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Dictionary of Chemistry

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The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry provides a compendium of 8000 terms that are central to chemistry and related fields of science and technology. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the the areas of analytical chemistry, general chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy, with new terms added and others revised as necessary. Chemistry deals with the composition, properties, and structure of matter. Its various branches analyze composition and properties, and study the changes that occur in matter, the underlying processes, the energetics of these processes, and the rates at which they occur. Thus, the terms contained in this Dictionary may be used in virtually all areas of science, for example, biochemistry, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry, and in many areas of technology. All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition (2003). Each definition is classified according to the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one area, it is identified by the general label [CHEM]. The pronunciation of each term is provided, along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations where appropriate. A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii-viii, explaining the alphabetical organization of terms, the format of the book, cross referencing, chemical formulas, and how synonyms, variant spellings, abbreviations, and similar information are handled. The Pronunciation Key is provided on page x. The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly used scientific units as well as other listings of chemical data.
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McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of
Chemistry
Second
Edition
McGraw-Hill
New York
Chicago
San Francisco
Lisbon
London
Madrid
Mexico City
Milan
New Delhi
San Juan
Seoul
Singapore
Sydney
Toronto

ebook_copyright 8.5 x 11.qxd 5/30/03 11:01 AM Page 1
Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the
United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be repro-
duced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or
retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
0-07-141797-4
The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title:
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trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................. v
Staff ...................................................................................................................... vi
How to Use the Dictionary ........................................................................... vii
Fields and Their Scope .................................................................................. ix
Pronunciation Key ............................................................................................ x
A–Z Terms ................................................................................................... 1-414
Appendix .................................................................................................. 415-431
Equivalents of commonly used units for the U.S.
Customary System and the metric system .................................... 417
Conversion factors for the U.S. Customary System,
metric system, and International System ...................................... 418
Defining fixed points of the International Temperature
Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) ....................................................................... 422
Primary thermometry methods ............................................................ 423
Periodic table ......................................................................................... 424
Electrochemical series of the elements ............................................. 425
Average electronegativities from the thermochemical data ............ 426
Standard atomic weights ...................................................................... 427
Principal organic functional groups .................................................... 429
Compounds containing functional groups ......................................... 430
Physical properties of some organic solvents ................................... 431
Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

This page intentionally left blank.

Preface
The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry provides a compendium of 8000 terms
that are central to chemistry and related fields of science and technology. The
coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the the areas of analytical
chemisty, general chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical
chemistry, and spectroscopy, with new terms added and others revised as
necessary.
Chemistry deals with the composition, properties, and structure of matter. Its
various branches analyze composition and properties, and study the changes
that occur in matter, the underlying processes, the energetics of these proc-
esses, and the rates at which they occur. Thus, the terms contained in this
Dictionary may be used in virtually all areas of science, for example, biochemis-
try, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry, and in many areas of technology.
All of the definitions are drawn from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms,
Sixth Edition (2003). Each definition is classified according to
the field with which it is primarily associated; if it is used in more than one
area, it is identified by the general label [CHEM]. The pronunciation of each
term is provided, along with synonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations where
appropriate. A guide to the use of the Dictionary appears on pages vii-viii,
explaining the alphabetical organization of terms, the format of the book,
cross referencing, chemical formulas, and how synonyms, variant spellings,
abbreviations, and similar information are handled. The Pronunciation Key is
provided on page x. The Appendix provides conversion tables for commonly
used scientific units as well as other listings of chemical data.
It is the editors’ hope that the Second Edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Chemistry
will serve the needs of scientists, engineers, students, teachers,
librarians, and writers for high-quality information, and that it will contribute
to scientific literacy and communication.
Mark D.Licker
Publisher
v
Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

Staff
Mark D. Licker, Publisher—Science
Elizabeth Geller, Managing Editor
Jonathan Weil, Senior Staff Editor
David Blumel, Staff Editor
Alyssa Rappaport, Staff Editor
Charles Wagner, Digital Content Manager
Renee Taylor, Editorial Assistant
Roger Kasunic, Vice President—Editing, Design, and Production
Joe Faulk, Editing Manager
Frank Kotowski, Jr., Senior Editing Supervisor
Ron Lane, Art Director
Thomas G. Kowalczyk, Production Manager
Pamela A. Pelton, Senior Production Supervisor
Henry F. Beechhold, Pronunciation Editor
Professor Emeritus of English
Former Chairman, Linguistics Program
The College of New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey
vi
Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

How to Use the Dictionary
ALPHABETIZATION.
The terms in the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemistry,
Second Edition, are alphabetized on a letter-by-letter basis; word spacing,
hyphen, comma, solidus, and apostrophe in a term are ignored in the sequenc-
ing. Also ignored in the sequencing of terms (usually chemical compounds)
are italic elements, numbers, small capitals, and Greek letters. For example,
the following terms appear within alphabet letter “A”:
amino alcohol
para-aminophenol
1-aminoanthraquinone
n-amylamine
?-aminobutyric acid
4-AP
FORMAT.
The basic format for a defining entry provides the term in boldface,
the field is small capitals, and the single definition in lightface:
term [FIELD]
Definition
A term may be followed by multiple definitions, each introduced by a bold-
face number:
term [FIELD]
1. Definition. 2. Definition. 3. Definition.
A term may have definitions in two or more fields:
term [PHYS CHEM]
Definition.
[SPECT]
Definition.
A simple cross-reference entry appears as:
term
See another term.
A cross reference may also appear in combination with definitions:
term [PHYS CHEM]
Definition.
[SPECT]
See another term.
CROSS REFERENCING.
A cross-reference entry directs the user to the
defining entry. For example, the user looking up “arachic acid” finds:
arachic acid
See eicosanoic acid.
The user then turns to the “E” terms for the definition. Cross references are
also made from variant spellings, acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols.
AES
See Auger electron spectroscopy.
aluminium
See aluminum.
at. wt
See atomic weight.
Au
See gold.
vii
Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.

CHEMICAL FORMULAS.
Chemistry definitions may include either an
empirical formula (say, for abietic acid, C20H30O2) or a line formula (for acry-
lonitrile, CH2CHCN), whichever is appropriate.
ALSO KNOWN AS . . . , etc. A definition may conclude with a mention of a
synonym of the term, a variant spelling, an abbreviation for the term, or other
such information, introduced by “Also known as . . . ,” “Also spelled . . . ,”
“Abbreviated . . . ,” “Symbolized . . . ,” “Derived from . . . .” When a term has
more than one definition, the positioning of any of these phrases conveys the
extent of applicability. For example:
term [PHYS CHEM]
1. Definition. Also known as synonym. 2. Definition.
Symbolized T.
In the above arrangement, “Also known as . . .” applies only to the first defini-
tion; “Symbolized . . .” applies only to the second definition.
term [PHYS CHEM]
1. Definition.
2. Definition.
[SPECT]
Definition.
Also known as synonym.
In the above arrangement, “Also known as . . .” applies only to the second field.
term [PHYS CHEM]
Also known as synonym.
1. Definition.
2. Defini-
tion.
[SPECT]
Definition.
In the above arrangement, “Also known as . . .” applies only to both definitions
in the first field.
term Also known as synonym.
[PHYS CHEM]
1. Definition. 2. Defini-
tion.
[SPECT]
Definition.
In the above arrangement, “Also known as . . .” applies to all definitions in
both fields.
viii

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