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There is a growing emphasis in tertiary education that students should develop professional skills as part of their education. Skills such as problem solving, communication, collaboration, interpersonal skills, social skills and time management are actively being targeted by prospective employers as essential requirements for employability especially in team environments. Of these, employment authorities consistently mention collaboration and teamwork as being a critical skill, essential in almost all working environments. How then can students successfully practice teamwork skills in tertiary institutions in order to develop these skills?
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Joe Luca & Pina Tarricone
School of Communications and Multimedia
Edith Cowan University, Australia
There is a growing emphasis in tertiary education that students should
develop professional skills as part of their education. Skills such as problem
solving, communication, collaboration, interpersonal skills, social skills and
time management are actively being targeted by prospective employers as
essential requirements for employability especially in team environments. Of
these, employment authorities consistently mention collaboration and
teamwork as being a critical skill, essential in almost all working
environments. How then can students successfully practice teamwork skills in
tertiary institutions in order to develop these skills?

In this study, a group of final year multimedia students were investigated
while completing a project-based unit, in which teamwork was an essential
ingredient, couched in an authentic context. Student teams were required to
develop web sites for “real” clients; with teamwork processes supported with
on-line tools to monitor progress and contributions. At the end of the
semester, successful and unsuccessful teams (in terms of collaboration and
teamwork) were interviewed and surveyed to determine essential factors that
promoted success. A framework was developed from the literature based on
students’ Emotional Intelligence, and propensity to engage in collaborative
teamwork. It was found that there was a strong correspondence between
students’ Emotional Intelligence and team harmony.

emotional intelligence, teamwork, higher education, collaboration
Attributes needed for successful teamwork can be viewed from different perspectives, ranging in
nature from “Visible to Invisible” (Figure 1). A team member, who is the programmer, must have
acceptable technical skills in programming. This skill can be tested for competence, and classified
as a “visible skill” (Wysocki, Beck, & Crane, 1995). Also, having acceptable generic and team
skills is highly desirable but not always easily testable i.e. testing for time management, problem
solving or collaboration skills can be challenging? Another skill set, known as ‘Emotional Intelligence’
(Salovey & Mayer, 1990) is increasingly being promoted as being necessary for successful
teamwork. Emotional intelligence consists of five main elements - self-awareness, self-regulation,
empathy, motivation and social skills which are difficult to test for, and certainly are not as
“visible” as technical skills. How important are each of these skills for team harmony and success?
In this study, teams of final year multimedia students worked together to develop web sites for
“real” clients. Online tools were provided which helped scaffold teamwork and collaboration. At
~ 367 ~

Meeting at the Crossroads
the beginning of the semester, an online “Student Contract” was provided which enabled team
members to commit to roles, deliverables, a schedule and amount of time committed, which was
signed by all team members and tutor. This was complemented with online weekly journals
completed by all students that showed success in completing tasks, as well as a self/peer mark for
all team members based on task completion, quality, contribution to team dynamics, and
punctuality at team meetings. These journals were completed online and confidentially submitted
to tutors, who then used this information to conduct “Tutor Led Peer Assessment Sessions” to
make decisions about transferring marks between students.
Figure 1: A spectrum of skills needed for teamwork
Twenty teams were involved in the project, from which two teams were investigated, one highly
successful, and another, which had major collaboration problems and eventually was forced to
split. These teams were interviewed, and comparisons were made to try and determine attributes
that contributed to their success and failure.
Exploring Emotional Intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence and its impact on teamwork is relatively new. Salovey and
Mayer (1990) initially conceived the concept and coined the term Emotional Intelligence, which
was derived from Gardner’s (1983) theory of multiple intelligences. These included interpersonal
and intrapersonal intelligence which were used by Salovey and Mayer (1990) to form the basis of
the theory of emotional intelligence. Salovey and Mayer (1990) used this as a basis for their
definition of emotional intelligence, which they define as the “ability to monitor and regulate one’s
own and other’s feelings, and to use feelings to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189). This
definition identifies five main domains: knowing one’s emotions, managing emotions, motivating
oneself, recognising emotions in others and handling relationships.
Goleman (1998b) adapted Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) model as a basis for his discussion of the
theory of emotional intelligence and it’s implications for everyday life including the world of work.
He adapted Salovey and Mayer’s emotional intelligence model to develop five emotional and social
competencies: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. These are
each discussed below.
Self-awareness is the ability to understand and interpret one’s own feelings through internal
reflection. The ability to be critical about thoughts and make changes to behaviour can lead to an
in-depth understanding about one’s self, which leads to a better understanding of others. Lanser
(2000) places a strong emphasise on the importance of self-awareness in guiding and perfecting
job performance, including interactions with colleagues and in the establishment of positive and
productive leadership and teamwork skills. Team members need to be aware of their feelings as
they may allow uncontrolled emotions to impact on the dynamics and culture of the team. Cherniss
(1998) emphasises that effective team members are self-confident, which is reflective of their own
emotional self-awareness, and ability to control their emotions.
Self-awareness of emotions enables team members to then practice self-regulation, which is the
ability to use emotions to facilitate the progress of the task or the project (Goleman, 1998b; Lanser,
~ 368 ~

