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Common Diseases of Stone Fruit Trees and Their Control

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Trees that bear fruit with a hard woody pit, or "stone," are commonly called "stone fruit" trees. Peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, almonds, and cherries are in this group. Of the stone fruits, only peaches and nectarines are grown commercially in Oklahoma. However, many homeowners have at least one stone fruit tree in their yard. A number of serious fungal, bacterial, nematode, and viral diseases are common to stone fruits and should be of concern to all growers. Symptoms of several common diseases and their control measures are discussed
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Content Preview
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
EPP-7641
Common Diseases of Stone Fruit
Trees and Their Control
Sharon von Broembsen
Extension Plant Pathologist
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets
are also available on our website at:
Philip W. Pratt
http://osufacts.okstat.edu
Area Extension Pathologist
NE District, Muskogee

Trees that bear fruit with a hard woody pit, or “stone,” are
rot cannot be controlled by this practice alone. Proper
commonly called “stone fruit” trees. Peaches, plums, apricots,
pruning also aids in control by improving good air circu-
nectarines, almonds, and cherries are in this group. Of the
lation. This promotes rapid drying of foliage and soil. It
stone fruits, only peaches and nectarines are grown commer-
also reduces the chance of twig punctures of the fruit.
cially in Oklahoma. However, many homeowners have at least
Thinning of crowded fruit is a good cultural practice that
one stone fruit tree in their yard. A number of serious fungal,
also reduces brown rot infection through prevention of
bacterial, nematode, and viral diseases are common to stone
fruit contact. During the later part of the season, prompt
fruits and should be of concern to all growers. Symptoms of
removal of damaged and infected fruit is quite important in
several common diseases and their control measures are
preventing additional fruit infection, as well as preventing
discussed.
twig and branch infection.
2. Adherence to a Recommended Spray Schedule. No
Fungal Diseases
method of control has been developed which is as ef-
fective as adherence to a recommended fungicide spray
schedule. There are several commercial y available fungi-
Brown Rot
cide formulations that are effective for use in a brown rot

Brown rot is a very destructive disease of all stone fruits.
control program for Oklahoma. These are presented in
The brown rot fungus (Monilinia fructicola) causes blossom
Current Report CR-6240, “Commercial Peach-Nectarine
blight, fruit rot, twig blight, and branch canker. Brown rot of
Disease and Insect Control.” Homeowners may want to
ripening fruit is very common, and it generally occurs as the
fol ow the recommendations presented in OSU Extension
fruit approaches maturity.
Facts HLA-6235. “Home Fruit Spray Schedules.”

The first evidence of fruit infection is the appearance of
3. Good Harvesting Practices. Brown rot causes greater
a small brown spot, frequently originating in a slight wound
losses during shipment to market and at the market than
caused by insect feeding or egg-laying activities. The rotted
in the orchard. Most of the loss is a result of poor harvest-
area rapidly expands and eventually becomes covered with
ing practices. Wounds of any type or size produced on
tan-gray fungal fruiting tufts (Figure 1). The tufts appear sooner
fruit during harvest are ideal sites for infection because
on plum and cherry fruits than on peach fruit. Fruit rotted by
mature fruits are very susceptible.
brown rot usually retain their form and usually remain attached
to the tree for some time after being completely rotted. Later
Peach Leaf Curl
they may fall. Whether they fall or are retained in the trees,

Leaf curl, caused by the fungus Taphrina deformans, is
they dry into firm black fungal mummies which do not disin-
a serious disease of peaches and nectarines in Oklahoma.
tegrate. In the following spring, spores are produced on the
Apricots are immune. Leaf curl is usual y confined to the current
mummies. These spores initiate a new infection cycle. When
year’s blossoms, leaves, twigs, and fruit. The disease rarely
the flowers or fruit are infected, the fungus may also infect
extends down to growth produced the previous season. In the
twigs, causing cankers or twig death. The fungus may also
spring, infected leaves emerging from buds are thickened, and
grow down infected twigs and cause branch cankers. During
as they develop, the leaf blades become puffed and folded with
rainy weather, gummosis is common on infected twigs and
the edges curling inward so that their undersurfaces become
cankers. Fungal tufts may also appear.
a series of concaved chambers (Figure 2). Later, diseased

