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Case Study 'Jatropha Curcas' Africa

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Jatropha curcas in Africa - an Evaluation
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Jatropha curcas L. in Africa







Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the Jatropha System”
on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of
the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa




Case study by
baganí, Reinhard K. Henning, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
Tel: +49 8389 984129, e-mail: henning@bagani.de

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
0.0 Content

0.0 Content .......................................................................................................................... 2
0.1 Abbreviations............................................................................................................... 3
1. Description of the plant, distribution, ecology ..................................................... 4
1.1 Botanical description.................................................................................................... 4
1.2 Distribution................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Ecology......................................................................................................................... 6
2. Description of the Jatropha System ........................................................................ 6
2.1 The Jatropha System .................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Possible Uses of the Jatropha Plant.............................................................................. 6
3. Jatropha promotion in selected countries............................................................. 7
3.0 Benin ............................................................................................................................ 7
3.1 Egypt ............................................................................................................................ 7
3.2 Ethiopia ........................................................................................................................ 7
3.3 Ghana ........................................................................................................................... 7
3.4 Guinea (Conakry) ......................................................................................................... 7
3.5 Madagascar................................................................................................................... 7
3.6 Mali .............................................................................................................................. 7
3.7 Mozambique................................................................................................................. 8
3.8 Namibia ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.9 Senegal ......................................................................................................................... 9
3.10 South Africa ............................................................................................................... 9
3.11 Sudan .......................................................................................................................... 9
3.12 Tanzania ................................................................................................................... 10
3.13 Uganda ..................................................................................................................... 12
3.14 Zambia...................................................................................................................... 13
3.15 Zimbabwe................................................................................................................. 13
4. Impacts of the promotion of the use of Jatropha............................................... 14
4.1 Social impacts ............................................................................................................ 14
4.2 Ecological impacts ..................................................................................................... 16
4.3 Economic impacts ...................................................................................................... 17
5. Critical assessment of the Jatropha System, based on findings .................. 24
Soap production: .............................................................................................................. 24
Jatropha oil as fuel: .......................................................................................................... 25
Jatropha plantations:......................................................................................................... 25
Gender Aspects: ............................................................................................................... 25
6. Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 27
7. Attachments:................................................................................................................ 27
Annex 1 - ToR of Jatropha Case Study ................................................................. 28
Annex 2 - Jatropha in Ghana .................................................................................... 30
Annex 3 - BUN Zimbabwe ....................................................................................... 32
Annex 4 - Environment Africa................................................................................. 34
Annex 5 - Jatropha KwaZulu-Natal........................................................................ 36
Annex 6 - Wiemer, Summary of Economic Analysis........................................ 37
Annex 7 - Economic analysis of soap production in Tanzania........................ 39
Annex 8 - Economy of Jatropha utilization in Zambia...................................... 40
Annex 9 - Wasteland rehabilitation ........................................................................ 43

2
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
Annex 10 - The role of Jatropha in of Carbon sequestration ........................... 44
Annex 11 - Small scale farms with Jatropha hedges in Mozambique ........... 45
Annex 12 - Agricultural Calendar of Mali............................................................ 46
Annex 13 - Enterprise of Trust – Title page ......................................................... 47
Annex 14 - Paper for Public Field Day in KwaZulu/Natal............................... 48


0.1 Abbreviations

ARI-Monduli
Alternative resources of income for Monduli women
ATI


Appropriate Technology International, an US American NGO
BftW

Bread for the World
BUN
Biomass
Users
Network
CNESOLER
Centre National d’Energie Solaire et des Energies Renouvelables,
Bamako, Mali
DAEA

Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, South
Africa
DED
German
Development
Service
DMA
Division
Machinisme
Agricole
ELCT

Evangelical Lutheren Church of Tanzania
GTZ

German Agency for Technological Co-operation
JCL


In English language used abbreviation of Jatropha curcas L.
KAKUTE

Private firm in Arusha, Tanzania, to disseminate Jatropa
KZA
KwaZulu-Natal
MFP
Multi
Functional
Platform
OSCA

Owen Sithole Agricultural College, Empageni, KZA, SA
POPA

Plant Oil Producers Association, Zimbabwe
SA
South
Africa
SUDERETA
Sustainable Development through Renewable Energies in Tanzania
TZS
Tanzanian
Shillings
UNDP

United Nations Development Programme
UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
USD
United
States
Dollar
ZMK
Zambian
Kwacha

3
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
1. Description of the plant, distribution, ecology

