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Working Papers series3. Cattle in Southern Ethiopia:Participatory studies inWolaita and Konso woredasBarry Pound and Ejigu Jonfa (eds)FARM-AFRICA WORKING PAPERSNo. 3Cattle in Southern Ethiopia:Participatory studies in Wolaita and Konso woredasEditors: Barry Pound and Ejigu JonfaFebruary 2006FARM-Africa Working PapersFARM-Africa’s Working Papers capture work, thinking and development in progress and as such,should be treated, and referred to, as draft information only. It should not be considered asFARM-Africa's final position on any issue and should be welcomed as a contribution tosharing information and expertise openly within the international community.FARM-Africa’s Working Papers comprise short outputs from FARM-Africa’s work in Eastern andSouth Africa. The series, available in print and digital format, specifically includes: project reportsand evaluations; outcomes of on-going research/projects; innovative aspects of projects; practicalexamples from our work; synthesised workshop proceedings; case studies illustrating a particularFARM-Africa technology/intervention; application of particular tools; narratives of micro-levelproject; and, conference papers.FARM-Africa Working Papers are available from:The Research, Policy and Communications DepartmentFARM-Africa9-10 Southampton PlaceLondon WC1A 2EAUKT +44 (0) 20 7430 0440 F +44 (0) 20 7430 0460E firstname.lastname@example.org W www.farmafrica.org.uk/resources.cfmRegistered Charity No. 326901Registered Company No. 01926828 ©FARM-Africa, 2006ContentsExecutive summary & sources of information………………………………………..………..i1. FARM-Africa’s Farmers’ Research Project…………………………………………………12. Livestock studies in Wolaita zone………………………………………………………….33. The use of Deltamethrin insecticide as a control measure for Trypanosomiasis in Konso Special Woreda………………………………………………..…………………...214. References and further reading………………………………………………………….....28About the editorsBarry Pound is a livelihoods and farming systems specialist with the Natural Resources Institute. He is particularlyinterested in participatory approaches to natural resource management. He has been a consultant and externalreviewer to the Farmers’ Research Project since 1993.Ejigu Jonfa was the project coordinator for the Farmers’ Research Project and is now the ParticipatoryApproaches and Research Advisor based at FARM-Africa’s Addis Ababa Office in Ethiopia.This working paper was made possible with funding from CORDAID.Executive summaryThis publication draws on four Technical Pamphlets and four Diagnostic Surveys, producedbetween 1992 and 1999 by the Farmers’ Research Project managed by FARM-Africa insouthern Ethiopia.Section 1 describes the Farmers’ Research Project, which was a collaborative project with theBureau of Agriculture, the Awassa College of Agriculture and the Awassa Research Centre(part of the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation), and was supported by the OverseasDevelopment Administration (now DFID) of the UK Government. The main objective of theproject was to increase sustainably the incomes of resource-poor farmers in southern Ethiopia,and ultimately in Ethiopia as a whole, using farmer participatory research as a mechanism forgenerating and disseminating appropriate agricultural technologies for rural men and women.Farmer participatory research is seen as a complement to conventional research and extensionprocesses. It includes a thorough participatory situation analysis, participatory on-farm testingof technologies, collaboration between research and extension staff, and farmer participationin decision-making.Section 2 looks at the livestock situation in Wolaita zone in the 1990s. It concentrates oncattle, and highlights the problems that occur and the indigenous knowledge that is used intheir husbandry. The lowland, mid-altitude and higher altitude environments have distinctcharacteristics and are therefore treated separately.Cattle in the lowlands are kept for traction, milk and milk products, manure and as a source ofincome from the sale of live animals.Cattle ownership is an indicator of wealth and the poor are those who do not own any largelivestock outright. Reproductive rates of cattle in Fagena Mata are satisfactory, with a calvingrate of about 18 months. Natural pasture is the main feed source for cattle in Fagena Mata,supplemented by crop residues, weeds and tree leaves.Disease and drought are the major constraints to livestock production in the lowlands, causinghigh mortalities and morbidities, minimising the oxen power available and decreasinghousehold