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Continuous Ingestion of Acetic Acid Bacteria

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Acetic acid bacteria, the fermentative microorganisms of traditional foods, have unique and highly pure membrane lipid components such as sphingolipids (dihydroceramide). Sphingolipids are important components of brain tissue and many indirect studies demonstrated that ingestion of ceramide or its sphingolipid-derivatives might have beneficial effects on cognitive function. In a double-blind experiment, we tested whether continuous ingestion of the acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter malorum NCI 1683 (S24) derived from fermented milk, could improve cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and elderly persons. Cognitive function was evaluated using the CogHealth battery of tasks that can detect slight variations. A 12-week supplement of Acetobacter malorum significantly shortened the response times of the working memory, the primary outcome of this study, compared to the placebo supplement ( P <0.05).
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Received: Jun. 19, 2009
Accepted: Aug. 14, 2009
Published online: Sep. 24, 2009
Original Article
Continuous Ingestion of Acetic Acid Bacteria
:Effect on Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons
Hiroyuki Fukami 1), Hideki Tachimoto 1), Mikiya Kishi 1), Takayuki Kaga 1), Yasukazu Tanaka 2),
Yoshihiko Koga 3), Takuji Shirasawa 4)
1) Central Research Institute, Mizkan Group Corporation
2) Research Team for Functional Genomics, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
3) Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine
4) Department of Aging Control, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University
Abstract
Acetic acid bacteria, the fermentative microorganisms of traditional foods, have unique and highly pure membrane lipid
components such as sphingolipids (dihydroceramide). Sphingolipids are important components of brain tissue and many indirect
studies demonstrated that ingestion of ceramide or its sphingolipid-derivatives might have beneficial effects on cognitive function.
In a double-blind experiment, we tested whether continuous ingestion of the acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter malorum NCI
1683 (S24) derived from fermented milk, could improve cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and elderly persons.
Cognitive function was evaluated using the CogHealth battery of tasks that can detect slight variations. A 12-week supplement of
Acetobacter malorum significantly shortened the response times of the working memory, the primary outcome of this study,
compared to the placebo supplement (P<0.05). The working memory and delayed recall tasks in the low-dosage group (111
mg/day), and the choice reaction and delayed recall tasks in the high-dosage group (400 mg/day) were also improved at 8 or 12
weeks when compared to those observed before treatment (P<0.05). These results suggest that the continuous ingestion of
Acetobacter malorum has a beneficial effect on cognitive function. No clinical problems were observed in the physical and
medical examinations of any of the groups. These results and the historic experiences with eating fermented foods indicate that
an intake of acetic acid bacteria is safe and beneficial for the life of elderly persons through the maintenance of cognitive
function from the early stages of aging.
KEY WORDS: acetic acid bacteria, sphingolipids, cognitive function, aging
Introduction
In animals, dihydroceramide is converted to ceramide, which

is then metabolized into various sphingolipids. Many studies have
Acetic acid bacteria, the traditional vinegar-brewing bacteria,
demonstrated that sphingolipids are important lipid components of
are responsible for the fermentation processes resulting in vinegar,
brain tissue. For example, gangliosides, composed of sialic acid
nata de coco 1) and fermented milk such as kefir 2) and Caspian Sea
and oligosaccharides conjugated to ceramide, have been reported
yogurt 3), among others. They have characteristic membrane lipid
to improve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease patients by
components limited to some gram-negative bacteria, containing
subcutaneous injection 9). In vitro studies have been demonstrated
phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine), hopanoids (terpenoid
that gangliosides participate in the formation of synapses, and are
compounds), sphingolipids, amino lipids and coenzyme Q 4-7).
related to the action of nerve growth factor 10,11). Furthermore,
There are only a few reports characterizing the sphingolipids
ceramide and sphingomyelin, a derivative of ceramide, have been
present in bacteria associated with fermented foods. All of the
reported to have the function of nerve growth factors and affect the
sphingolipids in acetic acid bacteria have sphinganine as the sphingoid
development and survival of nerve cells 12-15). These indirect
base and 2-hydroxypalmitoyl-sphinganine (dihydroceramide)
evidences suggest that ingestion of ceramide, or its derivatives,
as the main compound 5,7). On the other hand, higher organisms,
might have a beneficial effect on cognitive function.
such as animals and plants, contain a large variety of sphingolipids,
It is widely accepted that cognitive function deteriorates with
and dihydroceramide-containing sphingolipids are only minor
advancing age in experimental animals and humans. In humans,
component 8). Therefore, acetic acid bacteria are unique in
functions such as working memory and space orientation deteriorate
accumulating dihydroceramide in such a high purity.
following the maturation period 16). It is thought that such
deterioration is caused by disorders in synaptic communication 17).
Anti-Aging Medicine 6 (7) : 60-65, 2009
Hiroyuki Fukami
(c) Japanese Society of Anti-Aging Medicine
Central Research Institute Mizkan Group Corporation
60
2-6, Nakamura-cho, Handa, Aichi, 475-8585, Japan
Tel: +81-569-24-5128 / Fax: +81-569-24-5029 / E-mail: h-fukami@mizkan.co.jp