Jatropha curcas L. or physic nut, is a bush or small tree (up to 5 m hight) and belongs to the
euphorbia family. The genus Jatropha contains approximately 170 known species. The genus
name Jatropha derives from the Greek jatrós (doctor), trophé (food), which implies medicinal
uses. Curcas is the common name for physic nut in Malabar, India.
The plant is planted as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world, because it is not
browsed by animals

35 year old Jatropha trees in Falan,

About 1 1/2 year old plant in test
Mali
Jatroph hedge in Mto Wa Mbu,
plantation, KwaZulu-Natal, South
Tanzania
Africa
1.1 Botanical description


Inflorescence containing male and female flowers


Jatropha curcas L., or physic nut, has thick glabrous branchlets. The tree has a straight trunk
and gray or reddish bark, masked by large white patches. It has green leaves with a length and
width of 6 to 15 cm, with 5 to 7 shallow lobes. The leaves are arranged alternately.
Dormancy is induced by fluctuations in rainfall and temperature/light. But not all trees
respond simultainously. In a hedge you may have branches without leaves, and besides ones
full of green leaves.

4
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
The branches contain a whitish latex, which causes brown stains, which are very difficult to
remove.
Normally, five roots are formed from seeds: one tap root and 4 lateral roots. Plants from
cuttings develop only lateral roots.
Inflorescences are formed terminally on branches. The
plant is monoecious and flowers are unisexual.
Pollination is by insects.
After pollination, a trilocular ellipsoidal fruit is formed.
The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds are mature.
The seeds are black and in the average 18 mm long (11 –
30) and 10 mm wide (7 – 11). The seed weight (per 1000)
is about 727 g, this are 1375 seeds per kg in the average.
The life-span of the Jatropha curcas plant is more than 50
years.
ripe Jatropha fruits
Varieties
The Jatropha variety in Nicaragua has fewer, but larger fruits. The yield per ha seems to be
the same.
A non-toxic variety exists in Mexico which is used for
human consumption after roasting. It does not contain
Phorbol esters. (“This non-toxic variety of Jatropha
could be a potential source of oil for human
consumption, and the seed cake can be a good protein

source for humans as well as for livestock.”, Becker et
Jatropha seeds from Mali (left) and Nicaragua
al, 1999).
1.2 Distribution

Main distribution areas of Jatropha curcas (green)

Jatropha curcas originates from Cental America.
From the Caribbean, Jatropha curcas was probably distributed by Portuguese seafarers via the
Cape Verde Islands and former Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) to other countries in
Africa and Asia. Today it is cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical countries as
protection hedges around gardens and fields, since it it not browsed by cattle.

5
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation

1.3 Ecology
Jatropha curcas L. is not a weed. It is not self propagating. It has to be planted.
It grows well with more than 600 mm of rainfall per year, and it withstands long drought
periods. With less than 600 mm it cannot grow except in special conditions like on Cape
Verde Islands, where the rainfall is only 250 mm, but the humidity of the air is very high (rain
harvesting).
It cannot stand frost. It survives a very light frost, but it looses all leaves. The production of
seeds will probably go down sharply.

2. Description of the Jatropha System
2.1 The Jatropha System
The Jatropha System is an integrated rural development approach. By planting Jatropha
hedges to protect gardens and fields against roaming animals, the oil from the seeds can be
used for soap production, for lighting and cooking and as fuel in special diesel engines. In this
way the Jatropha System covers 4 main aspects of rural development:
promotion of women (local soap production);
poverty reduction (protecting crops and selling seeds, oil and soap).
erosion control (planting hedges);
energy supply for the household and stationary engines in the rural area;
The obvious advantage of this system is that all the processing procedure, and thus all added
value, can be kept within the rural area or even within one village. No centralised processing
(like in the cotton industry) is necessary.
2.2 Possible Uses of the Jatropha Plant
The Jatropha plant is used as a medicinal plant:
o The seeds against constipation;
o The sap for wound healing;
o The leaves as tea against malaria; etc.
Jatropha is planted in the form of hedges around gardens or fields to protect the crops
against roaming animals like cattle or goats;
Jatropha hedges are planted to reduce erosion caused by water and/or wind;
Jatropha is planted to demarkate the boundaries of fields and homesteads;
Jatropha plants are used as a source of shade for coffee plants in Cuba;
In Comore islands, in Papua New Guinea and in Uganda Jatropha plants are used as a
support plant for vanilla plants;

