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CumminS Air Compressor

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Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
General Information
General Information
The Cummins 18.7 cfm compressor is used on the
ISM and N14 engine. This compressor is a single
cylinder engine-driven, piston-type compressor that
supplies compressed air to operate air powered ac-
tuators on the vehicle. The compressor is geared
directly to the engine which serves to operate the
compressor and any accessory that is connected on
the rear flange. The compressor will deliver air out of
the exhaust port when the unloader port is at atmos-
pheric pressure and will stop air delivery when the
unloader port is pressurized to the system pressure
between 100 to 125 psi (689 to 862 kPa). A governor
determines the "cut-in" (start of pumping) and "cut-
out" (termination of pumping) of the compressor by
supplying the proper control signal to the unloader
port. The governor is sensing the pressure in the air
supply tank or "wet tank." If the output air pressure is
inadvertently blocked or required to exceed 250 psi
(1724 kPa), the compressor will stop air delivery. The
air will be recycled within the compressor and no me-
chanical harm will be done.
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
050/1

Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
Air Compressor Removal and Installation
Removal
Note: On Argosy COE vehicles, the com-
pressor is mounted on an alignment stud.
1.
Park the vehicle on a level surface and apply the
The stud is at the top of the compressor
parking brakes. Shut down the engine. Chock
mounting and allows the compressor to
the rear tires.
hang in place as you’re removing or install-
ing it. The stud is threaded and a nut is in-
DANGER
stalled to secure the compressor.
9.3
Support the air compressor, and remove
Before tilting the cab or returning the cab to the
the bolts that attach it to the auxiliary drive
normal operating position, read the instructions
housing, accessory drive, or timing gear
and hazard notices in Section 60.15. Failure to
plate. Remove the compressor, gasket
follow these instructions could cause the cab to
and splined coupling.
fall and hit or crush a person, which will result in
severe injury or death.

9.4
Lift or lower the air compressor out of the
engine compartment.
2.
Tilt the hood or cab.
3.
Drain the air reservoirs.
9.5
Remove and discard the air compressor
mounting gasket, and clean the mating
surfaces.
WARNING
Wear goggles when using compressed air to
Installation
clean or dry parts, as permanent harm to eyes
could result from flying debris.

IMPORTANT: Be sure the gasket surfaces are
4.
Using a cleaning solvent, remove road dirt and
cleaned and not damaged.
grease from the outside of the air compressor,
1.
Install the air compressor.
then dry the air compressor with compressed air.
Note: On Argosy COE vehicles, the com-
5.
Drain the radiator coolant below the level of the
pressor is mounted on an alignment stud.
air compressor. See Group 20 for instructions.
The stud is at the top of the compressor
6.
On Century Class conventionals, loosen the
mounting and allows the compressor to
constant-torque hose clamps at both ends of the
hang in place as you’re removing or install-
charge air cooler outlet air piping. Remove the
ing it. The stud is threaded and a nut is in-
piping to access the air compressor.
stalled to secure the compressor.
7.
Marking their locations and positions, disconnect
all air, coolant, and oil lines attached to the air
1.1
Install the splined coupling (if equipped)
compressor and governor. Remove the cushion
and a new compressor gasket. Hold the
clamps and tie straps as needed to move the
compressor in place, and install the bolts
lines out of the way. See Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
that attach it to the auxiliary drive housing,
accessory drive, or timing gear plate.
8.
Disconnect the wire to the fuel shutoff valve (if
Refer to the engine shop manual or re-
equipped). Remove the fuel pump and gasket;
build manual for final torque specification.
refer to the engine shop manual or rebuild
manual for instructions.
1.2
Install the compressor support bracket If
equipped.
9.
Remove the air compressor.
1.3
Using a new air governor mounting gas-
9.1
Remove the air governor and mounting
ket, install the air governor on the com-
gasket from the compressor.
pressor.
9.2
Remove the compressor rear support
2.
Using a new gasket install the fuel pump on the
bracket, if equipped.
air compressor. Connect the wire to the fuel
shutoff valve (if equipped). Refer to the engine
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
100/1

13.03
Air Compressor, Cummins
Air Compressor Removal and Installation
1
2
3
1
8
7
6
5
4
03/03/2000
f011738
1.
Coolant Line
5.
Air Governor Mounting Bolt
2.
Compressor Air Inlet
6.
Line to Air Dryer
3.
Cushion Clamp
7.
Line to Wet Tank
4.
Compressor Air Outlet
8.
Air Governor
Fig. 1, Air Compressor Removal, ISM
shop manual or rebuild manual for final torque
7.
Remove the chocks from the rear tires.
specification.
3.
Identify and connect all air, coolant, and oil lines
DANGER
to the compressor and governor. Secure the
lines as needed with cushion clamps and tie
Before tilting the cab or returning the cab to the
straps.
normal operating position, read the instructions
and hazard notices in Section 60.15. Failure to

