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Effect of partially defatted soybeans or groundnut cake flours on proximate and sensory characteristics of kokoro

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Kokoro a local maize snack was made from substitution of maize flour with either defatted soybean or groundnut cake flour (9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 substitution ratios) were evaluated for proximate and sensory qualities. Increase in substitution ratio produced kokoro with higher nutritional content (28.46 and 35.10 percent protein for those made from 1:9 substitution ratio respectively). Increase in substitution with the two substitutes progressively increased protein and fat content but reduced the ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents. More over the crispiness and over all acceptability of the kokoro decreased with increasing substitution. Products made from 9:1 substitution were well accepted and compared favourably with whole maize product.
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African Journal of Food Science. Vol (2) pp. 098-101,September, 2008
Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs
ISSN 1996-0794 ©2008 Academic Journal


Ful Length Research Paper
Effect of partially defatted soybeans or groundnut cake
flours on proximate and sensory characteristics of
kokoro

P. I. Uzor-Peters1, N. U. Arisa2*, C. O. Lawrence1, N. S. Osondu1, and A. Adelaja1

1Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Food Technology, Bel s University of Technology, Ota, Nigeria.

Accepted 15 September 2008

Kokoro a local maize snack was made from substitution of maize flour with either defatted soybean or
groundnut cake flour (9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 substitution ratios) were evaluated for proximate and
sensory qualities. Increase in substitution ratio produced kokoro with higher nutritional content (28.46
and 35.10 percent protein for those made from 1:9 substitution ratio respectively). Increase in
substitution with the two substitutes progressively increased protein and fat content but reduced the
ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents. More over the crispiness and over all acceptability of the
kokoro decreased with increasing substitution. Products made from 9:1 substitution were well accepted
and compared favourably with whole maize product.

Key words: Maize, soybeans, groundnuts, defatted, substitution, nutrition,


INTRODUCTION


Cereal grains are used for production of different classes
individual contains required nutrients in adequate
of foods; these include breakfast cereals such as corn
amounts. This is especial y important due to the fact that
flakes, breads, and pastries brewing of both alcoholic and
many people now work outside their homes and are
non-alcoholic drinks. In different cultures and societies
becoming more dependent on snacks for the supply of
staple foods are also produced for use as accompa-
part of their daily nutritional requirements. It is therefore
niments for soups, gravies and stews and they supply the
necessary to produce a highly acceptable snack with high
basic energy requirement of the consumers. . They are
nutritional quality that could be useful in nutritional
also used for the production of different snack foods
programmes to combat malnutrition and nutrient deficien-
which are eaten to prevent hunger before main meals or
cies (Rosa et al, 2003).
just (as relish) for the fun of eating them, but they are
Kokoro is a popular local snack made and consumed
deficient in some essential amino acids like lysine. These
during the day, alone or with roasted groundnuts, and
amino acids can be supplied to the food by compli-
‘washed down’ with soft drinks or just water by the people
menting the maize with legumes such as groundnuts and
of South Western Nigeria. It is made from maize flour
soybeans which are better sources of the sulphur amino
which contains primarily carbohydrates. As a product that
acids (Okaka, 2005). There is usual y improved balance
is consumed on such a wide scale it would be important
of amino acids in the products made from such combina-
to enhance its nutritional value. Addition of vegetable
tions (Ameida-Dominguez et al., 1990).
protein such as textured vegetable protein could be one
Most often snack foods do not provide nutrients in
way of raising the nutritional value of the product by intro-
adequate quantities needed by the body (Omueti and
ducing more protein into it (Rosa et al, 2003). The
Morton, 1996). This may be due to their composition or
possibility of producing acceptable Kokoro, with better
due to the production process they went through. What
nutritional content and sensory quality from maize flour
ever is responsible for their poor nutritional content, it is
mixed with either defatted groundnuts or soybeans flour
necessary to ensure that every food consumed by an
was therefore investigated. This was hoped, wil increase

the nutritional content of the snack as wel as increase

the use to which the defatted products (soybean and

groundnuts cakes) can be put to, in addition to their use
*Corresponding author. E-mail chizaramekpere2006@yahoo.co.uk
as animal feed.