To control brown rot, several practices are required: 1)
leaves become yellowish, and spores are produced on the
sanitation and orchard management, 2) adherence to a rec-
upper surface. Soon the leaves turn yellowish-red to brown,
ommended fungicide spray schedule, and 3) good harvesting
and later they wither and fall from the trees during hot, dry
practices. These practices are discussed below.
weather. Dropped leaves are replaced by new leaves which
1. Sanitation and Orchard Management. Removal of
emerge from dormant buds. On infected twigs, leaf curl causes
mummified fruits from trees, and also from the ground,
a slight swelling and the twigs will remain small. Sometimes
and their destruction is very important. However, brown
fruit will become infected, showing shiny, raised, warty areas
Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources • Oklahoma State University

the main tap root. “Shoestrings” and “fans” of fungal tissue will
• Avoid soils with poor internal drainage and remove wet
also be present. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms or “toadstools”)
spots by tiling before establishing new plantings.
may be found growing in clusters from the soil near the base
• Do not plant young peach orchards or replant trees next
of dead or dying trees. The caps of the clitocybe mushrooms
to older orchards or trees with cankers.
are whitish to light tan, with those of A. mellea being tan to
• Delay orchard pruning until growth starts in spring.
reddish brown. The gills (on the underside of the cap) of Cli-
Moderate to severe pruning in November, or earlier, can
tocybe are white. There is no collar (annulus) on the stem. An
severely weaken or kil trees. Late pruning promotes quick
annulus is present on the stem of A. mellea.
healing.

Because symptoms do not occur until the disease is well
• Eradicate cankers and remove badly cankered limbs,
established, it makes the disease very difficult to control. To help
branches or trees. Burn cankered limbs soon after pruning.
prevent the disease, certain cultural practices may be fol owed:
Sanitation is a must during the early life of the orchard.
1) If possible, do not plant a new orchard on recently cleared
• In cultivated orchards, plant a cover crop by July 1 and
land, 2) Do not plant a new orchard on land where trees have
mow thereafter as needed.
been killed by root rot, and 3) In an orchard where trees have
• Fertilize early according to local recommendations.
died of root rot in a localized area, dig a deep trench (six feet)
• Try to avoid mechanical and insect injury and do not leave
Figure 1. Brown rot fungus infection of a peach fruit.
Figure 2. Leaf curl symptoms on peach leaves.
around the area and leave it open for several years. Destroy
long pruning stubs.
all infected roots of killed trees in the area. After destruction
• Avoid weak-angled crotches when shaping trees.
of infected roots, the area should be planted to a non-tree
• Apply white latex paint to the southwest side of trunks
crop.
and lower scaffold branches to help avoid cold injury.
Cytospora or Perennial Canker
Bacterial Diseases

Two species of fungi, Cytospora cincta and C. leucostoma,
produce cankers, limb death, and sometimes death of stone
Bacterial Spot of Leaves and Fruit
fruit trees. The disease is probably more common than growers
realize and is more common on peaches than on other stone

Bacterial spot, caused by the bacterium Zanthomonas
fruit trees.
pruni, can infect all susceptible leaves, fruit and twigs, causing

Perennial cankers are oval to linear and when older are
defoliation and fruit spotting. Fruit spotting reduces market-
outlined by a roll of callus tissue. Cankers enlarge yearly until
ability of fruit. Defoliation can devitalize trees.
the infected limb or trunk is girdled. Spores are produced in

Bacterial spot infection of leaves appears as smal circular
tendrils from fruiting structures in diseased tissue under the
to somewhat irregular, pale green to almost white spots first ap-
bark and are disseminated by splashing and windblown rain.
pearing on the underside. The spots enlarge, become angular
Infection is through bark damaged by freezing weather or
and purple, brown to black. Tissue around the spots fades to
through pruning wounds. However, pruning wounds, mechani-
a light yellowish green (Figure 5). Eventually, the centers may
Figure 3. Leaf curl fungus infection symptoms on nec-
Figure 4. Symptoms of scab fungus infection of a peach
cal damage, insect feeding, or egg-laying punctures and leaf
drop out, giving the leaf a ragged shot hole appearance. While
tarine fruit.
fruit.
scars are also infection avenues. When temperatures are not
individual spots are small, several may coalesce, involving
favorable for the causal fungi, callus tissue forms. Fungus
large areas of leaves. Badly infected leaves may drop.
activity resumes when temperatures again favor the fungus.