Luca & Tarricone
2000). Being able to regulate emotions especially during conflict, pressure, stress and deadlines
facilitates the smooth progress of the project and promotes positive, effective working relationships
with other team members and clients. Goleman (1998b) explains that handling emotions and
putting the task first rather than emotions aids in the attainment of the required goal.
Being able to motivate fellow team members into contributing their best is very powerful. Workers
are discretionary in their application to a project – they will only give if they feel they are being
supported, nurtured and inspired. Successful teamwork requires intrinsic motivation, persistence
and vision. Team members are not only responsible for their own motivation but are also play a key
role in motivating the team and colleagues. Goleman (1998b) and Lanser (2000) propose that
motivation is an essential element of emotional intelligence that pushes us forward through the
positive and negative aspects of working life by showing initiative, perseverance and dedication, as
well as being goal orientated, focussed and proactive.
Goleman (1998b) contends that empathy is understanding and interpreting colleagues’ feelings and
being able to identify with their feelings on issues through understanding their perspective and
cultivating rapport with people from different ‘walks of life’. Empathic team members have an
awareness of the diversity of personalities and are accepting of the diversity of people and the
impact culture can have on interactions within a team environment. Book (2000), defines empathy
as the “capacity to see the world from another person’s perspective” (p. 45).
Social Skills
Social skills are essential for the development of positive, effective relationships with colleagues
and the ability to interact with team members to deter conflict, be aware of, ease and dissipate
underlying tensions that can accumulate and have a negative impact on working relationships and
project success. Team members need to be able to stimulate cooperation, collaboration and
teamwork through well-developed social skills (Goleman, 1998b).
Teamwork and Social Interdependence
Teamwork is defined by Harris and Harris (1996) as “…a work group or unit with a common purpose
through which members develop mutual relationships for the achievement of goals/tasks” (p. 23).
Teamwork implies that individuals work in a cooperative environment in the interests of a common
goal by sharing knowledge/skills and being flexible enough to serve multiple roles. The literature
consistently highlights that one of the essential elements of a team is its focus toward a common goal
and a clear purpose (Fisher, Hunter & Macrosson, 1997; Johnson & Johnson, 1995, 1999; Parker,
1990). Many organizations rely upon successful teamwork to achieve goals and to meet the needs of
clients. It is a synergistic process that relies upon all team members to contribute and participate in
order to promote and nurture a positive, effective team environment. Team members must be flexible
enough to adapt to working in a cooperative working environment where goals are achieved through
collaboration and social interdependence rather than individualised, competitive goals.
Social interdependence refers to how individuals interact in cooperative learning or working
situations, including team environments and is an integral part of cooperative learning. The
relationship between successful teams, cooperative learning theory and social interdependence is
strong (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). “Social interdependence exists when individuals share common
goals; each individual’s outcomes are affected by the actions of the others” (Johnson & Johnson,
1995; p. 206). The literature consistently highlights interdependence focussed toward a common
goal as an integral element of an effective team (Fisher et al., 1997; Johnson & Johnson, 1995,
1999; Parker, 1990). Scarnati (2001) explains that teamwork that relies upon cooperative processes
enables individuals to extend their boundaries and achieve more through social interdependence
than as individuals. “The team has synergy. By sharing a common goal or vision, the team can
accomplish what individuals cannot do alone” (p. 6).
~ 369 ~