Uzor-Peters et al. 099



Table 1. Proximate Composition of Kokoro

Treatment
Subst
Moisture
Protein Content Fat Content
Ash Content CF Content CHO Content
Ratio
Content (%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Whole Mazie 1
7.58+0.376
7.03+0.473
1.43+0.441
1.55+0.318
1.26+0.441 76.19+0.408

Means of triplicate determinations and standard deviations
Note:
CHO, Carbohydrates
CF, Crude fibre



Maize (Zeamays indenta)
1:9 (Figure 1). The kokoro snacks were made from the produced

from 100% maize flour.

Kokoro production was as fol ows: The 250 g of composites flour,
Cleaned
30 g of sugar and 10 g of salt were gently stirred into 500 cm3

boiling water in a stainless steel pot. The mixture was cooked with

continuous stirring until stiff dough was formed. The dough was
Mill (Dry milling 100µm size mesh)

cooled to a temperature (40oC) at which it could be kneaded by

hand for 5 min. The kneaded dough was cut into pieces, rol ed into
Mixing
maize with either defatted groundnut
cylindrical shapes and fried in 1000cm3 of hot refined vegetable oil
or soybean cake flours
for 3 min and then cooled and packed in sealed polyethylene bags.


Boil (continuous stirring)


Proximate analysis


Cool (40oC)
Moisture and protein content analysis were determined using the

procedure described by AOAC (1990). The ash content was

determined using the procedure described by Pearson (1976). The
Knead (5 minutes)
sample (5g) was dried in an oven at 100oC for 2 h. The dried

sample was placed in a furnace and ignited at 550oC for 2.5 h,

cooled and weighed. The soxhlet extraction method was used for
Roll into shape
the fat content determination. Oil in 5 g sample was extracted using

hexane in soxhlet extraction equipment for 2.5 h under reflux. The

Fry (3 minutes)
crude fibre content was determined using the procedure described

by Kirk and Sawyer (1991). Carbohydrate content was determined

using the method described by Pearson, (1976).
Cool and pack




Sensory evaluation
Kokoro



A nine point hedonic scale and multiple comparison preference test
Figure 1. Flow Chart of Kokoro Production
described by Larmond (1977) was used to test the acceptability of

the kokoro made from maize and defatted soybean or groundnut

cake flour against a whole maize kokoro.. A panel of 10 judges who

were conversant with the sensory qualities of kokoro was chosen.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The panelists were each given six samples at a time to evaluate the

effect the different substitution ratios wil have on the appearance,
Maize (Zea mays indentata) was obtained from Bodija market
aroma, taste, crispiness, and over al acceptability of the kokoro at
Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Partial y defatted soybeans and
5% confidence level.
groundnut cakes were sourced from Adom Feed Mil s Limited and

Sudit Oil and Chemical Limited Ibadan, Nigeria, respectively.

Cleaned maize was dry mil ed using a hammer mil and sieved with
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
a 100µm sieve and stored for use in polyethylene bags at room

temperature (28oC). The partial y defatted soybeans and ground-nut
The proximate composition of kokoro made with whole
cakes were separately mil ed with a hammer mil , and classified
maize flour is shown in Table 1. The production of kokoro
using a 100 µm sieve and then stored in polyethylene bags at room
temperature (28oC) for 1 week within which they were used for
with 1:9 ratio flours (maize to either defatted soybean or
kokoro production.
groundnut cake flour) resulted in products with 14% or

11% (Tables 2 and 3) protein contents respectively. This

showed an increase in the level of protein in the products
Kokoro production
.Percentage protein in the products increased as the level

Composite flours of the maize flour and legume flour (partial y
of flour substitution increased table (35.10 and 28.46%
defatted soybean or groundnut flour) were produced using different
protein respectively for 90% substitution with defatted
levels of the legume flours in the fol owing ratios: 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7
soybean and groundnut cake flours). Similar trend was
different composites flours A control kokoro sample was also and
shown by the fat content. Increased protein and fat con-


Afr. J. Food Sci. 100



Table 2. Effect of Partial y Defatted Groundnut Cake flours on the Proximate Composition of Kokoro

Treatment
Subst Ratio
Moisture
Protein
Fat Content Ash Content CF Content CHO Content
Content (%) Content (%) Content (%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Maize /DGCF
9:1
5.79+0.334
11.82+0.425
13.00+0.163
0.98+0.358
0.90+0.358
67.51+0.425

