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36. What is the main focus of the study under discussion?
a. the nuisance potential of personal music devices
b. noise leakage in personal music devices
c. the risks faced by users of personal music devices
37. What point does the study make about the high-volume setting of some music devices?
a. It should only be used for five hours a week.
b. It can be just as loud as a plane taking off.
c. It is just below the limit established by law.
38. What is true about youngsters who regularly listen to personal music devices at high volumes?
a. They will probably suffer hearing loss, but not right away.
b. They will notice serious hearing loss almost immediately.
c. They are less likely to suffer hearing loss than older people.
39. According to the report, which al ows the greatest sound exposure and is therefore riskier to use?
c. portable speakers
40. What does the European Union intend to do, now that the risk has been identified?
a. hold an EU-wide conference to discuss the problem
b. pass a law to impose limits on manufacturing
c. plan further action with the EU’s Consumer Affairs Department
41. What is the main focus of the radio segment?
a. animals that can be trained using Pavlov’s methods
b. the honeybee’s amazing sense of smel
c. a unique military defense project
42. What insects were used in earlier training experiments?
43. What have scientists trained bees to do?
a. buzz violently when explosives are present
b. distinguish between different types of explosives
c. detect the presence of a wide range of explosives
44. What did scientists find significant about the ability of the bees to detect TATP?
a. It showed that they can detect some scents better than specialized equipment.
b. It meant that they might be trained to identify and attack suicide bombers.
c. It proved they were effective even when explosives were masked by other scents.
45. Why are scientists so enthusiastic about their research?
a. because they are nearing the final stages of the project
b. because bees are predictable and so easy to train
c. because they feel their research will help save lives
What term does Gene Shaw use to describe misleading claims about a product’s environmental benefits?
a. green credentials
c. consumer affairs
Why are more and more companies so eager to appear green?
a. because they are genuinely concerned about the environment
b. because they realize there is a lot of money to be made by doing so
c. because the government has still not set high enough standards
According to Gene Shaw, what might happen if the Federal Trade Commission does not act in a timely fashion to establish
stricter standards for green advertising?
a. The term “green” will become meaningless.
b. Green products will flood the market.
c. The demand for green products will vanish.
Which of the fol owing is NOT true of the Greenwashing Index website?
a. It disapproves of the Federal Trade Commission’s greenwashing hearings.
b. It il ustrates how consumer awareness can be raised via the Internet.
c. It provides examples of greenwashing for consumers to evaluate.
What point does Gene Shaw leave his listeners with?
a. There is no such thing as a truly “green” product.
b. Don’t spend your hard-earned money on “green” products.
c. Many “green” companies are just out to get your money.
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36. What misconception do many people have about the Venus flytrap?
a. that it’s able to trap flies and other living prey
b. that it’s a tiny plant only a few inches tall
c. that it is found in many parts of the world
37. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a potential threat to the plant?
a. the area’s lack of nature reserves
b. logging and wildfire control
c. population growth and building
38. What point does Helen Hall make about poachers?
a. They no longer pose a threat to the plants.
b. Their activity frequently goes unpunished.
c. They have worked hard to protect the plant.
39. According to a representative of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, why is it so difficult to get people
excited about protecting Venus flytraps?
a. The plants aren’t as soulful as furry animals with big, brown eyes.
b. Many people simply don’t care enough to bother pushing for stronger laws.
c. The plants are low priority for most legislators and law enforcement agents.
40. What common problem is referred to by two of the agencies that Helen spoke to?
a. the absence of protective state laws
b. the lack of manpower to enforce state laws
c. fines and jail sentences that are too lenient
41. What prevents a penny from gathering deadly speed when it is thrown from a great height?
a. the height of the fall
b. the air resistance generated
c. the material the coin is made of
42. What is the grain of truth contained in the first urban legend that Mark Constantine discusses?
a. People who stand on tall buildings shouldn’t throw pennies.
b. It’s best to avoid walking on the sidewalk near the Empire State Building.
c. Getting hit by an object falling from a great height may prove fatal.
43. What point does Mark make about derailments caused by pennying train tracks?
a. His research has failed to turn up any reported occurrences.
b. They could never result from such an innocent action.
c. They have resulted in a disturbing number of deaths.
44. Why does Mark mention his grandfather?
a. He was seriously injured waiting for a streetcar to flatten a penny.
b. He led a long, happy life, despite the risky practices of his youth.
c. He taught his grandson a safe way to penny streetcar tracks.