4.
On Century Class conventionals, install the
follow these instructions could cause the cab to
charge air cooler outlet air piping. Tighten the
fall and hit or crush a person, which will result in
constant-torque hose clamp screws 45 lbf·in (500
severe injury or death.
N·cm).
8.
Return the hood or cab to the operating position.
5.
Fill the engine cooling system. See Group 20 for
instructions.
6.
Operate the engine and check for leaks.
100/2
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001

Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
Air Compressor Removal and Installation
1
2
3
8
9
8
4
7
5
6
03/07/2000
f011739
1.
Compressor Air Outlet Fitting
6.
Line to Air Dryer
2.
Compressor Air Inlet Hose
7.
Air Governor Mounting Bolt
3.
Compressor Air Outlet Hose
8.
Coolant Line
4.
Cushion Clamp
9.
Air Governor
5.
Line to Wet Tank
Fig. 2, Air Compressor Removal, N14
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
100/3

Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
Cylinder Head Replacement
Replacement
1
1
1.
Park the vehicle on a level surface and apply the
parking brake. Shut down the engine. Chock the
rear tires.
2.
Drain the air from all air reservoirs.
3.
Remove the compressor from the vehicle. See
1
Subject 100 for instructions.
1
4.
Mount the compressor on a suitable holding fix-
ture.
WARNING
03/06/2000
f130088
1.
Capscrew
Wear goggles when using compressed air to
clean or dry parts, as permanent harm to eyes

Fig. 1, Cylinder Head Capscrews
could result from flying debris.
5.
Using a cleaning solvent, remove road dirt and
grease from the outside of the compressor, then
dry the compressor with compressed air.
6.
Remove the cylinder head assembly, from the
crankcase.
1
6.1
Scribe an alignment mark across the cylin-
der head and the crankcase, for assembly
alignment.
2
IMPORTANT: Do not use a marking method,
such as chalk, that can be wiped off during
assembly.
NOTE: There is no need to remove the
smaller screws.
6.2
Note the positions of any attached compo-
03/06/2000
f130084
nents, then remove the four M8 cylinder
head capscrews. Discard the capscrews.
1.
Cylinder Head Assembly
2.
Upper Crankcase
See Fig. 1.
6.3
Tap the cylinder head with a soft mallet to
Fig. 2, Cylinder Head Removal
break the gasket seal. Remove the cylin-
der head assembly and discard the gas-
NOTE: Avoid the use of abrasive products
ket. See Fig. 2. Note the position of the
similar to Scotch Brite® because of damage
ports with respect to the crankcase for
and abrasive grit left behind.
reassembly.
7.2
Remove any accumulated carbon and var-
6.4
Remove the coolant and air fittings for
nish by carefully scraping and light appli-
reuse. Discard the original cylinder head.
cation of solvents. Avoid getting debris
and solvents into the clearance between
7.
Clean the crankcase.
the piston and bore. Avoid the use of
7.1
Rotate the crankshaft until the piston is at
abrasive products similar to Scotch Brite
the top of the cylinder bore.
because of damage and abrasive grit left
behind.
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
110/1

13.03
Air Compressor, Cummins
Cylinder Head Replacement
WARNING
Bolt Tightening Sequence*
Rotation
Wear goggles when using compressed air to
Step Bolt
Torque: lbf·in (N·cm)
Degrees
clean or dry parts, as permanent harm to eyes
2
B
177 to 221 (2000 to 2500)

could result from flying debris.
3
C
177 to 221 (2000 to 2500)

7.3
Using compressed air, blow dirt particles
or gasket material from all cylinder cavi-
4
D
177 to 221 (2000 to 2500)

ties.
5
A

85 to 105
8.
Inspect the top crankcase surface. It should be
6
B

85 to 105
smooth and free of scratches to enable resealing
7
C

85 to 105
on assembly.
8
D

55 to 75
9.
Transfer the alignment marks from the original
cylinder head to the replacement cylinder head.
9
E
48 to 58 (540 to 660)

10
F
48 to 58 (540 to 660)

10. Install the coolant and air fittings on the replace-
ment cylinder head.
11
G
48 to 58 (540 to 660)

11. Install the cylinder head on the compressor
12
H
48 to 58 (540 to 660)

crankcase.
13
I
48 to 58 (540 to 660)

11.1
Position the sliding valve and the guide
14
E

85 to 105
pins in the correct direction to enter the
15
F

85 to 105
larger diameters in the valve body and
crankcase.
16
G

85 to 105
17
H

85 to 105
11.2
Align the marks on the cylinder head and
crankcase.
18
I

85 to 105
* See Fig. 3 for Bolt Locations
11.3
Using a new cylinder head gasket, posi-
Table 1, Bolt Tightening Sequence
tion the gasket and head assembly on the
crankcase.
12. Install the compressor. See Subject 100 for in-
Note: You should find five cover bolts loosely
structions.
holding the head assembly together.
13. Fill the engine cooling system. See Group 20 for
11.4
Install new capscrews.
instructions.
CAUTION
14. Operate the engine and check the compressor
operation. Make sure there are no coolant or air
A torque angle gauge and inch pound torque
leaks.
wrench must be used to perform the torque-turn
15. Remove the chocks from the rear tires.
capscrew tightening sequence. The tightening
sequence in Table 1 must be followed to prevent
damage to the cylinder head assembly.