In attempts to improve such declines in cognitive function,
Table 1 Characteristics of study participants
nutritional supplements, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids
(Mean values with their standard errors)
including docosahexaenoic acid 18,19), ginkgo biloba 20) and
phosphatidylserine 21), have been tested. However, the effects of
Acetic acid bacteria Acetic acid bacteria
Placebo group
ingested ceramide or its derivatives on cognitive function have not
Characteristic
low-dosage group
high-dosage group
been reported.
Mean
SE
Mean
SE
Mean
SE
Therefore, we focused on the possibility that acetic acid
No. of participants
22
22
22
bacteria, containing high concentrations of dihydroceramide, a
No. of males/females
9/13
9/13
8/14
precursor of the various sphingolipids in the brain, might improve
Age (years)
59
1.3
59.1
1
58.2
1.2
cognitive function in aging. There are historic experiences with
Response times for CogHealth tasks (sec)
Simple reaction
ingesting acetic acid bacteria and they are likely to be safe as a
389
20
385
13
387
20
Choice reaction
619
19
614
26
624
19
food substance. In this study, we tested whether the continuous
Working memory
913
37
917
27
922
26
ingestion of the acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter malorum
Delayed recall
1347
94
1330
61
1357
76
derived from traditional fermented food, could improve cognitive
Divided attention
594
23
586
30
572
34
HDS-R (score)
function in healthy middle-aged and elderly persons. Cognitive
28
0.3
28.4
0.3
28.8
0.4
function was evaluated using the CogHealth battery of tasks,
HDS-R; Hasegawa dementia scale-revised
which can detect slight variations in cognitive function 22,23). We
regarded the response time of the working memory task as the
primary outcome, which is impaired in individuals with mild
Table 2 Composition of the supplements
cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to healthy controls and
correlates with the ages of individuals with MCI 22).
Acetic acid
Acetic acid
Component (per one capsule)
Placebo
bacteria
bacteria
low-dosage
high-dosage
Acetic acid bacteria (mg)
0
55.5
200
Methods
Corn starch (mg)
250
194.5
50
Sucrose esters of fatty acids (mg)
10
10
10