income. Trypanosomiasis is endemic in the area, with the existence of bothcyclically (T. congolensis) and mechanically (T. vivax) transmitted Trypanosomiasis infections.Tick-born diseases such as Anaplasmosis and Heart Water are common. Though the incidenceof Anthrax and Black Leg have been minimised due to vaccinations, the diseases still occursporadically in the area. Ticks and mange mites are widespread, but control measures areminimal. A range of local remedies is available for the treatment of cattle diseases. iAt mid-altitude, cattle are kept for milk, draught and as a source of cash. Milk cows areparticularly valued and milk products are being increasingly commercialised. Feeding livestockis primarily the responsibility of the women of the household. Despite decline in the grazingarea due to the expansion of cultivation, the major source of feed is grass, most being cut andcarried either green or dry to stalled animals (where they are kept during the hot part of theday to avoid Trypanosomiasis). In addition, farmers seek out feed provided by trees andshrubs, particularly in the dry season when other sources of feed are in short supply. Theother main category of feed is crop residues and leftovers from human consumption. Amongthese are: teff straw, sorghum tops, green maize leaves, dry haricot bean pods and sweetpotatoes. Animals also eat weeds in the fields after harvest. Farmers maintain that five diseasesof cattle are the most important in the mid-altitude belt, namely Shihula (Trypanosomiasis),Dulo (Anthrax), Tilikia (Black leg), Grandwa (English equivalent unknown) and Firtwa(Rinderpest).Cattle in the highlands are kept for draught, milk and milk products, cash, manure andtransportation. As in other ecological zones, shared ownership of cattle is common because itprovides a means for poorer farmers to own a live animal. Calving rates of cows in the kebeleare low, because of food shortage and poor access to bull services. Livestock are eithertethered in a small area of open grazing in front of the house (mainly during the rainy period ofthe year), given free grazing in the fields or stall fed (particularly during the evenings) on goodquality grasses. Teff straw is used for dry season feeding, along with dried stalks of maize andsorghum. From Tir (January) to Ginbot (May), livestock feed is inadequate. Many animals loseweight and even die when the dry period is harsh. Where grass is limited, the leaves of ensetand root crops, tree leaves, wheat and barley straws and the haulms of legumes are used tosupplement the diet, particularly for lactating dairy cows. Eighteen livestock diseases wererecognised in one kebele, where there were indigenous treatments for 55 per cent of them.Two of the reasons for low productivity of cattle highlighted in Diagnostic Studies from thethree agro-ecological zones are poor reproductive performance (except in the lowlands) andTrypanosomiasis (especially in the lowlands and mid-altitudes). These were the subjects ofspecial studies by FARM-Africa.Discussions with farmers, taken together with the study data, suggested that a critical point forintervention to improve reproductive performance might be during the three months aftercalving, when good nutrition and the presence of suitable bulls could assist conception leadingto shortened calving intervals, although this might reduce overall milk production in Ethiopianzebu cattle.Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease of cattle. It was confirmed in Wolaita in 1973, andappears to be spreading through extension of livestock production into Tsetse fly areas, the iitransport of Tsetse to new areas by vehicles, animals etc., the adaptation of Tsetse flies to newhabitats and hosts, and the re-occupation of original habitat after villagisation or abandonmentof lowland settlement areas. In 1993, the use of trypanocidal drugs was practiced in all parts ofWolaita, often administered by non-professionals. The high cost of trypanocide drugs hasforced farmers to use local methods to minimise risk of infection, including keeping livestock inthe house during the hottest time of day to avoid them being bitten by Tsetse flies, andavoiding grazing on common land where tall grass and trees are abundant. Unfortunately thesepractices tend to lead to under-exploitation of communal pasture, over-exploitation of pasturenear the homestead, accidental damage to crops and under-nutrition. Herbal medicines arealso used locally.Section 3 looks at the cattle situation in Konso, with particular reference to the testing ofTsetse fly control using Deltamethrin. Livestock (mainly