Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(10): 946-948, 2007
© 2007, INSInet Publication
Evaluation of Yellow-Rooted Cassava Varieties for
Differences in ß-Carotene and Gross Energy
1G.O. Agbaje, 2O. Tayo, Grace. 3G.O. Chioma and 4K.O. Ajomale
1,4Institute of Agriculture, Research and Training,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
2,3Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
Abstract: Carotenoids are precursors of vitamin A and this vitamin is required for body growth, building
of immunity against diseases and for clear eye-sight. Plants could be a cheap source of Vitamin A when
carotenoid-rich varieties are selected. Cassava varieties cultivated in Nigeria have low carotene content,
but in recent times new yellow rooted lines supposed to have high carotene were introduced for
evaluation. T wo popular varieties, TM E – 1 and TM S 30572 as checks and twenty-two yellow rooted lines
were evaluated for gross energy and ß -carotene content in the Institute of Agricultural Research and
Training, Ibadan, Nigeria. The results showed that the ß-carotene from checks were < 2.0 mg/g while their
gross energy was about 3.0 kcal/g. Among the twenty-two yellow-rooted tubers, only 7 lines have
ß -carotene contents that ranged from 2.0 to 4.0 mg/g. T he seven lines are TM S 01/1442,TM S 01/1610,
TM S 01/1224, TM S 01/1331, TM S 01/1235, TM S01/1368 and TM S01/1649. Three of the lines TM S
01/1442,TM S 01/1610 can sufficiently meet the Vitamin A daily requirements in adults with their
ß -carotene contents ranging from 3.22 -4.03mg/g and gross energy from 3.05 - 4.13 kcal/g. The flour
from these lines can be used as composites of wheat flour in bakery, poultry feed in animal nutrition and
weaning foods in industries especially in Vitamin A deficient areas in Nigeria.
Key words: Cassava, ß –carotene, gross energy.
INTRO DUCTIO N
molecule. Consequently, ß -carotene is the most potent
pro-vitamin A and it is also the most widespread.
Cassava roots are quantitatively the third most
Differences in carotenoids among cultivars/varieties
important food in the tropics, after rice and maize. It
of same crop are well documented. Selecting cassava
is an important source of calories because it provides
varieties with high ß -carotene content may contribute
60% of the daily calorific needs of the populations in
significantly to resolving the problem of vitamin A
tropical Africa and Central America. It is estimated
deficiency in poor countries. The average requirement
that it sustains more than 800 million people. Cassava
of ß-carotene recommended by W HO for adults is
has also been instrumental in alleviating the food crises
2.4mg to 3.5mg.
in many war-turn and drought ravaged parts of
The aim of this work was to assess the variation
in ß-carotene and gross energy contents of cassava
Vitamin A deficiency ranges from night blindness
lines. This will influence the selection of new cassava
to xerophthalmia and keratomalacia, leading to total
for various utilization purposes especially those
blindness. Deficiency also leads to susceptibility to
required for high quality to upgrade food value.
infection and congenital defects in animals. The
principal Vitamin A source is from animal origin,
M ATERIALS AND M ETHO DS
which has elevated cost to most population in poor
countries. The pro-vitamin A carotenoids are cheaper
Twenty-two yellow rooted and two white rooted
sources of vitamin A since they are found abundantly
cassava lines (Table 1) collected from IITA,Ibadan
were planted in October, 2004 and harvested in
Carotenoids are a group of over 600 naturally
September, 2005 from Institute of.Agricultural Research
occurring plant pigments. Structurally, Vitamin A
and Training experimental Station at Ikenne, Ogun
(retinol) is essentially one-half of the ß -carotene
Corresponding Author: G.O. Agbaje, Institute of Agriculture, Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University,
Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
J. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(10): 946-948, 2007
T able 1:
E ffect of Variety on ß -C arotene an d G ross E nergy
meet the minimum ß -carotene requirement for an adult
Values of C assava Roots.
include TM S 01/1331, T M S 01/1649, TM S 01/TM S
ß -C arotene (m g/g)
Gross Energy (Kcal/g)
01/1368 and TM S 01/1235 with ß -carotene contents
TM S 01/1662
ranging from 2.22 – 2.53 mg/g.