Total weight (mg)
260
260
260
Subjects
Subjects ingested two capsules per day.
Healthy male and female subjects (50-69 years old), who
The capsule was composed of pullulan, an eatable coat made from plant material.
lived in Tokyo and Gunma, Japan, were recruited and screened for
the study. Persons whose Hasegawa dementia scale-revised
(HDS-R) 24) scores were 20 or less points, who habitually ate foods
powder was enclosed in a capsule with cornstarch and sucrose
containing acetic acid bacteria, and who used health supplements,
esters of fatty acids. The composition of the supplements in the
medicines, or game instrumentations and books designed to
three different capsules is shown in Table 2. The content of
improve cognitive function were excluded from this study.
dihydroceramide was analyzed in such a way that the alkali-stable
Eligibility was further confirmed based on a physical examination,
lipid was extracted from the bacteria according to the previously
hematology and urine tests, and on medical history. Persons with
reported method 7) and the UV absorption at 230 nm of the
health problems such as food allergy, gastrointestinal disease,
benzoylated derivative of dihydroceramide in the alkali-stable
diabetes, liver disease, renal disease, heart disease, alcoholism or
lipid was detected with HPLC 27).
other serious diseases were excluded.
A total of 66 participants (40 women, 26 men; 58.8 ± 0.7
years old) were selected and randomly assigned to three groups
Experimental design and procedures
(placebo group, acetic acid bacteria low-dosage group, and
high-dosage group). The background data of the three groups are
The experiment was set up as a double-blind test that assumed
shown in Table 1. There were no significant differences in the
a placebo contrast and comparison between parallel groups of
mean response times of CogHealth, age, or sex among the three
three different supplements. A flow diagram of the experimental
groups.
design and procedure is shown in Figure 1. The subjects ingested
The experimental protocol was approved by the Ethics
two capsules a day for 12 weeks. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of
Committee of Anti-Aging Science, Inc. (Minato-ku, Tokyo) and
supplementation, the subjects’ response times on the CogHealth
conformed to the ethical principles set forth in the Declaration of
battery of tasks were analyzed.
Helsinki. Voluntary written informed consent was obtained from
all participants. The experiment was conducted under the
management of medical doctors at Shirasawa Hospital (Director
Methods of examination
Minoru Shirasawa, Midori-cho, Tatebayashi-shi, Gunma) and
Cognitive function analyses. CogHealth is a laboratory procedure
Kowa Clinic (Kowa Medical Corporation, Director Tsuyoshi
to analyze higher brain functions based on a task-switching test
Yamato, Komagome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo).
using cards displayed on a computer screen 22,23,28). Culture,
language and course of study are reported to have no influences on
the test results 22,29-31). The Japanese version of CogHealth was
Acetic acid bacteria supplement
provided by Health Solution, Inc., Tokyo. The following five tasks
Acetic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented milk by the
were conducted for a total of about 30 min. The simple reaction
method of Entani and Masai 25,26). The strain was classified by the
task required the subject to respond as quickly as possible when a
sequence of its 16S rRNA and by DNA-DNA hybridization as
playing card was flipped over; and thus measured psychomotor
Acetobacter malorum NCI 1683 (S24). The bacteria were
function (speed of processing). The choice reaction task required
homogenized at high pressure and powdered by spray drying. This
the subject to respond as quickly as possible when a playing card
61

Acetic Acid Bacteria and Cognitive Function
Screening for eligibility
CogHealth, HDS-R, physical examination, hematology test, urine test, and medical history
66 participants randomly assigned
CogHealth (response time), age, and sex are equally distributed
22 participants
22 participants
22 participants
Placebo group
Acetic acid bacteria
Acetic acid bacteria
Low-dosage group
High-dosage group
Daily supplementation and diary report
2 dropouts
1 dropout
After 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks of food supplementation
CogHealth, HDS-R, physical examination, hematology test, urine test, and medical history
Fig. 1. Flow diagram of the experimental design and procedure
was flipped over and to answer whether it was red or not by
of the CogHealth tasks were compared among the three groups
pressing YES or NO. In the working memory task, the subject was
with the Kruskal Wallis test. Multiple comparisons were
required to decide whether the newly flipped card exactly matched
performed using the Steel test. HDS-R scores at post-12 weeks
the previous card. The delayed recall task required the subject to
were compared with those at pre-supplementation using paired
decide whether or not the same card had been seen before in the
t-tests (two-sided).
same task and measured visual learning and memory. In the
divided attention task, the subject had to respond as quickly as
possible when any one of the five cards moving up and down
touched a white line above or below the cards. In all cases the
participants were instructed to perform the tasks quickly and
precisely. The reaction times of each task were evaluated.
Physical and medical examinations. Physical examinations
consisted of height, body weight, BMI, blood pressure, and pulse
Results
rate measurements. Blood samples were analyzed for aspartate

