careers education. However, in 2003 the DfES published a recommended framework Careers Education and Guidance in England: A National Framework 11-19. It provides recommended learning outcomes for key stages 3 and 4, and post-16.Schools are also required to provide Connexions personal advisers (PAs) with access to pupils so that they can provide careers guidance, and to provide PAs with information on pupils. They are further required to provide pupils with information on all opportunities in learning and work.Curriculum models for careers educationA few schools provide discrete careers education lessons but most schools operate one of the following three models of organisation: a. modules of careers education are included within a carousel of modules covering aspects of the personal development curriculum including health education, sex and relationships education, citizenship, etc.; b. careers education forms part of a tutorial programme delivered by form tutors; c. careers education is integrated with other aspects of the curriculum related to personal development to form a coherent course taught by a team of PSHE/ careers teachers.Schools may operate different models in different key stages. QCA has published guidance on its website on how to develop integrated approaches to the personal development curriculum at key stage 4. Some schools enhance their provision by organising ‘suspended timetable’ curriculum days on particular careers education topics.Provision of careers guidanceCareers guidance should start in Year 9 with guidance on curriculum choices for key stage 4, and continue throughout the 14-19 phase. Initial guidance is often offered by subject teachers and tutors, who then refer pupils on to specialist careers teachers in the school or, in turn, to personal advisers from Connexions. Most guidance is offered on a one-to-one basis. Many schools are using Progress File to support young people in recording and reviewing their experiences and achievements, and setting targets and longer-term plans.5Work-related learning (WRL)Rationale and purposeWork-related learning is an essential part of preparing young people for adult life. It helps them to see the relevance of education to their future lives and develop their employability. Work-related learning provides the connection between learning and earning. But learning about work and enterprise is only one aspect of work-related learning. Some basic economic understanding is essential for all citizens. Young people need to understand how the economy functions, including the role of business and ﬁnancial services. Further, many of the skills valued for both higher education and future employment can be developed through work-related activities, and improved knowledge of the labour market and employers’ needs will help young people make informed decisions about career choices.Work-related learning therefore is linked to CEG but is wider in its scope than CEG and work experience. All teachers can expect to be involved in WRL activities whether or not they teach careers education.DeﬁnitionWRL is deﬁned as planned activity that uses the context of work to develop knowledge, skills and understanding useful in work, including:• learning through the experience of work;• learning about work and working practices;• and learning the skills for work.Schools arrange for pupils to learn through work by providing opportunities to learn from direct experiences of work (e.g. work-experience, enterprise activities).They arrange for pupils to learn about work by providing opportunities to develop knowledge and understanding of work and enterprise (e.g. vocational courses, careers education).Arrangements for pupils to learn for work are made through opportunities to develop skills for enterprise and employability (e.g. problem solving activities, mock interviews).Statutory requirement Secondary schools will offer WRL in all key stages but, from September 2004, they have had a statutory duty to include WRL within the curriculum for all pupils at key stage 4. Each school determines the nature of provision and the opportunities given to pupils but it is a statutory requirement to have regard to the guidance published by QCA, Work-related learning for all at key stage 4.6Work-related learning (WRL)Framework for WRL at KS4QCA’s guidance includes a framework recommending nine elements of provision to enable all pupils to:1. Recognise, develop and apply their skills for enterprise and employability.2. Use their experience of work, including work experience and part-time jobs, to extend their understanding of work.3. Learn about the way business enterprises operate, working roles and conditions, and rights and responsibilities in the work place.4. Develop awareness of the extent and diversity of local and national employment opportunities.5. Relate their own abilities, attributes and achievements to career intentions and make informed choices based on an understanding of the alternatives.6. Undertake tasks and activities set in work contexts.7. Learn from contact with personnel from different employment sectors.8. Have experience (direct or indirect) of working practices and environments.9. Engage with ideas, challenges and applications