Pak. J. Agri. Sci., Vol. 44(2), 2007 CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF FROZEN STORED CHICKEN PATTIES FRIED IN DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS
Shinawar Waseem Ali and Ghulam Rasool
Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.
Chicken patties were fried in three different vegetable oils i.e. sunflower, soybean and canola to determine the
best suitable vegetable oil for frying with prolonged storage stability. The patties were evaluated chemically for
moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, pH, peroxide value and organoleptically for color, flavor, taste, juiciness,
chewability, tenderness and overall acceptability at 15 days interval during 60 days storage. Among all the
treatments vegetable oils used for frying and storage interval were found to have significant effect on chemical as
well as sensory attributes. However, the chicken patties fried in canola oil offered better characteristics than
sunflower and soybean oils. So, it was suggested that canola oil is comparatively the best one for frying of
chicken patties among the vegetable oils under investigation with enhanced storage stability, shelf life and
sensory attributes. Keywords:
Chicken patties, frying vegetable oils, sensory characteristics
of canola oil/fats in snack foods has been increasing
due to better sensory and instrumental attributes
Chicken patties are battered products and after frying
(Hawrysh et al.,
1996). The major oilseed crops include
usually served by placing between buns in the form of
cottonseed, rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and canola
burger. Poultry meat occupies a unique place in human
contributing 478000, 59000, 214000 and 58000 tons,
diet due to its specific nutritional characteristics. It is
respectively (GOP, 2006-07). The present study was
particularly suited for further processing due to its conducted to determine the most suitable vegetable oil
bland flavor, which can be enhanced by condiments
for the frying of chicken patties, which retained best
and can be used readily in traditional ethnic dishes.
chemical and sensory attributes of the product during
The utilization of poultry meat has increased in various
snack foods. The sweet delicate flavor and tender juicy
texture of poultry meat can be brought to perfection by MATERIALS AND METHODS
roasting, frying, barbecuing, boiling, steaming and
stewing. However, frying is the best way, which results Raw materials
in almost full retention of protein, carbohydrates, Frozen boneless chicken meat (breast meat), three
minerals and vitamins B1, B2, B6 and Vitamin C vegetable oils (sunflower, soybean, canola oil), salt,
(Bognar, 1998). Frying produce remarkable changes in
fine flour and spices, and plain poly bags) were
the chemical and organoleptic characteristics i.e. fat procured from local market.
content, free fatty acid (FFA), pH, texture, taste and
color of the product being fried and these changes Preparation of chicken patties
depend upon the type of oil being used for frying Recipe
Different methods of preservation like dehydration, Boneless chicken minced meat 2Kg
smoking and canning may be used for snack foods but
Black pepper powder
these can produce undesirable changes in many ways
White pepper powder
including inactivation of vitamins, discoloration, off Salt
flavors, denaturation and even coagulation of proteins.
As the chemical and physical changes occurring in Cumin seed powder
meat are slight as compared to other methods, low Coriander seed powder
temperature freezing is gaining more popularity Turmeric Powder
(Norman and Joseph, 1995).
Mono sodium glutamate
Chicken patties are better in quality than made from
mutton because chicken emulsion has significantly Batter
higher pH, protein and emulsion stability than mutton
emulsion. Appearance, flavor and overall acceptability
of chicken patties were also better than mutton patties Procedure
(Anand et al..
1991). Flavor intensity, juiciness and Chicken patties were prepared by thawing frozen
tenderness of meat are directly related with fat content.
boneless chicken meat at refrigeration temperature for
Among the commonly used vegetable oils, the usage 337
Ali and Rasool
3-4 hours before use. After thawing, the meat was 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days interval by a trained panel of
washed and minced using a mechanical mincer. A five judges deputed for evaluation of patties by using 9-
spice mix was prepared according to a pre-set recipe
point hedonic scale according to method described by
and thoroughly mixed with minced meat by using meat
Poste et al
mixer. Spice blended mince meat was frozen at Statistical analysis
temperature –2 to 0oC to facilitate shaping of chicken
patties. A batter was prepared by dissolving 200g fine
The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis
flour and 4g table salt in 100mL water. Now frozen by conducting analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique
spice blended mince meat was formed by using mould
using completely randomized design (CRD) while
of specific shape. Batter was applied uniformly on variation treatment and storage means were compared
formed chicken patties and then fried in three different
by Duncan’s multiple range (DMR) by following the
vegetable oils including sunflower oil (T1), soybean oil
procedure described by Steel et al.