On fruit, bacterial spot first appears as small circular
(Figure 3). Infection is promoted by cool, wet weather during
Mushroom Root Rots

No single control method is adequate for prevention or
brown spots. As the disease progresses, the spots become
early spring.

Two mushroom root rots of stone fruit trees have been
control of perennial canker. Several measures used in con-
darker and depressed, frequently with water-soaked margins

Leaf curl can be economically and effectively prevented
reported in Oklahoma. These diseases are uncommon, but
junction that will greatly facilitate control are recommended.1
(Figure 6). The most conspicuous phase is pitting and cracking
by one application of a recommended fungicide before leaf
growers should be aware of them. The most common one is
of enlarging fruit. This renders fruit unmarketable.
bud swell during the spring. Prolonged periods of cold, rainy
Clitocybe root rot, caused by the fungus Clitocybe tabescens.

Two distinct types of twig damage result from bacterial
weather in the spring retard tree growth more than growth of
1 Jones, A. J., and T. B. Sutton. 1984. Diseases of Tree Fruits. North Central
The other root rot is caused by Armillaria mellea.
infection: “spring” and “summer” cankers. Spring cankers
Regional Extension Publication No. 45. Michigan State University, E. Lansing.
the fungus, thus extending the infection period. For additional

Clitocybe Root Rot and Armillaria Root Rot. Clitocybe
details and current spray recommendations, read Current
root rot disease has caused extensive losses in the peach
Report CR-6240, “Commercial Peach-Nectarine Disease and
areas of the southeastern states. The disease is uncom-
Insect Control.”
mon in Oklahoma, but it does have a potential to become a
disease of some consequence. Armillaria root rot has also
Scab
been reported in Oklahoma. These root rots are most com-

Scab (sometimes called “black spot” or “freckles”) of
mon where old orchards have been replanted or planted on
peaches, cherries, plum, and apricot is caused by the fungus
new land cleared of forest trees, particularly oaks. Symptoms
Cladosporium carpophilum. The main loss is from the unsightly
of the two root rots are identical and may be confused with
appearance of scab lesions on fruit (Figure 4) which reduces
winter injury or water logging. First, infected trees present a
marketability. General use of fungicides by commercial grow-
weakened appearance, with small, yellowish leaves over the
ers has relegated scab to a minor status in most commercial
entire tree or at least on one or two major branches. At the
orchards. When the disease is not controlled, large areas of
end of the season, some branches or the entire tree dies. If
the fruit will show lesions, exposing the pulp to many fungi
the trees survive the winter, they will likely die the following
which cause fruit rots. Twigs and leaves may also be infected,
year. Often, diseased trees will be grouped in one area of an
but fruit infection is more common and more serious. Recom-
orchard. When the roots are exposed, it is possible to differ-
mendations for control are found in publications listed at the
entiate root rots from winter injury. Winter injury is more likely
end of the leaf curl section.
Figure 5. Bacterial leaf spot symptoms on peach leaves.
Figure 6. Symptoms of infection of peach fruit by the
to be on the trunk at or below the ground line. Disease injury
bacterial leaf spot bacterium. Notice close resemblance
will be evident near the union of the larger lateral roots with
to scab symptoms.
7641-2
7641-3

the main tap root. “Shoestrings” and “fans” of fungal tissue will
• Avoid soils with poor internal drainage and remove wet
also be present. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms or “toadstools”)
spots by tiling before establishing new plantings.
may be found growing in clusters from the soil near the base
• Do not plant young peach orchards or replant trees next
of dead or dying trees. The caps of the clitocybe mushrooms
to older orchards or trees with cankers.
are whitish to light tan, with those of A. mellea being tan to
• Delay orchard pruning until growth starts in spring.
reddish brown. The gills (on the underside of the cap) of Cli-
Moderate to severe pruning in November, or earlier, can
tocybe are white. There is no collar (annulus) on the stem. An
severely weaken or kil trees. Late pruning promotes quick
annulus is present on the stem of A. mellea.
healing.

