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Digestive system
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Content Preview
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM QUESTIONS
Question 1: Create a chart to show the trip of a Big Mac with everything on it through the entire
system mouth to the anus. For each major macronutrient in the sandwich, include the organs
along the direct pathway, the type of digestion each organ performs, as well as the accessory
glands and enzymes that are involved with aiding in digestion.

CARBOHYDRATES
PROTEINS
FATS
MOUTH
The mouth first eats the Big Mac,
The mouth first eats the Big Mac,
The mouth first eats the Big Mac,
chewing it into small bits. Although
chewing it into small bits. Although
chewing it into small bits. Although
you are able to start swallowing by
you are able to start swallowing by
you are able to start swallowing by
choice, once the swallowing begins,
choice, once the swallowing begins,
choice, once the swallowing begins,
it becomes involuntary and proceeds
it becomes involuntary and proceeds
it becomes involuntary and proceeds
under the control of the nerves. The
under the control of the nerves. The
under the control of the nerves. The
digestible carbohydrates—starch
salivary gland helps break down the
salivary gland helps break down the
and sugar—are broken into simpler
food. No enzymes are used yet.
food. No enzymes are used yet.
molecules by enzymes in the saliva,
called salivary amylase. The
accessory gland is the salivary
gland.
ESOPHAGUS
The bits of the Big Mac are pushed
The bits of the Big Mac are pushed
The bits of the Big Mac are pushed
into the esophagus, which connects
into the esophagus, which connects
into the esophagus, which connects
the throat above with the stomach
the throat above with the stomach
the throat above with the stomach
below. At the end of the esophagus
below. At the end of the esophagus
below. At the end of the esophagus
and stomach, there is a ring like
and stomach, there is a ring like
and stomach, there is a ring like
muscle, called the lower esophageal
muscle, called the lower esophageal
muscle, called the lower esophageal
sphincter, closing the passage
sphincter, closing the passage
sphincter, closing the passage
between the two organs. As the bits
between the two organs. As the bits
between the two organs. As the bits
come to the closed sphincter, the
come to the closed sphincter, the
come to the closed sphincter, the
sphincter relaxes and allows the Big
sphincter relaxes and allows the Big
sphincter relaxes and allows the Big
Mac to pass through to the stomach.
Mac to pass through to the stomach.
Mac to pass through to the stomach.
The esophagus merely moves the
The esophagus merely moves the
The esophagus merely moves the
food, no glands or enzymes work in
food, no glands or enzymes work in
food, no glands or enzymes work in
this part.
this part.
this part.
STOMACH
The stomach has three things to do.
The stomach has three things to do.
The stomach has three things to do.
First, it stores the swallowed Big
First, it stores the swallowed Big
First, it stores the swallowed Big
Mac. To do this, the muscle of the
Mac. To do this, the muscle of the
Mac. To do this, the muscle of the
upper part of the stomach relaxes to
upper part of the stomach relaxes to
upper part of the stomach relaxes to
accept large volumes of swallowed
accept large volumes of swallowed
accept large volumes of swallowed
Big Mac. The second job is to mix
Big Mac. The second job is to mix
Big Mac. The second job is to mix
up the starchy carbohydrates, and
up the sandwich, and digestive juice
up the sandwich bits, and digestive
digestive juice produced by the
produced by the stomach. The lower
juice produced by the stomach. The
stomach. The lower part of the
part of the stomach mixes these
lower part of the stomach mixes
stomach mixes starchy
materials by its muscle action. The
these materials by its muscle action.
carbohydrates by its muscle action.
third task of the stomach is to empty
The third task of the stomach is to
The third task of the stomach is to
its contents slowly into the small
empty its contents slowly into the
empty its contents slowly into the
intestine. Hydrochloric acid,
small intestine.
small intestine.
secreted in the stomach's gastric
acid, attacks the protein molecules
separating them and breaking them
down into amino acids. Then
the gastric enzyme pepsin starts to
digest the amino acids.
CONTINUED ON
CONTINUED ON
CONTINUED ON
CONTINUED ON
NEXT PAGE
NEXT PAGE
NEXT PAGE
NEXT PAGE