transaminase (AST/GOT), alanine transaminase (ALT/GPT),
CogHealth test
alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ
Table 3 shows the mean response times for the five tasks of
-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), total bilirubin, total protein,
the CogHealth test battery in each group at pre-supplementation
albumin, A/G ratio, acylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL-C,
and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks during supplementation. The mean
LDL-C, urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, Na+, K+, Cl–, blood
response times for all five tasks were shorter at each succeeding
glucose, HbA1c, red blood cell count, hemoglobinometry,
time point throughout the experiments in all three groups. This
hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean
may be accounted for by the effects of learning due to repetition of
corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin
the tasks. In the low-dosage group, the mean response times in the
concentration (MCHC), platelet count, and white blood-cell count.
working memory task tended to be shorter than those in the
Urine samples were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, protein,
placebo group at each supplementation time point and a significant
glucose, occult blood, and urobilinogen. In addition, a medical
difference was identified at 12 weeks after supplementation
doctor interviewed participants concerning their subjective
compared to the placebo group. However, no significant
symptoms and objective responses.
differences were found between those of the high-dosage group
Diary reports. All participants were asked to keep diaries. Here
and the placebo group at any time in any of the tasks.
they recorded checkmarks when they consumed the supplements,
In the acetic acid bacteria low-dosage group, the response
as well as subjective comments concerning any symptoms, the
times in the working memory and delayed recall tasks tended to be
intake of medicines and other health supplements, body
shorter at 8 weeks and were significantly shorter at 12 weeks than
temperature in case of fever, and whether they had loose bowels,
at pre-supplementation. In the high-dosage group, the response
diarrhoea, or constipation.
times at 12 weeks for the choice reaction task and at 8 weeks for
the delayed recall task were significantly shorter than at
pre-supplementation. The high-dosage of acetic acid bacteria also
Statistical analysis
tended to improve the results of the working memory and delayed
One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the
recall tasks at 12 weeks compared to pre-supplementation. In the
response times of the CogHealth tasks from the pre- and post-4, 8,
placebo group, there were no significant differences or tendencies
and 12 weeks supplementation periods and multiple comparisons
between the pre- and post-supplementation times in any of the
were performed using a Bonferroni correction. The response times
tasks.
62

Table 3 Response times in five tasks of the CogHealth test battery in each group
(Mean values with their standard errors and P values)
Response time (sec)
Group / Task
Pre-supplement
4 weeks
8 weeks
12 weeks
Physical symptoms
Mean
SE
Mean
SE
P (vs.pre-)
Mean
SE
P (vs.pre-)
Mean
SE
P (vs.pre-)
Placebo group (n=20)
Simple reaction
394
21
406
17
1.000
387
18
1.000
367
16
1.000
Choice reaction