Because symptoms do not occur until the disease is well
• Eradicate cankers and remove badly cankered limbs,
established, it makes the disease very difficult to control. To help
branches or trees. Burn cankered limbs soon after pruning.
prevent the disease, certain cultural practices may be fol owed:
Sanitation is a must during the early life of the orchard.
1) If possible, do not plant a new orchard on recently cleared
• In cultivated orchards, plant a cover crop by July 1 and
land, 2) Do not plant a new orchard on land where trees have
mow thereafter as needed.
been killed by root rot, and 3) In an orchard where trees have
• Fertilize early according to local recommendations.
died of root rot in a localized area, dig a deep trench (six feet)
• Try to avoid mechanical and insect injury and do not leave
Figure 1. Brown rot fungus infection of a peach fruit.
Figure 2. Leaf curl symptoms on peach leaves.
around the area and leave it open for several years. Destroy
long pruning stubs.
all infected roots of killed trees in the area. After destruction
• Avoid weak-angled crotches when shaping trees.
of infected roots, the area should be planted to a non-tree
• Apply white latex paint to the southwest side of trunks
crop.
and lower scaffold branches to help avoid cold injury.
Cytospora or Perennial Canker
Bacterial Diseases

Two species of fungi, Cytospora cincta and C. leucostoma,
produce cankers, limb death, and sometimes death of stone
Bacterial Spot of Leaves and Fruit
fruit trees. The disease is probably more common than growers
realize and is more common on peaches than on other stone

Bacterial spot, caused by the bacterium Zanthomonas
fruit trees.
pruni, can infect all susceptible leaves, fruit and twigs, causing

Perennial cankers are oval to linear and when older are
defoliation and fruit spotting. Fruit spotting reduces market-
outlined by a roll of callus tissue. Cankers enlarge yearly until
ability of fruit. Defoliation can devitalize trees.
the infected limb or trunk is girdled. Spores are produced in

Bacterial spot infection of leaves appears as smal circular
tendrils from fruiting structures in diseased tissue under the
to somewhat irregular, pale green to almost white spots first ap-
bark and are disseminated by splashing and windblown rain.
pearing on the underside. The spots enlarge, become angular
Infection is through bark damaged by freezing weather or
and purple, brown to black. Tissue around the spots fades to
through pruning wounds. However, pruning wounds, mechani-
a light yellowish green (Figure 5). Eventually, the centers may
Figure 3. Leaf curl fungus infection symptoms on nec-
Figure 4. Symptoms of scab fungus infection of a peach
cal damage, insect feeding, or egg-laying punctures and leaf
drop out, giving the leaf a ragged shot hole appearance. While
tarine fruit.
fruit.
scars are also infection avenues. When temperatures are not
individual spots are small, several may coalesce, involving
favorable for the causal fungi, callus tissue forms. Fungus
large areas of leaves. Badly infected leaves may drop.
activity resumes when temperatures again favor the fungus.

On fruit, bacterial spot first appears as small circular
(Figure 3). Infection is promoted by cool, wet weather during
Mushroom Root Rots

No single control method is adequate for prevention or
brown spots. As the disease progresses, the spots become
early spring.

Two mushroom root rots of stone fruit trees have been
control of perennial canker. Several measures used in con-
darker and depressed, frequently with water-soaked margins

Leaf curl can be economically and effectively prevented
reported in Oklahoma. These diseases are uncommon, but
junction that will greatly facilitate control are recommended.1
(Figure 6). The most conspicuous phase is pitting and cracking
by one application of a recommended fungicide before leaf
growers should be aware of them. The most common one is
of enlarging fruit. This renders fruit unmarketable.
bud swell during the spring. Prolonged periods of cold, rainy
Clitocybe root rot, caused by the fungus Clitocybe tabescens.

Two distinct types of twig damage result from bacterial
weather in the spring retard tree growth more than growth of
1 Jones, A. J., and T. B. Sutton. 1984. Diseases of Tree Fruits. North Central
The other root rot is caused by Armillaria mellea.
infection: “spring” and “summer” cankers. Spring cankers
Regional Extension Publication No. 45. Michigan State University, E. Lansing.
the fungus, thus extending the infection period. For additional

Clitocybe Root Rot and Armillaria Root Rot. Clitocybe
details and current spray recommendations, read Current
root rot disease has caused extensive losses in the peach
Report CR-6240, “Commercial Peach-Nectarine Disease and
areas of the southeastern states. The disease is uncom-
Insect Control.”
mon in Oklahoma, but it does have a potential to become a
disease of some consequence. Armillaria root rot has also
Scab
been reported in Oklahoma. These root rots are most com-