Meeting at the Crossroads
Social interdependence can be considered to be positive, negative or non-existent (Johnson &
Johnson, 1999). Johnson and Johnson (1995) explain that positive interdependence creates
promotive interaction in which individuals encourage and facilitate each other’s efforts to attain
team goals, such as creating positive relationships and collaborative team environments. Negative
interdependence or competition generally results in oppositional interaction. This occurs when
individuals prevent others from achieving because of their own competitiveness. Rather than
promoting a team environment through positive interaction, team members are focussed on
“…increasing their own success and on preventing anyone else from being more successful then
they are” (Johnson & Johnson, 1995; p. 212). No interaction occurs when individuals work
independently without interacting with others. Individuals focus on increasing and improving their
own success and have no regard or interest in the efforts of others (Johnson & Johnson, 1995).
Johnson and Johnson (1995, 1999) list essential attributes of positive interdependence needed for
successful teamwork as follows: giving and receiving help and assistance for both task related and
personal issues; exchanging resources and information; giving and receiving feedback on tasks and
teamwork behaviours; challenging each other’s reasoning; encouraging others to achieve;
influencing each other’s reasoning and behaviour; using interpersonal and social skills to enhance
team work; and consciously reflecting on the effectiveness of the team to continue improvement
and acknowledge achievements.
Team members need to be aware that negative behaviour can impact on work productivity and
affect the overall success of the team and project. Conflict resolution and the ability of team
members to deal with issues, feelings and emotions can impact greatly on the success of the team.
Team members caring for one another, encouraging each other, showing empathy and regulating
their emotions contribute to and have an impact on the success of the team. Harris and Harris
(1996) explain that successful teams have a high level of maintenance and must incorporate
essential ‘invisible’ skills such as caring for one another, showing warm feelings, friendliness and
offering team members support when needed. Successful teams require both technical skills and
interpersonal skills “…communication at both the cognitive and feeling levels is what determines
the success or failure of the team” (Harris & Harris, 1996; p. 29). The importance of cooperative,
positive interaction team environments and a discussion of the essential elements of successful
teams and determining a link to emotional intelligence theory is the focus of this paper. The
following section provides a synthesis of emotional intelligence literature and aims to provide links
between successful teamwork and emotional intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence and Teamwork
From the above review, it was found that there was much commonality between successful
teamwork and emotional intelligence. This is supported by Yost and Tucker (2000) who promote a
strong relationship between successful teamwork and emotional intelligence and contend that
emotional intelligence competencies are more important than the “Visible skill” set shown in
Figure 1, such as technical competencies. There is more to effective teamwork than a keen intellect
and grasp of technical knowledge. The difference between success and mediocrity in working
relationships, especially in a team environment, can be attributed to a team member’s mastery of
the softer skills – abilities and approaches grounded in emotional intelligence. (Grossman, 2000;
Tucker, Sojka, Barone, & McCarthy, 2000).
Positive, effective interpersonal relationships are an important element of successful teams.
Emotional bonding that exists between team members has a profound effect on the work produced
and the overall success of the project. Teams that care about each other at a personal and
professional level are more likely to be successful than teams that ignore the importance of the
relationship between positive interpersonal relationships, professional relationships and goal
achievement. Developing positive relationships where team members are aware of the impact their
emotions can play on the effectiveness and success of the team should be the aim of each team
member. A positive emotional climate should be developed so that all energies can be focussed on
~ 370 ~