11.5
Tighten the capscrews using the bolt tight-
ening sequence in Table 1.
Bolt Tightening Sequence*
Rotation
Step Bolt
Torque: lbf·in (N·cm)
Degrees
1
A
177 to 221 (2000 to 2500)

110/2
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001

Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
Cylinder Head Replacement
B
D
E
H
C
F
G
A
I
03/06/2000
f130087
Fig. 3
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
110/3

Air Compressor, Cummins
13.03
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Tables
Problem—Excessive Oil Passage
Problem—Excessive Oil Passage
Possible Cause
Remedy
Restricted air intake.
Check engine air filter and replace if necessary. Check compressor air inlet for
kinks and excessive bends. Repair as needed.
Restricted oil return hole in front of
Remove compressor and check the oil return hole for restrictions. Repair as
compressor.
needed.
Defective or worn seal in the rear bearing
Replace seal.
cap.
Compressor runs loaded an excessive
Check air lines and connections for leakage. Check for a defective governor
amount of time.
or restricted line. Replace the governor if necessary. Repair or replace lines
and connections until leakage is eliminated.
Back pressure from the engine crankcase.
Check for excessive engine crankcase pressure. Repair or replace ventilation
components as necessary.
NOTE: An indication of crankcase pressure is a loose or partially lifted
dipstick.
Excessive engine oil pressure.
Check the engine oil pressure with a test gauge, and compare the reading to
the engine specification. Do not restrict the compressor oil supply line.
Malfunctioning compressor.
Replace the compressor after making certain none of the preceding conditions
exist.
Problem—Noisy Compressor Operation
Problem—Noisy Compressor Operation
Possible Cause
Remedy
Loose drive coupling or gear (as
Inspect the fit of the drive coupling and gear on the compressor crankshaft.
indicated).
Tighten or replace the components. If the crankshaft keyway is damaged,
replace the compressor.
Compressor cylinder head or discharge
Inspect the compressor discharge port and discharge line for carbon build-up.
line restrictions.
If carbon is detected, remove the carbon and check for proper coolant flow to
the compressor. Inspect the discharge line for kinks and restrictions. Replace
the discharge line as necessary.
Compressor internal engine components
Replace the compressor.
damaged or worn.
Problem—Excessive Build-Up and Recovery Time
Problem—Excessive Build-Up and Recovery Time
Possible Cause
Remedy
Restricted air intake.
Check engine air filter and replace if necessary. Check compressor air inlet for
kinks and excessive bends. Repair as needed.
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001
300 /1

13.03
Air Compressor, Cummins
Troubleshooting
Problem—Excessive Build-Up and Recovery Time
Possible Cause
Remedy
Restricted discharge or compressor
Inspect the compressor discharge port and line for restrictions and carbon
discharge cavity.
build-up. If carbon is detected, remove the carbon. Check for proper cooling to
the compressor. Inspect the discharge line for kinks and restrictions. Replace
the discharge line as necessary.
Slipping drive components.
Check for faulty drive gears and coupling, and replace as necessary.
Excessive air system leakage (not
Check all valves, air lines, and connections for leakage. Repair or replace
including the air compressor).
valves and lines until leakage is eliminated.
Unloader piston seized.
Check the operation of the unloading mechanism. Check for corrosion and
contamination of unloader pistons. Check for correct operation of the
compressor air governor. If the governor is operating properly, replace the
compressor.
Damaged compressor rings, valves, and
Replace the compressor.
gaskets.
Problem—Compressor Fails to Unload
Problem—Compressor Fails to Unload
Possible Cause
Remedy
Malfunctioning governor.
Check the setting with an accurate test gauge. Repair or replace the air
governor.
Unloader air lines from governor damaged. Inspect the air lines to and from the governor for kinks or restrictions. Repair
or replace the air lines.
Faulty or worn unloader piston or bore.
Replace the compressor.
Problem—Air in Water System/Water in Air System
Problem—Air in Water System/Water in Air System
Possible Cause
Remedy
Internal gasket leakage.
Replace the compressor.
Internal casting porosity.
Replace the compressor.
300 /2
Century Class Trucks Workshop Manual, Supplement 16, June 2001

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