cattle) are kept in small barns,constructed near to Farmer’s house, and fed on a cut-and-carry basis. Cows are mainly keptfor milk for home consumption, while males are sold. Skins and hides are important animal by-products. The principal diseases affecting cattle are Trypanosomiasis, Foot Rot and Black Leg.Trypanosomiasis is at its peak during March, April and September. Cattle numbers have beenin decline over the last two decades due to:• Shortage of feed and grazing land as a consequence of the growth of the population andincreased demand for crop land; and,• Diseases including Trypanosomiasis. The incidence of Trypanosomiasis in lowland areas ishigh, leading to 16 per cent mortality in cattle being reported in 1994. This means thatTrypanosomiasis accounted for 50 per cent of all cattle deaths.Various control methods were considered and discussed with farmers. The result of theseconsultations and surveys was that Deltamethrin “Spot-on” insecticide should be tested,because of its low demand for cash, labour or specialist manpower. 643 cattle-owning farmerswith 5508 cattle took part in the trial.The results were dramatic. Trypanosomiasis incidence of the monitored cattle dropped from ahigh of 16 per cent to zero after a year of treatment with Deltamethrin. The Tsetse flynumbers also dropped dramatically from 3.05 to 0.32 flies per day per trap. The cost of theDeltamethrin treatment was (in 1995) about US$70 per square kilometre per year, comparedto US$150 for either ground spraying or trapping. Only dipping is less costly (at US$16 persquare kilometre per year). A workshop comprising farmers, veterinarians, government andNGO staff pronounced the trial “a huge success” that should be continued and expanded toother parts of Konso. It was concluded that the Trypanosomiasis control measure usingDeltamethrin “Spot-on” to reduce Tsetse fly numbers was effective, quick, simple, relativelycheap and environmentally acceptable. In 1997, the Konso Tsetse control operation expanded iiito include farmers from Dera, Sorobo and Jarso kebeles. A revolving fund was established toenable farmers to purchase insecticide and, with support from the UNDP, cattle were treatedthree to four times a year until 2000.During this period, farmers were required to contribute increasingly towards the costs oftreating cattle and, as a consequence, levels of participation diminished. By 2000, all Tsetsecontrol operations in Konso had ceased.Recent improvements in the cost-effectiveness of using insecticide-treated cattle to control theTsetse vector suggest that better control of Trypanosomiasis could be achieved in Konso atless than the recurrent cost of treating cattle with trypanocides. This approach is currentlybeing promoted to stakeholders in Konso and neighbouring woredas by FARM-Africa.This account demonstrates the need for long-term continuity to follow through interventionsthat show promise. Furthermore it demonstrates the need to ensure that farmers are keptinformed of good practice and supported with good technical advice, along with the materialsneeded to use that advice effectively.Sources of informationThis publication draws on four Technical Pamphlets and four Diagnostic Surveys, producedbetween 1992 and 1999 by the Farmers’ Research Project managed by FARM-Africa insouthern Ethiopia.The information given in the Technical Pamphlets and Diagnostic Surveys is 6-13 years old, andis presented here because of its historical value. Some situations and practices have changedsince the data was recorded. An update on the present Trypanosomiasis control situation istherefore included, using information from Morton (2002) and Torr et al., (2000), andconversations with those in the field.The Technical Pamphlets and Diagnostic Surveys provide a description of livestock productionin the area during the 1990s, as seen through the eyes of local farmers. The constraints tocattle production are highlighted, together with local knowledge and action to address theproblems they face.Trypanosomiasis was identified as one of the farmers’ priority constraints, so TechnicalPamphlet 16 - which is divided into two parts - describes trials conducted to identify controlmeasures for Trypanosomiasis in cattle, and a participatory evaluation of the social andeconomic acceptability by farmers of Deltamethrin “Spot-on” insecticide as a controlmeasure for the Tsetse flies that transmit the Trypanosomiasis parasite. ivFor the full list of Technical Pamphlets and Diagnostic Surveys synthesised in this document,please refer to Section 4 - References and further reading - towards the end of this paper. v