Luca & Tarricone
the attainment of mutual goals including the success of the project (Johnson & Johnson, 1999).
In order to promote positive, progressive, effective working environments, team members need to
have a combination of technical knowledge and well-developed emotional intelligence including
self-awareness, empathy, social awareness and be highly motivated and be able to inspire and
motivate their colleagues. Table 1 links the attributes needed for successful teams with the
emotional intelligence competencies defined by Goleman’s (1998a) - self-awareness, self-
regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. These relationships were derived through a
synthesis of the literature (Esquivel & Kleiner, 1996; Francis & Young, 1979; Harris & Harris,
1996; Johnson & Johnson, 1995, 1999; Yost & Tucker, 2000).
Relationship to Successful Teamwork
The ability to recognise
Having positive and productive teamwork skills
and understand
Controlling emotions and understand the impact of emotions on the team
your moods,
Being self-confident, high self-esteem and a coherent and integrated self-identity
emotions, and drives,
Promoting psychological health including a happy disposition
as well as their
effect on others
The ability to control or
Being self-aware of emotions to enable self-regulation
redirect disruptive impulses
Handling emotions and putting the team task first
and moods
Using emotions to facilitate the progress of the project
The propensity to suspend
Regulating emotions during conflict, pressure, stress and deadlines
judgement – to think
Coping with stress, frustrations through creating and contributing to caring,

before acting
supportive relationships
A passion to work for
Motivating other team members to contributing their best
reasons that go beyond
Openness, flexibility and motivation to change, innovation, creativity and
money or status
collaborative problem solving
A propensity to pursue goals Creating an environment that stimulates, enhances and empowers team members
with energy and persistence
to become motivated and apply themselves fully
Showing initiative, perseverance and dedication, goal orientation & focus
Placing team or common goals ahead of individual goals and pursue these with
determination and perseverance
Having a sincere interest and motivation for the group and individual’s
achievements and goals
Considering team morale and aiming to maintain a positive productive
work environment
The ability to understand
Understanding, interpreting and identifying with colleagues’ feelings
the emotional makeup of
Cultivating rapport with people from different ‘walks of life’
other people
Having the potential to turn adversarial relationships into collaborative alliances
Skill in treating people
Showing emotional concern including reassurance and caring for other team
according to their emotional
Helping to create a team environment where members can express their feelings
Proficiency in managing
Creating a team culture which is supportive, informal, comfortable,
relationships and building
and non-judgemental
Developing professional as well as positive personal relationships with other
An ability to find common
team members
ground and build rapport
Developing intense, short-term relationships and being able to disconnect and
work in another team environment with the same sincerity and motivation
Being able to stimulate cooperation, collaboration and teamwork through
well-developed communication and social skills
Developing positive, effective relationships with colleagues through fostering
Social Skill
trust, confidence and commitment
Helping to establish a positive team climate and promoting support and respect
for one another
Having the ability to interact with team members and deter conflict,
be aware of, ease and dissipate underlying tensions
Table 1: Emotional Intelligence (modified from Goleman 1998a) and attributes of successful teams
~ 371 ~