7:3
7.52+0.237
15.32+0.245
16.58+0.367
0.95+0.261
0.63+0.089
59.00+0.628
1:1
9.64+0.318
15.32+0.245
18.74+0.278
0.92+0.141
0.52+0.089
49.05+0.249
3 :7
11.24+0.327
26.71+0.412
29.97+0.278
0.94+0.384
0.22+0.171
30.92+0.396
1 :9
8.82+0.335
28.46+0.327
34.06+0.325
0.90+0.365
0.16+0.065
27.06+0.433

Means of triplicate determinations and standard deviations
Note: DGCF, Defatted groundnut cake flour
CHO, Carbohydrates
CF, Crude fibre



Table 3. Effect of Partial y Defatted Soybeans on the Proximate Composition of Kokoro

Treatment
Subst Ratio
Moisture
Protein Content Fat Content Ash Content CF Content CHO Content
Content (%)
Content (%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Maize
9:1
7.80+0.335
14.00+0.140
12.70+0.466
1.80+0..310
1.12+0.279
62.68+0.335
/DGCF
7:3
7.60+0.190
22,30+0.272
18.40+0.360
1.00+0.197
0.88+0.141
49.82+0.358

1:1
5.20+0.180
26.20+0.082
21.90+0.114
0.84+0.253
0.82+0.256
45.00+0.274
3 :7
4.90+0.220
31.07+0.348
23.20+0.237
0.84+0.253
0.54+0.171
39.50+0.204
1 :9
3.40+0.290
35.10+0.224
26.8+0.343
0.72+0.188
0.49+0.139
33.49+0.269

Means of triplicate determinations and standard deviations
Note:
DSCF, Defatted soybean cake flour
CHO, Carbohydrates
CF, Crude fibre



contents were due to the incorporation of either the defat-
increase in substitution for both treatments (defatted
ted soybean or groundnut cake flours in the in the formu-
soybean or groundnut cake flour). There was significant
lation. Also this inclusion may have also increased the oil
difference in the crispiness of products made from 1:9,
absorption capacity of the dough thereby resulting in the
3:7 and 5:5 substitutions ratios. The taste of the products
product’s higher fat content of 26.80 % and 34.06 for 9:1
made from 1:9 ratios of maize to either defatted soybean
ratio flours (maize to either defatted soybean or ground-
or groundnut cake flours was preferred. In terms of
nut cake flour) respectively. However, the higher level of
overal acceptability of the products, those made from 1:9
substitution resulted in lower ash, crude fibre and carbo-
ratios of maize to either defatted soybean or groundnut
hydrate contents of the resultant kokoro. The reduction in
cake flours were wel accepted in terms of al the sensory
the carbohydrates was due to the increasing level of flour
characteristics studied. However, products made from 3:7
with higher protein and fat contents and the tendency of
ratio of maize to defatted groundnut cake flour received
the dough mixture to absorb more oil than that made
good aroma ratings (Table 5). The acceptability of the
solely from maize flour (Table 2 and 3). The reduced
kokoro made from 1:9 and 3:7 substitution could have
crude fibre and oil content in the products may have
been due to the fact that at this level of substitution the
made the products to have reduced level of crispiness.
taste of legumes did mask the taste of the maize but just

complimented it, giving it a slightly more desirable dif-

Sensory evaluation

ferent taste compared to kokoro made with whole maize

flour this is in line with the findings of Onweluzo
Increase in the level of substitution of the maize flour with
and Morakinyo (1997) who said that Flour prepared from
either defatted soybean or groundnut cake flour resulted
seeds of Afzelia africana dehul ed by different treatments
in decrease in the acceptability of the aroma rating of the
used to replace 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wheat flour in
kokoro especial y for that made with defatted soybean
biscuits and doughnuts had Sensory scores of high over-
cake flour (Table 4 and 5). There was no significant dif-
al acceptability for products made from 10–30% level of
ference between the products made from 1:9, 3:7 and 5:7
substitution. In terms of the crispiness and the general
ratios of maize to defatted soybean cake flour in terms of
appearance of the kokoro at that level (1:9 and 3:7) of
taste and aroma. The level of crispiness decreased with
substitution ratio they stil resembled those of whole