Another version of amylase is
The fat tooken from the beef and
Digestion of proteins from the meat
secreted by the pancreas accessory
other parts such as mayonnaise and
of the Big Mac continues in the
gland into the small intestine. This
oil from the Big Mac, mixes with
small intestine. The pancreas helps
cuts down carbohydrates from the
the digestive enzyme lipase,
the process by secreting
buns in the Big Mac into simple
which enters the small intestine
the pancreatic protease
sugars -maltose, lactose and sucrose.
pancreas accessory gland - the main
enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin.
As the carbohydrate passes further
source of enzymes for digesting fats
Trypsin breaks down a protein into
SMALL INTESTINE
into the intestine, the enzymes
and proteins. Lipase chops up lipid
single amino acid molecules,
maltase, lactase and sucrose chop
molecules into fatty acid molecules
through a process called hydrolysis.
maltose, lactose and sucrose into
and glycerol molecules. However,
During hydrolysis, a water molecule
smaller bits, more easily absorbed
fat does not dissolve in water;
is inserted between the two amino
which are eventually converted to
Lipase is a water soluble enzyme
acids which are bonded together.
glucose and absorbed through the
and can only attack the surface of
This breaks the bond between them.
intestinal walls into the
the fat molecules. To overcome this
After breakdown, the amino acids
bloodstream. Also, in the small
problem the small intestine uses a
are small enough to pass through
intestine, the glucose is absorbed
substance called bile, produced in
the intestinal lining into the
into the bloodstream and taken to
the accessory gland liver but stored
capillaries in the villi. The proteins
the liver accessory gland, where it is
in the accessory gland gallbladder,
then enter the blood stream, as the
stored or distributed to cells
which enters the small intestine
wastes move down to the large
throughout the body for energy. In
through bile duct. Bile
intestine.
this way, the liver regulates blood
emulsifies fats. Emulsification
glucose levels to provide sufficient
allows lipase to gain easier access to
energy for the body.
fat molecules.
LARGE INTESTINE
The Big Mac is no longer broken
The Big Mac is no longer broken
The Big Mac is no longer broken
down at this stage of digestion. The
down at this stage of digestion. The
down at this stage of digestion. The
carbohydrates are already absorbed
proteins are already absorbed by the
fats are already absorbed by the gall
by the blood stream. The large
blood stream. The large intestine
bladder and the liver. The large
intestine absorbs water and
absorbs water and electrolytes from
intestine absorbs water and
electrolytes from the chyme. The
the chyme. The Large intestine
electrolytes from the chyme. The
Large intestine absorbs vitamins
absorbs vitamins such as Vitamin K,
Large intestine absorbs vitamins
such as Vitamin K, Vitamin B12,
Vitamin B12, thiamine and
such as Vitamin K, Vitamin B12,
thiamine and riboflavin. It also puts
riboflavin. It also puts together the
thiamine and riboflavin. It also puts
together the feces, and stores it in
feces, and stores it in the rectum
together the feces, and stores it in
the rectum until it can be
until it can be discharged. The
the rectum until it can be
discharged. The wastes from the Big
wastes from the Big Mac include
discharged. The wastes from the Big
Mac include undigested parts of the
undigested parts of the food, known
Mac include undigested parts of the
food, known as fiber, and older cells
as fiber, and older cells that have
food, known as fiber, and older cells
that have been shed from the
been shed from the mucosa. These
that have been shed from the
mucosa. These materials are pushed
materials are pushed into the Large
mucosa. These materials are pushed
into the Large intestine, where they
intestine, where they remain until
into the Large intestine, where they
remain until the feces come out by a
the feces come out by a bowel
remain until the feces come out by a
bowel movement.
movement.
bowel movement.
RECTUM
The rectum acts as temporary
The rectum acts as temporary
The rectum acts as temporary
storage for feces created from the
storage for feces created from the
storage for feces created from the
wastes if the Big Mac. As walls of
wastes if the Big Mac. As walls of
wastes if the Big Mac. As walls of
the rectum expand because of the
the rectum expand because of the
the rectum expand because of the
materials filling it, the nervous
materials filling it, the nervous
materials filling it, the nervous
system located in the rectum
system located in the rectum
system located in the rectum
stimulate the desire to use the
stimulate the desire to use the
stimulate the desire to use the
restroom. If you don’t go to the
restroom. If you don’t go to the
restroom. If you don’t go to the
restroom, the material in the rectum
restroom, the material in the rectum
restroom, the material in the rectum
returns to the Large intestine where
returns to the Large intestine where
returns to the Large intestine where
more water is absorbed. If someone
more water is absorbed. If someone
more water is absorbed. If someone
holds the feces in for a long time,
holds the feces in for a long time,
holds the feces in for a long time,
they can get constipated and hard
they can get constipated and hard
they can get constipated and hard
feces.
feces.
feces.