620
20
599
16
1.000
597
19
1.000
578
15
0.679
Working memory
914
41
889
41
1.000
856
34
0.813
866
34
0.857
Delayed recall
1342
102
1250
75
1.000
1214
58
0.763
1130
49
0.220
Divided attention
593
23
528
17
0.117
545
27
1.000
522
23
0.156
Acetic acid bacteria low-dosage group (n=21)
Simple reaction
381
13
404
14
1.000
388
8
1.000
368
9
1.000
Choice reaction
599
22
565
12
1.000
551
14
0.310
558
13
0.512
Working memory
908
27
814
27
0.150
797
29
0.053
778
29
0.041∗,¶
Delayed recall
1314
61
1189
40
0.206
1095
30
0.031∗
1057
37
0.017∗
Divided attention
579
31
570
21
1.000
544
27
1.000
519
24
0.587
Acetic acid bacteria high-dosage group (n=22)
Simple reaction
387
20
395
14
1.000
360
11
1.000
356
10
0.616
Choice reaction
624
19
587
15
0.422
568
14
0.016∗
563
16
0.011∗
Working memory
922
26
847
26
0.162
855
34
0.263
834
32
0.096
Delayed recall
1357
76
1279
92
1.000
1152
75
0.008∗∗
1152
63
0.063
Divided attention
572
35
535
18
1.000
527
22
0.914
553
32
1.000
Dropouts were excluded from the data analyses.
*P<0.05, **P<0.01 (vs. pre-supplementation);
Data were analyzed by one-way repeated measures ANOVA.
Multiple comparisons of 4, 8, and 12 weeks with pre-supplementation were carried out using a Bonferroni correction.
P=0.047 (vs. placebo group);
Data were analyzed with the Kruscal Wallis test.
Multiple comparisons were made of the low-dosage and high-dosage groups with the placebo group using the Steel test.
Table 4 Values of the HDS-R scores and physical
Safety evaluation
measurements before (pre-) and after (12 weeks)
The results of the HDS-R test and the physical data for each
the supplementation in each group.
group before and after supplementation are shown in Table 4.
(Mean values with their standard errors)
HDS-R scores at the pre- and post-supplementation periods in
each group were not significantly different from one another, and
Pre-supplement
12 weeks
Test
Group
the individual variations were within the normal range.
Mean
SE
Mean
SE
Several variations of other values were shown after
HDS-R
Placebo
27.8
0.5
28.9
0.3
supplementation. However, the variations of the systolic and
(score)
Low-dosage
28.4
0.4
29.1
0.2
diastolic blood pressures were small and that of the hematology
High-dosage
28.8
0.3
29
0.3
examinations were within the normal range. Clinically morbid
manifestations and obvious contributions by the supplements were
Body weight
Placebo
62
2.3
62.1
2.3
(kg)
Low-dosage
59.9
2.1
60
2
not identified for all the variations in the individual subjects.
High-dosage
58.6
2.4
57.8
2.4
As to adverse events experienced by the subjects during the
course of the experiment, except for one case of habitual pollinosis
BMI
Placebo
23.3
0.4
23.4
0.5
in the placebo group and one case of urticaria in the high-dosage
Low-dosage
22.8
0.5
23.4
0.5
High-dosage
23
0.7
22.7
0.7
group, subjects recovered from all events within one to ten days.
No obvious correlation between the events and the supplements
Systolic
Placebo
13
3
126
3
was identified.
blood pressure
Low-dosage
130
4
124
3
(mmHg)
High-dosage
138
5
133
4
Diastolic
Placebo
82.3
2
78.6
2.1
blood pressure
Low-dosage
84.4
2.1
79.1
2.1
(mmHg)
High-dosage
84.9
2.6
83.1
2.5
Pulse rate
Placebo
72.1
2
73.1
2.4
(beats/min)
Low-dosage
69.2
1.9
71.6
1.9
High-dosage
71.3
1.8
74.6
2.1
n=20, 21, and 22 for the placebo, low-dosage, and high-dosage groups, respectively;
Dropouts were excluded from the analyses.
63