Uzor-Peters et al. 101



Table 4. Effect of Partial y Defatted Soybean Cake Flour on the Sensory Characteristics of Kokoro

Treatment
Subs.Ratio Appearance Aroma
Taste
Crispiness
OAA
Maize/DSCF
9:1
5.10a
5.10a
5.10a
4.60a
5.20a
7:3
4.30a
4.30a
4.50a
3.80b
4.40a
1:1
3.00b
3.70b
3.80b
3.20b
3.90b
3 :7
2.40c
2.60b
2.40c
1.50d
2.10c
1 :9
1.30d
1.80c
1.80c
1.26d
1.40d

Note: DSCF: Defatted soybean cake flour
Subs. Substitution
OAA, Over al acceptability



Table 5. Effect of Partial y Defatted Groundnut Cake Flour on the Sensory Characteristics of Kokoro

Treatment
Subs. Ratio
Appearance Aroma
Taste
Crispiness
OAA
Maize
9:1
5.00a
4.93a
5.40a
4.80a
4.90a
/DGCF
7:3
3.37b
4.43a
3.62b
3.10b
3.50b
1:1
2.25c
3.31b
2.93b
2.00c
2.40c
3:7
1.50d
2.37b
1.93c
1.40d
1.50d
1:9
1.18d
2.06b
1.37d
1.10d
1.10d

DGCF: Defatted groundnut cake flour
Subs. Substitution
OAA , Over al acceptability



maize products. However as the substitution level
Matz, S. A. (1976). Snack Food Technology.AVI Publ. Com-
increased the flovour, aroma, taste, crispiness and gene-
pany,Westpoint Connecticut. pp. 337-339.
ral appearance of the products became different from the
Okaka, JC (2005). Basic Processing of Grain Cereals and Legumes
In: Handling, Storage and Processing of Plant Foods. OCJ Academic
standard whole maize kokoro. This difference could have
Publishers, Enugn, Nigeria. pp. 30-60
been as a result of; the higher oil content which would
Omueti O, Morton ID (1996).Development by Extrusion of Soybean
have affected the taste, flavour, crispiness and appea-
Snack sticks a Nutritional y Improved Soya-maize Products based on
rance of the products, the increase would have also
the Nigeria Snack (Kokoro). Inter. J. Food Sci. Nutri. 47: 5-13.
Onweluzo JC, Morakinyo AO (1997). Effect of Pre-dehul ing treatments
resulted in increased masking of the taste, aroma and fla-
on the Composition of Seeds of the legume Afzelia africana and its
vour of the kokoro especial y those made from substitu-
potential use in pastries. J. Plant Foods for Human Nutri. Springer
tion with defatted soybeans which would have become
Netherlands. 50 (3): 203-210.
increasingly more beany in flavour, aroma and taste.
Pearson D (1976). Chemical Analysis of Foods.7th edition, Churchil
Livingston, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Rosa N, Chávez-Jáuregui RAC, Maria EM, Pinto ES, Jose AGA (2003).

Acceptability of Snacks Produced by the Extrusion of Amaranth and
Conclusion
Blends of Chickpea and Bovine lung. International J. Food Sci.

Technol. 38(7): 795-798.
Kokoro with higher nutritional content can be made with
USDA (1971) Textured Vegetable Products. Notice 209. Food and
composite flours from defatted soybean or groundnut
Nutrition Service, Washington D.C.
cake flour, but the maximum level of substitution which is

sensorial y acceptable is a ratio of to 3 maize:7 either de-
fatted soybeans or groundnut cake flours.


REFERENCES

Ameida-Dominguez NG, Valencia ME, Higuera-Capra I (1990).
Formulation of Corn based Snack with high Nutritional and Biololgical
and Sensory Evaluation. J. Food Sci. 55. 228.
AOAC (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official method
of analysis 14th Edition, Washington.
Kirk RS, Sawyer R(1991). Pearson’s Composition and Analysis of
Foods. 9th edn. Longman Group. p 646.
Larmond,, E. (1977). Laboratory Method for Sensory Evaluation of
Foods. CanadianDepartment of Agricolture (1637). Ottawa. pp. 74-
79.


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