Essentials of Process Control
McGraw-Hill Chemical Engineering Series
Editorial Advisory Board
James J. Cat-berry,
James R. Fair, Professor
Michael T. Klein,
Emeritus Advisory Board
Max S. Peters, Retired Professor of Chemical
William P. Schowalter, Dean, School
Engineering, University of
Building the Literature of a Profession
Fifteen prominent chemical engineers first met in New York more than 60 years ago
to plan a continuing literature for their rapidly growing profession. From industry
came such pioneer practitioners as Leo H. Baekeland, Arthur D. Little, Charles L.
Reese, John V. N. Dorr, M. C. Whitaker, and R. S. McBride. From the universities
came such eminent
as William H. Walker, Alfred H. White, D. D. Jackson,
J. H. James, Warren K. Lewis, and Harry A. Curtis. H. C. Parmelee, then editor
of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, served as chairman and was joined
subsequently by S. D. Kirkpatrick as consulting editor.
After several meetings, this committee submitted its report to the McGraw-Hill
Book Company in September 1925. In the report were detailed specifications for a
correlated series of more than a dozen texts and reference books which have since
become the McGraw-Hill Series in
Engineering and which became the
cornerstone of the chemical engineering curriculum.
From this beginning there has evolved a series of texts surpassing by far the
scope and longevity envisioned by the founding Editorial Board. The McGraw-Hill
Series in Chemical Engineering stands as a unique historical record of the devel-
opment of chemical engineering education and practice. In the series one finds the
milestones of the subject’s evolution: industrial chemistry, stoichiometry, unit oper-
ations and processes, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transfer operations.
Chemical engineering is a dynamic profession, and its literature continues to
evolve. McGraw-Hill, with its editor B. J. Clark and its consulting editors, remains
committed to a publishing policy that will serve, and indeed lead,. the needs of the
chemical engineering profession during the years to come.
Bennett and Myers: Momentum, Heat, and
Brodkey and Hershey: Transport Phenomena: A
Carberry: Chemical and
Constantinides: Applied Numerical Methods with Personal Computers
Coughanowr: Process Systems Analysis and Control
de Nevers: Air Pollution Control Engineering
de Nevers: Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers
Douglas: Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes
Edgar and Himmelblau: Optimization of Chemical Processes
Gates, Katzer, and Schuit: Chemistry of Catalytic Processes
Holland: Fundamentals of Multicomponent Distillation
Katz and Lee: Natural Gas Engineering: Production and Storage
King: Separation Processes
Lee: Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing
Luyben: Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engineers
Luyben and Luyben: Essentials of Process Control
McCabe, Smith, and Harriott: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering
Marlin: Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems
Middlemann and Hochberg: Process Engineering Analysis in Semiconductor Device
Perry and Chilton (Editors): Perry Chemical Engineers’ Handbook
Peters: Elementary Chemical Engineering
Peters and Timmerhaus: Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers
Reid, Prausnitz, and Poling: Properties of Gases and Liquids
Smith: Chemical Engineering Kinetics
Smith and Van Ness: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Treybal: Mass Transfer Operations
Valle-Reistra: Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries
Hazardous Waste Management
Michael L. Luyben
Du Pont Central Research and Development
William L. Luyben
Department of Chemical Engineering
T H E MC G R A W - H I L L C O M P A N I E S , I N C .
ESSENTIALS OF PROCESS CONTROL
International Editions 1997
Exclusive rights by McGraw-Hill Book Co-Singapore for manufacture and export. This book
cannot be re-exported from the country to which it is consigned by McGraw-Hill.
1997 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as
permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval
system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
2 3 4 5 6 7.8 9 0 BJE PMP 9 8 7
This book was set in Times Roman by Publication Services, Inc.
The editors were
Clark and John M.
the production supervisor was Denise L.
The cover was designed by Wanda Kossak.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Luyben, Michael L., (date)
Essentials of process control
Michael L. Luyben, William L.
I n c l u d e s i n d e x .
ISBN o-07-039 172-6.
1. Chemical process control.
I. Luyben, William L.
When ordering this title, use ISBN o-07-114193-6
Printed in Singapore
Luyben has devoted over 40 years to his profession as teacher, re-
searcher, author, and practicing engineer. Dr. Luyben received his B.S. in Chemical
Engineering from Pennsylvania State University in
He then worked for Exxon
for five years at the
Refinery and at the Abadan Refinery (Iran) in plant
technical service and petroleum processing design. After earning his Ph.D. from the
University of Delaware in 1963, Dr. Luyben worked for the Engineering Department
of Du Pont in process dynamics and control of chemical plants.
Dr. Luyben has taught at Lehigh University since 1967 and has participated in
the development of several innovative undergraduate courses, from the introductory
course in mass and energy balance through the capstone senior design course and
an interdisciplinary controls laboratory. He has directed the theses of more than 40
graduate-students and has authored or coauthored six textbooks and over 130 tech-
nical papers. Dr. Luyben is an active consultant for industry in the area of process
control. He was the recipient of the
Education Award in 1975 and the In-
strumentation Technology Award in 1969 from the Instrument Society of America.
William L. Luyben is currently a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Lehigh
Michael L. Luyben received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering (1987) and B.S.
in Chemistry (1988) from Lehigh University. While a student, he worked during sev-
eral summers in industry, including two summers with Du Pont and one summer with
Bayer in Germany. After completing his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at Prince-
ton University in 1993, working with Professor Chris Floudas, he joined the Process
Control and Modeling Group in the Central Research and Development Department
of Du Pont. His work has focused on the dynamic modeling and control of chemical
and polymer plants. He has worked on plant improvement studies and on the design
of new facilities. Luyben has authored a number of papers on plantwide control and
on the interaction of process design and process control.
Michael L. Luyben is currently a research Engineer with Du Pont’s Central Re-
search and Development Department.
wife, friend, loving grandmother, avid
queen extraordinaire-for 34 years
of love, care,
of love, care,
advice, and many pieces of
Lester’s apple pie.