Pressure from the feces made from
Pressure from the feces made from
Pressure from the feces made from
the Big Mac, is created when the
the Big Mac, is created when the
the Big Mac, is created when the
rectum fills up with it, pushing the
rectum fills up with it, pushing the
rectum fills up with it, pushing the
feces against the walls of the anal
feces against the walls of the anal
feces against the walls of the anal
canal. Contractions of abdominal
canal. Contractions of abdominal
canal. Contractions of abdominal
and pelvic floor muscles create
and pelvic floor muscles create
and pelvic floor muscles create
abdominal pressure which
abdominal pressure which
abdominal pressure which
ANUS
intensifies pressure. The involuntary
intensifies pressure. The involuntary
intensifies pressure. The involuntary
muscle responds to the pressure by
muscle responds to the pressure by
muscle responds to the pressure by
relaxing, allowing the feces to enter
relaxing, allowing the feces to enter
relaxing, allowing the feces to enter
the canal. The rectum shortens as
the canal. The rectum shortens as
the canal. The rectum shortens as
feces are pushed into the anal canal
feces are pushed into the anal canal
feces are pushed into the anal canal
and out of the rectum. Relaxation of
and out of the rectum. Relaxation of
and out of the rectum. Relaxation of
the internal and external anal allows
the internal and external anal allows
the internal and external anal allows
the feces to exit from the anus,
the feces to exit from the anus,
the feces to exit from the anus,
finally, as the muscles pull the anus
finally, as the muscles pull the anus
finally, as the muscles pull the anus
up over the exiting feces.
up over the exiting feces
up over the exiting feces
Question 4: List two disorders, describe how the disorder arises, symptoms, and treatments.
Answer 4: DISORDER 1: Heart Burn is a burning sensation in the chest. The pain often rises in
the chest and may go to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw. Heartburn is usually because
of gastric acid that backs up into your esophagus. Drugs that neutralize stomach acid are, for
most people, the defense against heartburn. Antacids come in tablet, liquid, or foam, and in
regular and extra-strength formulations.
DISORDER 2: Lactose Intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and
milk products. Lactose intolerance is caused by not having the enzyme lactase, which is
produced by the cells lining the small intestine. Lactase breaks down lactose into two simpler
forms of sugar called glucose and galactose, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. People
with lactose intolerance may feel uncomfortable 30 minutes to 2 hours after consuming milk and
milk products. Symptoms include abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, gas, diarrhea and nausea.
To treat lactose intolerance, you need to change you diet; take out dairy products, and replace
them with artificial sources.

Interesting Fact:
Intestines are at least 25 feet in an
adult. Full-grown horse’s intestines are
coiled-and are 89 feet long.

RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM WITH ONE PLANT AND ONE ANIMAL
Human Digestive System Compared To A Frog’s Digestive System
There are no villi in the small intestine of a frog. The frog's digestive system begins with the
mouth. Frogs have teeth along their upper jaw, which are used to grind food before swallowing.
These teeth are very weak, and cannot be used to catch or harm agile prey. Instead, the frog uses
its sticky tongue to catch food (such as flies or other insects). The food then moves through the
esophagus into the stomach. The food then proceeds to the small intestine where most digestion
occurs. Frogs carry pancreatic juice from the pancreas, and bile through the gallbladder from the
liver to the small intestine, where the fluids digest the food and extract the nutrients. When the
food passes into the large intestine, the water is reabsorbed and wastes are divided into liquids
and solids. Liquid wastes go to the urinary bladder, while solids are routed to the cloaca. All
wastes exit the body through the cloaca and the cloacal vent. The human digestive tract is the
system of organs that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the
remaining waste. The organs are used for ingestion, digestion, absorption, and defecation. The
organs differ from animal to animal. Some animals have multi-chambered stomachs, while some
animals' stomachs contain a single chamber. In a normal human adult male, the digestive system
long and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. In a frog, its way smaller, and it only has an
upper tract.
Human Digestive System Compared To A Venus Flytrap’s Digestive System
Plants do not have digestive systems. The closest thing that any plant has to a digestive system is
found in The Venus Flytrap. The Venus flytrap has a unique system that attracts kills, digests and
absorbs its prey. Because it is a plant and can make its own food through photosynthesis, the
Venus flytrap does not eat and digest its prey. Instead, it uses its prey for essential nutrients
(nitrogen and phosphorous in particular) that are in short supply in its acidic habitat. So, yes, the
Venus flytrap does have a digestive system of sorts, but it serves a somewhat different purpose
than an animal’s does. The system is ran with stimuli; the Venus Flytrap breaks down the insect
with enzymes to extract the essential nutrients. These nutrients are absorbed into the leaf, and
after a few days, the trap will reopen to release the leftover exoskeleton. After three to five
meals, the trap will no longer capture prey but will spend another two to three months simply
photosynthesizing before it drops off the plant.

BODY BOOK
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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