Acetic Acid Bacteria and Cognitive Function
Discussion
malorum consists of approximately 1% dry weight of

dihydroceramide, approximately 0.8 mg and 2.9 mg of
In this double-blind experiment, we examined whether
dihydroceramide were consumed per day in the low-dosage and
continuous ingestion of the acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter
high-dosage supplements, respectively. In addition to sphingolipid,
malorum NCI 1683 (S24) derived from traditional fermented food,
Acetobacter malorum also contain about 5% dry weight of
could improve cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and
phosphatidylcholine, which is reported to be a nutritional
elderly persons. Acetic acid bacteria are included in nata de coco 1),
supplement for improving cognitive function 39), but the amount of
fermented milk such as kefir 2) and Caspian Sea yogurt 3) and tea
phosphatidylcholine ingested in the current study was less than the
mushrooms (kombucha) 32), among others 1). We analysed the
reported effective dose (1200 mg/day). Gangliosides are reported
content of dihydroceramide in nata de coco; the total dry weight in
to act on in vitro neurons at concentrations in the nM range 40,41),
a 100 g can of nata de coco (Dole Japan, Ltd.) includes 0.8 mg of
which is markedly lower than other functional lipids. The
dihydroceramide. In the low-dosage group, 111.1 mg of
dihydroceramide from Acetobacter malorum is thought to be
Acetobacter malorum corresponding to 0.8 mg of dihydroceramide
utilized by the human body, and that some of its metabolites, such
was supplemented per day. In addition, we had confirmed the
as gangliosides, may actively affect cognitive function in
safety of consuming 1200 mg/day of Acetobacter malorum for 14
middle-aged and elderly persons.
days in a pilot study and 400 mg/day was supplemented in the
In this study, we also confirmed the safety of consuming 111
high-dosage group of this study.
mg/day and 400 mg/day Acetobacter malorum for 12 weeks. The
The CogHealth battery of tasks used in this study is reported
results of the HDS-R confirmed that there were no serious
to be able to detect slight variations in cognitive function 22,23,33).
impairments to cognitive function (Table 4). There were no
The tasks assess short-term memory (instantaneous memory,
abnormal variations, clinically morbid manifestations, and specific
working memory) and attention (sustained attention, selective
adverse events in any of the groups after the supplementation in
attention, divided attention), which reflect the function of the
the safety evaluation. These results indicate that an intake of
frontal lobes 22,23,28). We found that the response times of several
Acetobacter malorum is both safe and beneficial.
tasks in the CogHealth battery related to short-term memory
In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the
(working memory and delayed recall), were significantly
continuous ingestion of acetic acid bacteria derived from
improved after the supplementation of Acetobacter malorum
traditional fermented food is effective at improving cognitive
(Table 3). The response times for the working memory task, which
function in healthy middle-aged and elderly persons, and is safe at
were the primary outcome of this study, was significantly
the concentrations consumed. Foods containing acetic acid
shortened in the low-dosage group compared to the placebo group.
bacteria are expected to contribute to better aging through the
This finding demonstrates that the ingestion of Acetobacter
maintenance of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly
malorum has a beneficial effect on cognitive function in healthy
persons.
middle-aged and elderly persons. In this study, low-dosage group
It is necessary, however, to obtain further evidence of the
and high-dosage group showed different effects on the response
effect of acetic acid bacteria on cognitive improvement in subjects
times of several tasks. To provide stronger evidence for the benefit
with more serious cognitive impairment. It is also important to
of Acetobacter malorum on cognitive function, it is desirable to
elucidate the pharmacokinetics of acetic acid bacteria and their
ascertain the correlation between the dosage and the effect on each
mode of action to confirm the relationship of sphingolipids as
task.
active ingredients.
The levels of gangliosides, which are representative derivatives
of ceramide in the brain, decrease with age from the juvenile and
reach a level of about one-third at 85 years of age 34). Clinically,
gangliosides have been reported to improve the symptoms of
stroke patients by intraveneous injection and those of patients with
Acknowledement
Alzheimer’s disease by subcutaneous injection 9). Gangliosides are

known by in vitro studies to accelerate the release of acetylcholine
H. F., H. T., M. K. and T. K. were responsible for performing
from synapses and to enhance the activity of neurotrophic factors
this study. T. S. was responsible for the experimental design and
in events such as neuronal dendritic elongation 11,17). Ceramide is
the interpretation of the clinical data. Y. T. was also responsible for
reported to affect dendrite and axon elongation in in-vitro
the interpretation of the data and manuscript writing. Y. K. advised
hippocampal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells and the survival
on the cognitive function analyses. We are grateful to Mikiyuki
of these neurons in rats 13,14,35,36), to inhibit cytotoxicity by
Katagiri, Ryota Sakurai and Terumichi Tawara of Anti-Aging
reactive oxygen or amyloid β-peptide 37), and to participate in the
Science, Inc. for recruiting volunteers and performing the clinical
actions of nerve growth factor 12,15). These clinical and in vitro
tests. Shin Ogawa of Mizkan Group Corporation contributed to
studies support the concept that ingested ceramide and its
supplying the Acetobacter malorum. We thank Atsushi Ishikawa,
derivatives might have beneficial effects on the decline in
Takashi Fushimi, Takahiro Oda and Kenichi Sugiyama of Mizkan
cognitive function associated with aging.
Group Corporation for advising on the data analysis and reviewing
  Acetic acid bacteria contain dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramide
the manuscript. The authors report no conflict of interest in the
is synthesized from serine and palmitoyl-CoA and has sphinganine
preparation of this paper. This research received no specific grant
as its sphingoid base, which does not contain a double bond in the
from any funding agency in the public, commercial or
molecule. On the other hand, in animal tissues, the main sphingoid
not-for-profit sectors.
base is sphingosine, which is an unsaturated molecule. When
radiolabeled sphinganine or sphingosine was administered orally
to rats, the amounts of sphinganine detected in the intestinal tract
lymph were remarkably higher than those of sphingosine 38),
suggesting that the ingested sphinganine-based lipids are more
available for absorption and utilization in animal tissues
compared with other sphingoid base structures. As Acetobacter
64

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65

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