Scab (sometimes called “black spot” or “freckles”) of
mon where old orchards have been replanted or planted on
peaches, cherries, plum, and apricot is caused by the fungus
new land cleared of forest trees, particularly oaks. Symptoms
Cladosporium carpophilum. The main loss is from the unsightly
of the two root rots are identical and may be confused with
appearance of scab lesions on fruit (Figure 4) which reduces
winter injury or water logging. First, infected trees present a
marketability. General use of fungicides by commercial grow-
weakened appearance, with small, yellowish leaves over the
ers has relegated scab to a minor status in most commercial
entire tree or at least on one or two major branches. At the
orchards. When the disease is not controlled, large areas of
end of the season, some branches or the entire tree dies. If
the fruit will show lesions, exposing the pulp to many fungi
the trees survive the winter, they will likely die the following
which cause fruit rots. Twigs and leaves may also be infected,
year. Often, diseased trees will be grouped in one area of an
but fruit infection is more common and more serious. Recom-
orchard. When the roots are exposed, it is possible to differ-
mendations for control are found in publications listed at the
entiate root rots from winter injury. Winter injury is more likely
end of the leaf curl section.
Figure 5. Bacterial leaf spot symptoms on peach leaves.
Figure 6. Symptoms of infection of peach fruit by the
to be on the trunk at or below the ground line. Disease injury
bacterial leaf spot bacterium. Notice close resemblance
will be evident near the union of the larger lateral roots with
to scab symptoms.
7641-2
7641-3

developing on young succulent tissues of the past summer’s
bacterium infects a wide host range of herbaceous and woody
growth form water-soaked blisters about the time leaves
plants, including stone fruit trees. Crown gall is characterized
emerge from buds. If a canker encircles a twig, it will die. The
by the early formation of small, smooth tumors which enlarge
epidermis of infected twigs ruptures later, releasing bacteria
to eventually form hard, dark, woody galls that may be more
to be disseminated. The ruptured area heals during the sum-
than four inches in diameter. Galls are usually found on roots
mer. Summer cankers develop on new, current-season twigs,
or on the crown, but in nurseries may also be found on the
usually after leaf infections are established.
trunk.

The best way to prevent bacterial spot is through the use

To avoid crown gal , plant only disease-free nursery stock.
of resistant varieties (See OSU Extension Facts HLA-6210,
Do not plant in soils known to be infested with the crown gall
“Apple and Peach Varieties for Oklahoma”).
bacterium, as it can survive several years in the soil. Crop

A good general program of orchard management con-
rotation using grain crops for several years will help in control
ducive to production of vigorous trees should be followed to
of this bacterium. Destroy all infected trees. Do not replant
help reduce infection levels. During the dormant season, just
trees in the same location.
before bud swell, the trees should be sprayed with a recom-
mended copper fungicide formulation like Kocide 101, Kocide
Virus Diseases
404, Tri-Basic Copper Sulfate or a Bordeaux preparation. At

Stone fruit trees are subject to several serious virus
shuck-split, the trees should be sprayed again. Also, begin-
disease, but they usually are not a problem in Oklahoma
ning at shuck-split, an alternative is to spray weekly with a
because nursery trees are usually sold as certified virus-free.
terramycin formulation (Myco Shield).
Most nurseries obtain seeds for rootstocks from virus indexed
trees and use virus-free buds for grafting. Trees not certified
Crown Gall
as free of viruses should not be purchased.

Crown gall, also called “plant canker” or “root tumor,” is
caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This
The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of printing. The user is responsible for determining
that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions. The information given herein is
for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorse-
ment by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.
Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans
with Disabilities Act of 1990, and other federal laws and regulations, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, age, religion, disability, or status as a veteran in
any of its policies, practices, or procedures. This includes but is not limited to admissions, employment, financial aid, and educational services.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Robert E. Whitson, Director of Cooperative Ex-
tension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. This publication is printed and issued by Oklahoma State University as authorized by the Vice President, Dean, and Director
of the Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and has been prepared and distributed at a cost of 62 cents per copy. 0805
7641-4

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