6
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
3. Jatropha promotion in selected countries
3.0 Benin
There is no knowledge about actual activities. But Benin, in former times Dahomey, exported
in the years around 1940 lage quantities of Jatropha to France (Marseille), where the oil was
used for the fabrication of the famous “Savon de Marseille”.
In the years around 1990, the director of CADER Attakora in Natitingou, in the north of
Beninn, started a campaign of the dissemination of Jatropha hedges in the north of Benin.
3.1 Egypt
(see more photos: http://www.jatropha.de/egypt/index.htm)
In the desert near Luxor a 5.000 ha Jatropha plantation is
installed in 2003 by D1, an English biodiesel company in
collaboration with the Egyptian government. Irrigation with
waste water.

3.2 Ethiopia
5.000 ha Jatropha plantation
In the south of Ethiopia Jatropha is used in the form of
irrigated with waste water
hedges. In Addis Ababa a biodiesel company was founded
which wants to exploit Jatropha in a large scale for biodiesel production.
3.3 Ghana
(see Annex 2)
A private firm, Anuanom Industrial Project Ltd, is starting a large scale Jatropha project.
The planning is for 250.000 hectares of Jatropha plantation. Up to now there are no real
serious figures about the state of development available. A report mentions that 100 ha of
Jatropha are alrerady planted to deliver seeds for the extension of the industrial plantations.
The Jatropha oil will be used for the production of biodiesel.
UNDP extends it project MFP (multi functional platforms) to Ghana.
3.4 Guinea (Conakry)
Guinea has a high density of Jatropha plant (mostly hedges, in the Fouta Jallon area), but
there are no reports about activities/projects.
UNDP extends it project MFP (multi functional platforms) to Ghana.
3.5 Madagascar
In the years around 1940, Madagascar was exporting
Jatropha seeds to Marseille, France, as raw material for
soap production (“Savon de Marseille”). There are still
large quantities of Jatropha hedges, but their seeds are
more or less not used.
3.6 Mali

GTZ-Projects (1987 – 1997) (see Jatropha website
Jatropha hedge in Madagascar
www.jatropha.org)

7
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
Within the “Special Energy Programme” of GTZ Jatropha activities commenced in 1987 and
continued in different organisational forms until 1997. The Malian partner of the GTZ project
was DMA and CNESOLER.
During the GTZ projects basic studies were carried out on the density of Jatropha hedges in
different regions of the country, on the yield of the hedges, on the oil yield of the expellers
and the ram presses, on the economy of soap
production and the use of Jatropha oil as diesel
substitute. Also studies were undertaken on the
value of the Jatropha presscake as an organic
fertiliser.
At the end of the GTZ projects, in 1997, the
population of Jatropha was estimated at around
10.000 km of Jatropha hedges, which represents a
potential of about 2.000 tons of Jatropha oil.
old Jatropha hedge around a field
UNIDO / UNDP
UNDO/UND started a large scale project to disseminate “Multifunctional Energy Platforms
(MFP)” in the rural areas of Mali. 450 units are planned, and 15 %, i. e. almost 70 units,
should run with Jatropha oil as fuel.
This programme will be extended to Senegal, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.
Description of the platform (from website www.ptfm.net)
Essentially, it comprises a 10 H.P diesel engine, capable of driving up to a dozen different
ancillary modules. Among are a grain mill, a de-huller, a shea butter press and even an
electric alternator. This alternator can drive modules such as a water pump, provide power for
up to 250 light bulbs, charge batteries, drive a sawmill or weld metal. The platform employs
simple and appropriate technology and is an economic, practical and sustainable solution for
many of the problems faced by rural communities. Local artisans are trained to master all
aspects of this simple and appropriate technology.
Mali Folkecenter
Mali Folkecenter, a NGO in Bamako, took up the Jatropha activities in 2000, which were
carried out by GTZ between 1987 and 1997. In the meantime CNESOLER was in charge of
the Jatropha activities (CNESOLER was the national partner of the GTZ project). Mali
Folkecenter gets financial support from the Siemenpuu Foundation in Finland.
UNIFEM price 2003 (German UNIFEM Section)
In 2003 the Jatropha project in Mali, started by GTZ and continued by Mali Folkecenter,
received the 2nd price of the German UNIFEM branch.
3.7 Mozambique
As a former Portuguise colony, in some areas there are large populations of Jatropha hedges.
From Mozambique the knowledge of the Jatropha hedges invaded Zimbabwe, Malawi and
Zambia.
The South African Oil & Gas Company “Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd” built a gas pipeline
from South Mozambique to Johannesburg, South Africa. Along the pipeline they initiated
activities of rural development. The project manager in charge of these community
development activities explains the objective of these activities as follows: The objective is to
do rural development to let the population participate in the economic benefits of the pipeline.