(T2) and canola oil (T3) in separate lots at 180 oC for 2-
3 minutes until a brown color was obtained. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Packaging and storage of chicken patties
Chicken patties were fried in sunflower, soybean and
After frying, chicken patties were cooled upto 10 oC
canola oil and subjected to frozen storage for 60 days.
and packed in polyethylene bags. Patties were The patties were analyzed for their chemical and
subjected to frozen storage at –18oC for subsequent
sensory characteristics at the interval of 15 days during
chemical and organoleptic analysis.
the whole storage. Chemical analysis Chemical analysis of chicken patties
The prepared chicken patties were analyzed for All the treatments of frying vegetable oils were
moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, pH and significantly affected with respect to moisture (%),
peroxide value after 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days interval
crude protein (%), crude fat (%) and peroxide value
according to their respective methods given in AOAC
(meq/Kg) where as ash content (%) and pH value were
found to be non-significant. Similarly all chemical
parameters were significantly affected during 60 days Sensory evaluation
storage except pH value. Means values for chemical
The chicken patties were evaluated for sensory analysis of frozen stored chicken patties both for
parameters such as color, flavor, taste, juiciness, treatments and storage period are presented Table I
tenderness, chewability and overall acceptability after
and Table II. Table I. Mean for effect of different frying oils on chemical characteristics of frozen stored chicken patties Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Ash Peroxide Treatments PH (%) (%) (%) (%) (meq/Kg) T1
T1 = Chicken patties fried in sunflower oil; T2 = Chicken patties fried in soybean oil; T3 = Chicken patties fried in Canola oil Table II. Mean for effect of storage on chemical characteristics of frozen storage chicken patties Storage Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Ash Peroxide pH (days) (%) (%) (%) (%) (meq/Kg) 0
Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values. Mean
values for selected treatments carrying same letters in a row are not significantly different 338
Fried frozen stored chicken patties
It is evident from the results that chicken patties fried in
meq/kg) and then for canola oil (0.89meq/kg) and
different vegetable oils differed significantly with one
affected significantly for storage intervals from 0 to 60
another with respect to moisture content. The moisture
days. The variable results of these parameters are in
content for treatments was found to be the highest
line with the findings of Puttarajappa et al
(40.44%) in patties fried in soybean oil, followed by Natarjan and Siddique (1981), Sharma et al
fried in sunflower oil (38.72%) and then in canola oil
and Espla and Neill (1993) who had reported changes
(36.82%). While for storage, the moisture content of
in crude protein, ash and peroxide values of fried
patties stored at 0 and 15 days were differed materials using different frying oils.
significantly where as at 30, 45 and 60 days were Sensory Evaluation of chicken patties
found to be statistically non-significant with each other.
The crude protein content of chicken patties was The sensory evaluation is very important criterion in
significantly the highest (34.57%) in case of canola oil
food industry. The chicken patties fried in three
and the lowest (32.78%) in patties fried in sunflower oil.
different commercial vegetable oils were stored in
However the crude protein content of patties fried in
polyethylene bags at –18 oC for 60 days. The patties
sunflower and soybean oils did not differed were analyzed for
color, flavor, taste, juiciness,
tenderness, chewability and overall acceptability at 0,
During storage, the crude protein content was affected
15, 30, 45 and 60 days interval. A gradual decline in
significantly for all the treatments of fried chicken sensory attributes was observed during the storage in
patties (Table II). Average fat content of chicken patties
all treatment. Means values for sensory analysis of
was observed significantly the highest (12.28%) in frozen stored chicken patties both for treatments and
sunflower oil fried products, followed by fried in storage period are presented Table III and Table IV. Table III. Mean for effect of frying oils on sensory characteristics of frozen stored chicken patties Overall Treatments Color Flavor Taste Juiciness Tenderness Chewability acceptability T1
T1 = Chicken patties fried in sunflower oil; T2 = Chicken patties fried in soybean oil; T3 = Chicken patties fried in Canola oil Table IV. Mean for effect of storage on sensory characteristics of frozen stored chicken patties Storage Overall Color Flavor Taste Juiciness Tenderness Chewability (days) accept-ability 0
Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values. Mean
values for selected treatments carrying same letters in a row are not significantly different
soybean oil (11.14%) and canola oil (10.06%). A In frying, color serves as an important sensory attribute
decline in fat content was observed during the whole
which is correlated with changes in aroma and flavor.
storage period. Ash content of fried chicken patties Color for chicken patties fried in different vegetable oils
was comparable with one another for treatments and
differed significantly for treatments and storage
storage conditions. There was no significant difference
intervals. The color score for fried chicken patties was
among the pH values of the treatments and remained
significantly the highest (6.69) for patties fried in canola
almost identical (6.48) with in the treatments. But pH
oil, followed by fried in soybean oil (5.56) and then in
values affected significantly during 60 days storage sunflower oil (4.58). The color value during storage
period. On the same way, peroxide value was intervals differed significantly but the values at 30 and
significantly the highest (1.18 meq/kg) for patties fried
60 days were remained statistically the same. A similar
in sunflower oil, followed by fried in soybean oil (1.00
variable trend was also detected in flavor character of 339
Ali and Rasool
prepared patties with treatments and storage intervals.
Egbert, W.R., D.L. Huffman, C.C. Chen and D.P.
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Almost similar trend in juiciness, tenderness and
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