TM S 98/2132
The ß -carotene content of checks was low,
TM S 01/1235
0.25mg/g in TM E-1 and 1.38 mg/g in TM S 30572.
TM S 01/1371
This suggests that, the food quality of the two popular
TM S 90/01554
TM S 01/1277
varieties is low and there is need to introduce lines that
TM S 95/0379
have high food nutrient value. The gross energy of the
TM S 01/1368
checks ranged between 2.86 and 3.05 kcal/g while it
TM S 01/1663
ranged from 3 – 4.0 kcal/g in the seven lines identified
TM S 94/0330
TM S 01/1331
to have high ß -carotene content.
TM S 01/1412
The gross energy from these varieties was highest
TM S 01/1273
in TM S 01/1610 with 4.13 kcal/g while TM S 01/1442
TM S 94/0006
and TM S 01/1224 have gross energy of 3.05 and 3.23
TM S 01/1649
TM S 01/1336
Kcal/g respectively. Results indicate that TM S 01/1610
TM S 30572
is the best variety in terms of high ß carotene and
TM S 01/1413
gross energy when compared to other varieties
TM S 91/02324
TM S 01/1646
TM S 01/1442
Due to the genetic diversity in ß-carotene contents
TM S 01/1610
in the lines evaluated there is the possibility of
TM S 01/1224
enhancing the ß-carotene concentration of existing
M eans w ith sam e superscripts are not significant at p<o.o5
popular varieties that are low in this pro-vitamin.
Caterers and bakers use cassava flour at various levels
Cassava roots from each variety were washed
of inclusion in their products. W ith the recent 10%
with clean water, peeled and cut into flakes. The
inclusion of cassava flour in bread and other wheat
flakes were dried at 50oC and milled into cassava
flour products in Nigeria, the use of carotene-rich
cassava will be add to bread and other confectionary
The B-carotene content of the tubers was
products. It will improve the vitamin in the baked
determined by AOAC method (1997). 2g of samples
products, reduce the cost of production by eliminating
were hydrolysed with 25mls of 5% alcoholic KOH
the cost of inorganic vitamins and also reduce the
and extracted thrice with 50mls petroleum ether
(B.pt. 40-60oC). The petroleum ether fraction was
incidences of skin disease (Pellagra) and eye diseases
evaporated to dryness and residue taken up in 10ml
chloroform. The absorbance was measured, using
spectrophotometer at wavelength of 440 nm. The
Conclusion: 1. ß -carotene and gross energy contents
concentrations of ß- carotenoids in test samples were
differ between above cassava varieties.
read from the standard curve.
Seven of these varieties were very impressive in
The gross energy was determined against
terms of their ß -carotene contents.
therm o -c h e m ic a l-grade be nzo ic acid , using a
This diversity can be utilized by breeders to
Gallenkamp ballistic bomb calorimeter (Cam M etric
develop B-carotene rich cassava varieties and upgrade
Ltd, Cambridge, England). Analysis of variance
existing varieties. Furthermore, the food nutrient quality
(ANOVA) was used to determine the differences within
of cassava based food products will be enhanced by
the cassava lines and Duncan multiple range test was
the popularization of the B-carotene rich varieties.
used to determine the differences within the varieties at
These B -carotene rich cassava varieties can also be
95% confidence level (p<0.05).
used to supplement yellow maize in poultry feed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
ß -carotene contents differ significantly among
AOAC, 1997. Official method of analysis of the4
(Table 1) the cassava lines. The highest values were
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. AOAC
found in TM S 01/1610, T M S 01/1224 and TM S
01/1442 and it ranged from 3.22 mg/g to 4.04 mg/g.
Bauerfeind, J.A., 1972. Carotenoid Vitamin A
These can meet the optimum ß carotene required of
precursors and analysis in foods and feeds. J. Agri.
adults. Other varieties with high potential that can
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