8
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation
He intends to create small as well as large Jatropha plantations in the neighborhood of the
pipeline.
3.8 Namibia
There are some initiatives to plant Jatropha in Namibia, mostly from white farmers. But the
climate (rainfall is not sufficient) does not allow Jatropha plantation in a larger extent.
3.9 Senegal
A project carried out by ATI (now Enterprise Works), an
American NGO, in the region of Tiès, planted Jatropha
hedges and extracted Jatropha oil with ram presses. The oil
was used to run Diesel engines (for flower mills) and to
make soap.

Soap from the ATI project
3.10 South Africa
Emerald Oil Int. (Pty) Ltd is initiating a 100.000 tons per year biodiesel plant in Durban.
It tries to organise the production of the feedstock for the plant (Jatropha curcas seeds) in
South Africa or to import it from the neighboring countries (Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia)
or from Madagascar.
It supports the Agricultural Extension Service of KwaZulu-Natal to establish large scale
plantations of Jatropha hedges.
Owen Sithole College of Agriculture (OSCA)
The college has a very small Jatropha test plantation
(100 plants) in co-operation with the Agricultural
Extension Service, KwaZulu-Natal.
The Agricultural Extension Service, KwaZulu-Natal
is very active in promoting the plantation of Jatropha in
the Makatini flats just south of Swaziland at the coast of
the Indian Ocean. For this it formed a Jatropha Task
Team, which also organises public field days (see
annex 14, page 48).
Small Jatropha test plantation at
OSCA, KwaZulu-Natal
3.11 Sudan
(http://www.jatropha.de/sudan/index.html)
Jatropha is found in Sudan in many areas such as Khartoum State in Central Sudan,
Kassala State in the East and Kordofan State in the West. However, it is dominant in the
Southern States especially in Bahr El Jebel and Bahr El Gazal States. It is mentioned as an
indigenous plant in some books describing the plants of
Sudan. The farmers in the south plant them as hedges to
protect their gardens and fields.
Jatropha Research started in Sudan as early as 1972 with
studies concerning the molluscicidal effect of the plant.
A Jatropha Project exists in Kutum, North Darfur, with
participationof the German Development Service.

Jatropha plant in Kutum, No
9
rth
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Ger
Darf
m
ur, an
S
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udan
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

Jatropha curcas in Africa – an Evaluation

3.12 Tanzania
(http://www.jatropha.de/tanzania/index.html)
KAKUTE Ltd,
This firm disseminates the know how concerning “The
Jatropha System” and produces Jatropha soap in an
industrial scale. The dissemination is done within a project
called “ARI-Monduli” (Alternative Ressources of Income
for Monduli women). This project is financed by the
American McKnight Foundation and is executed in close
co-operation with Heifer International Foundation.
Jatropha soap produced by
KAKUTE
KAKUTE produces around
1.000 kg of soap a year and
sells it in form of pieces of 30 and 90 g each. Their revenues from
the sale of soap is about 6 million TZS (about 6.000 USD).
KAKUTE created a test plantation on private ground (2,5 ha) to
get experience with Jatropha
plantations.
KAKUTE tries to use Jatropha
against erosion: Between
Arusha and Lake Manyara is a

Test plot of KAKUTE with
very big plain (Massai steppe).
Jatropha cuttings
A water line for cattle was
installed there and now Massai
cattle herds from far away come to get water. This led to an
overgrazing around the water basin and consequently to
deep erosion grooves. KAKUTE tries to plant Jatropha

against the erosion, but with little success, since the origin of
Erosion in the Massai plains
the overgrazing, the water source, still exists.
The project ARI-Monduli disseminates the Jatropha know how in different ways:
Nurseries
A women group of 12 members about 20 km from
Arusha started to integrate Jatropha in their tree
nurseries. They sell each seedling for about 50 TSh to
individuals and schools, which plant them around their
compounds.

Members of Women group
producing Jatropha seedlings

10
Reinhard K. Henning, bagani, Rothkreuz 11, D-88138 Weissensberg, Germany
e-mail: henning@bagani.de, Jatropha website: www.Jatropha.org

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