Meeting at the Crossroads
Case Study
Final year students enrolled in the Interactive Multimedia course at Edith Cowan University are
required to develop skills and expertise in managing the development of multimedia product. The
unit IMM “Project Management Methodologies”, uses teams of four or five students to develop a
web site, in which students use their specialist skills within a team environment. Team roles
include programmers, graphic designers and project managers. There were 82 students completing
this unit, which was delivered through a custom built web site to enable both internal and external
students access to resources, and also to enhance the quality of the learning environment. The unit
consists of thirteen, three-hour class sessions conducted over a full semester.
Students were required to carefully consider their own and their peers’ contributions each week
through online journals that allowed team members to rate their own and their peers’ performance
confidentially online. These proved to be successful in helping tutors make decisions about
transferring marks amongst team members.
Within this scenario, one team was highly successful in developing quality work, without any team
problems. Their journal entries continually reflected positive comments about other team members,
and at no stage during the semester was there a request or requirement to transfer marks from one
team member to another. The students were always goal focussed, continually exploring
expectations of the tutor and the unit requirements. This team had a strong sense of collaboration,
and were content with their peers work.
Another team experienced problems, causing it to become dysfunctional and had to be split. By
monitoring the online journals, team discrepancies were identified and marks were transferred
between team members, though resentment amongst team members continued to escalate. The
tutor had several meetings with the project manager and individuals to help resolve issues, but to
no avail. At one of the team meetings a serious disagreement occurred, in which one of the team
members verbally berated another, from which point there was no reconciliation. After this
altercation, team members felt they could no longer work together, so even though they would
experience a heavier workload, they unanimously agreed to split and form two separate teams.
One week after the team split, focus group interview sessions were organised. A questionnaire was
developed based on Goleman’s work (1995, 1998a, 1998b) with a view of determining aspects of
emotional intelligence present within each of these teams. The interview sessions were taped and
transcribed for analysis. A summary of the results is shown in Table 2, which illustrates each of the
five emotional intelligences, as described by Goleman (1995). By looking through the responses
given by each of the teams, it is evident that the successful team had a strong awareness of the
impact of emotions on team success. In almost all of their responses, this team was highly focussed
on delivering a quality product, and not pre-occupied by personal issues that could interrupt their
objectives. Focussing on a common goal is an important element of positive interdependence. The
team members felt that they had a responsibility towards the other members of the team and that
the success of the project was based upon each team member’s contribution. They recognised that
team members had different personalities and experienced problems at different stages. They felt
that it was a “healthy thing” to discuss and offer constructive help/criticism in trying to resolve
problems. They were strongly aware of the consequences – the negative effect on the team and
their common goal – if emotions were not controlled.
The results from the dysfunctional team showed a lack of emotional intelligence skills, as defined by
Goleman (1995, 1998a, 1998b). Team members seemed unaware and very surprised that they had
upset other team members. Comments made by team members indicated that peers were inconsiderate
of their situation and problems, and were not inclined to discuss problems, as they would only attract
criticism. This resulted in team members resenting each other, which eventually caused major
disruption and caused the team to split. There was a lack of communication resulting in problems
affecting the development of positive interaction based on positive interdependence. Rather than
~ 372 ~

Luca & Tarricone
the team as a whole having ownership of the project one team member felt that he was not included
in decision-making and did not receive all communication regarding the progress and development
of the project leading to miscommunication and resentfulness. This caused a lack of team cohesion
and cooperation, a feeling of disempowerment, and resulted in the eventual split of the team.
The data showed the dysfunctional team having oppositional interaction or negative
interdependence (Johnson & Johnson, 1995, 1999). Some team members were highly competitive
and this negated the development of a synergistic team environment. After analysing the data it
was obvious that negative interdependence was not the only reason for the dysfunction of the team;
the lack of emotional intelligence was the main reason for the team being unsuccessful.
An individual student questionnaire was also given to all of the team members in both teams, after
the focus interview questions. Students were asked to fill out a Likert scale based on questions
related to Goleman’s (1998) five emotional intelligences. An average of all the scores was taken to
compare how students rated themselves against their peers. As shown in Figure 2, the
functional/successful team clearly outscored the dysfunctional team in their responses.
They rated themselves and their peers highly, showing a marginally higher score for their peers,
over their own. Whereas, the dysfunctional team, showed overall lower scores, and ranked their
own/self emotional intelligence scores higher than their peers. This indicates that the dysfunctional
team recognised that they did not have strong emotional intelligence attributes, though on average
considered self better than their peers. This may be related to some of the “unconscious”
miscommunications uncovered through the interviews i.e. these students truly believed that they
were showing consideration toward others, but their peers did not perceive it this way.
By analysing the summarised interview and the survey results, it was evident that students in the
dysfunctional team had lower skills in self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and
social skills. The in-depth interviews revealed clear differences between the two teams in these
areas, which had a major impact on the quality of the final product and functionality of the team.
In this study, it was clearly evident that a lack of emotional intelligence skills such as taking issues
personally, not being aware of others feelings, not controlling feelings and others shown in Table 2,
directly contributed to the team becoming dysfunctional.
~ 373 ~