from the business world.The ﬁrst ﬁve elements cover what pupils should learn (i.e. the content), while the remaining four cover how they might learn (i.e. the processes).For each element the guidance provides a suggested minimum activity and the outcomes pupils should achieve.1. Try to describe how WRL and CEG are similar and also distinctive.2. Aim to ﬁnd out some real examples from school provision that will help you to under stand the relationship between WRL and CEG.Enterprise EducationFrom September 2005 all KS4 students will also be entitled to 5 days of enterprise activity. Enterprise education comprises of enterprise capability, supported by ﬁnancial capability and economic and business understanding. While the second two aspects provide a business context for enterprise education, enterprise capability can also be learned in non-business contexts. Enterprise capability can be deﬁned as: innovation, creativity, risk-management and risk-taking, a “can-do” attitude and the drive to make ideas happen. It can be developed through approaches to learning in normal lessons as well as speciﬁc enterprise activities. There are obvious connections between work related learning and enterprise education but they are not interchangeable. However, enterprise capability should be a key outcome of work-related learning not just an additional component of it.7How a teacher can contribute to CEG and WRLA subject teacher can contribute to CEG by:• explaining to pupils the progression routes open in continued learning in their subject area;• providing information and advice to pupils considering taking their subject as an option at the next stage;• making a planned contribution to the careers education programme (e.g. letters of application and CVs, and reﬂective accounts of work experience, in English; use of a careers information database in ICT; study of local business in geography; changing role of women in the workplace in history);• undertaking monitoring visits to pupils on work experience placements.“those awarded Qualiﬁed Teacher Status must demonstrate that for KS4 and post-16, they are aware of the pathways for progression through the 14-19 phase in school, college and work-based settings. They are familiar with the Key Skills as speciﬁed by QCA and the National Qualiﬁcations Framework, and they know the progression within and from their own subject and the range of qualiﬁcations to which their subject contributes. They understand how courses are combined in students’ curricula.” From - Qualifying to Teach: Professional Standards for Qualiﬁed Teacher Status and Requirements for Initial Teacher Training (DfES & TTA 2002)A tutor might contribute to CEG by:• teaching careers education as part of the tutorial/personal development programme;• generally supporting pupils in their form groups with individual learning planning, Progress File etc.;• providing advice and guidance to pupils in their form groups at key points of transition, e.g. Year 9, Year 11 and Year 12/13;• referring pupils in their form groups to specialist careers staff, and following up careers interviews with their tutees.“The professional duties of teachers include…providing guidance and advice to pupils on educational and social matters and on their further education and future careers, including information about sources of more expert advice on speciﬁc questions.” From - School Teachers’ Pay and Conditions 20018How a teacher can contribute to CEG and WRLA subject teacher might contribute to WRL by:• explaining to pupils the relevance in the workplace of the knowledge and skills developed in their subject;• using work-related contexts and projects within their subject teaching;• arranging visits to relevant workplaces;• organising a programme of visiting speakers from business;• making a planned contribution to the WRL programme (e.g. enterprise activities in art and design, mock interviews in English).A tutor might contribute to WRL by:• debrieﬁng their tutees on their work experience.How does this breakdown of roles and tasks help you to think about how you might contribute to CEG and/or WRL?9Suggested questions for school-based enquiryIn a school, during their training, trainee teachers could ask the following questions to ﬁnd out more about CEG and WRL in practice.1. Where is the careers information held and when can pupils have access to it?2. How is careers education organised in the curriculum, in each key stage, and who teaches it?3. Who provides careers education to pupils and how are they referred on to specialist careers staff and Connexions PAs?4. What use is made of Progress File or a similar career and personal planning process?5. What provision is made for work experience?6. Who is responsible for leading and managing CEG, and where are they placed in the school’s management structures?7. What training is provided for subject teachers and tutors contributing to CEG?8. In which year groups is WRL planned, and what activities are provided for pupils?9. Who is responsible for leading and managing WRL and where are they placed in the school’s management structures?10. Which subject teachers and form tutors are involved in WRL?11. How does the school ensure that all KS4 pupils receive CEG and WRL?10