Meeting at the Crossroads
Functional Team
Dysfunctional Team
Team was aware of their emotions and the possible
Team members seemed unaware of the impact their
impact they could have on the team
behaviour had other team members
Team members tried to sort out problems as soon as
When problems occurred teams members tended
possible by trying to be aware of others problems
to take it personally
Team-members didn’t predict that comments would
upset others
Team was product focused, and regulated their
Team-members did not realise they had upset peers,
emotions so that they did not have a negative impact
and didn’t seem to understand the effect the emotional
on the product
outburst had on the rest of the team
The team facilitated the smooth progress of the project Team members didn’t control their emotions well under
and promoted positive working relationships with
pressure and reacted quickly to trivial situations

team members to get the job done
In communicating problems, team members were
overly emotional and personal
Team members felt comfortable and supported in
The team didn’t create an empowering environment,
discussing their problems
to allow all members freedom of expression and
The team created a positive and motivating team
encouragement to contribute
environment. They tried to motivate team members
Team members lost motivation, especially when their
with constructive criticism
work criticised in a negative fashion
The team was very goal oriented and focused on the
“big picture”
Team members had previously worked with others
Could see that a team member was angry and upset,
and knew when others were getting upset, which
but didn’t make any effort to try and understand why
helped to deter conflict
the team member was angry
Team members felt supported in discussing
Some team members were aware of each others
their problems
feelings, particularly when some were getting upset
Team members respected different personalities,
Team members considered others inadequacies as
cultures and sensitivities
“downfalls” rather than something they could help
them with
The team didn’t consider everybody’s needs during
planning sessions
Some team members felt alienated and didn’t feel
part of team
The team never took issues in a personal manner, as it
Lack of communication was evident in the team.
would detract from developing a quality final project
For example, some team members believed that were
The team felt that talking about or communicating
making allowances for different learning styles, but
problems to each other was a “healthy thing”
this wasn’t perceived that way
The team felt that developing a healthy working
The team did not communicating their feelings, which
Social Skill
environment with good relationships was important.
resulted in resentment and bad feelings to others
They often socialised together
Table 2: “Comparative” Emotional Intelligence data summary
Figure 2: Comparing likert scale survey data
~ 374 ~

Luca & Tarricone
Summary and Conclusions
This study analysed the team dynamics of a successful and dysfunctional team. The successful
team was highly motivated to produce a quality product, and not pre-occupied by personal issues.
This team felt that it was appropriate and healthy to discuss problems as they arose so that the final
product would not be compromised, and they could get on with the job. This team displayed
characteristics of positive interdependence and promotive interaction. However, the dysfunctional
team demonstrated negative interdependence, poor communication, lack of consideration, empathy
and understanding.
Using the attributes provided by Goleman (1995, 1998a, 1998b), it was evident that team
members’ emotional intelligence played a pivotal role in determining the success and functionality
of the team, and the quality of final product being developed. It would appear that emotional
intelligence skills underpin collaboration and communication skills needed for managing conflict
and keeping the team focussed on developing the required product.
At a time when generic skills are being strongly promoted by employers and government funding
authorities, it would be appropriate to further investigate this line of research in the affective
domain. Further research in this area will be focussed on developing:
An evaluation instrument used to assess students’ emotional intelligence at the beginning of the
semester, to help advise students on how best to implement strategies to help with teamwork;
More focussed and probing interview questions needed to help uncover greater detail about
underlying issues related students’ emotional intelligence (lack and awareness of); and
More detailed procedures for tutors to use when running tutor led peer assessment sessions.
The results of this study show a compelling relationship between students’ emotional intelligence
and their ability to work effectively within a team. This has important implications for all
discipline areas, where collaborative teamwork is incorporated as part of the learning environment.
Visible skills and emotional intelligence should both be considered when selecting team members
for a collaborative environment. Lecturers, tutors and students need to be made aware of emotional
intelligence and the impact it can have on team success.
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Copyright © 2001 Joe Luca and Pina Tarricone.
The author(s) assign to ASCILITE and educational non-profit institutions a non-exclusive licence to use this
document for personal use and in courses of instruction provided that the article is used in full and this copyright
statement is reproduced. The author(s) also grant a non-exclusive licence to ASCILITE to publish this document
in full on the World Wide Web (prime sites and mirrors) and in printed form within the ASCILITE 2001
conference proceedings. Any other usage is prohibited without the express permission of the author(s).
~ 376 ~




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