45. What thought does Mark leave his listeners with?
a. Children should be taught the value of saving money.
b. Something must be done to stop people from pennying tracks.
c. Playing near train tracks is a potentially deadly pastime.
46. According to John Seaberg, what was so scary about the MIT professor’s findings?
a. the fact that thawing permafrost in Siberia will release gigatons of carbon dioxide
b. the fact that even bright students are ignorant about preventing global warming
c. the fact that the professor’s students scored so poorly on a test about global warming
47. What is it that John Seaberg feels most people don’t understand about carbon emissions?
a. the relationship between the carbon we emit and the carbon water and plants can absorb
b. the fact that humans are emitting much too much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
c. the sad reality that global warming has already begun and nothing can be done to stop it
48. Of the carbon dioxide emitted the previous year, how much of it remained trapped in the atmosphere?
a. almost all of it
b. only a tiny fraction of it
c. slightly more than half of it
49. What simple fact should the MIT students have understood?
a. that emissions should be capped
b. that emissions must be decreased radically and quickly
c. that global warming is already spinning out of control
50. In John’s opinion, what does the problem require?
a. a commonsense solution to global warming
b. drastic change in how we travel and use energy
c. a better comparison to replace the “bathtub” analogy
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36. What is the underlying purpose behind the Solar Decathlon?
a. to show how aesthetical y pleasing solar homes can be
b. to demonstrate what solar homes can achieve
c. to prove that solar homes are easily affordable
37. Who provides the largest amount of funding for a team’s project?
a. the students themselves
b. the U.S. Energy Department
c. wealthy graduates and corporations
38. Why is the term “decathlon” used to describe the competition?
a. because the houses must be taken apart and transported in separate pieces
b. because the houses are assessed in ten different categories
c. because the houses must comply with set rules for living off the grid
39. In addition to being completely self-powered, what other “green” element did all of the entries incorporate?
a. the use of recycled, reclaimed, or sustainably grown materials
b. the sacrifices that people must make when they live “off-the-grid”
c. the benefits of using solar power to recharge electric cars
40. What impressed the speaker about the interior of the University of Darmstadt entry?
a. the design of its solar panels
b. its cleverly designed oven
c. the energy-efficient elevator
41. How many Californian condors remained when experts decided to take drastic measures to save them?
42. According to Ethel Mil er, what is currently the main obstacle to the condor’s survival?
a. the condor’s unwil ingness to breed in captivity
b. hunters who regard the birds as pests
c. lead bul et fragments found in dead game animals
43. What measure was final y taken in California in 2007 to protect the endangered bird?
a. Legislators decided to shorten the hunting season.
b. A law was passed banning hunters from using lead bul ets.
c. More game wardens were hired to enforce the new law.
44. What did Wil iam Cornatzer and a radiologist find when they conducted CAT scans on packages of ground
a. that just under 60% of the packages were contaminated with lead
b. that the amount of lead they detected could pose no threat to humans
c. that each package contained more fragments than experts had predicted
45. What final thought does Ethel Mil er leave her listeners with?
a. Even small amounts of lead can be lethal in humans.
b. People needn’t be alarmed by the presence of lead in small amounts.
c. The danger of lead poisoning is real and must be addressed.
According to Tim Reynolds, what is true of wildfires and building fires?
a. Wildfires are easier to investigate than building fires.
b. Both types are started more often by arsonists than by Mother Nature.
c. Investigators use similar techniques to determine their origin.
Which of the fol owing is NOT a predictable characteristic of wildfires?
a. the exact path they will take once they get started
b. the way they spread outward in a V- or U-shaped pattern
c. the fact that they spread more quickly when moving uphil
Where would you expect experts to begin their investigation?
a. the fire’s point of origin
b. the widest part of the V- or U-shaped burn
c. any place that the wind changed the fire’s burn path
Which of the fol owing indicates to investigators that they are getting closer to a fire’s point of origin?
a. trees that have been damaged on one side
b. fal en blades of grass with burned tips
c. unburned tree limbs on burned ground
What point does Tim Reynolds make about finding the fire’s point of origin?
a. It does not always mean that the investigation is over.
b. It means experts will soon have the evidence they need.
c. It al ows experts to determine the identity of the arsonist
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36. What term does Simon Richie use to describe the distance that food travels from farm to plate?
a. food miles
b. greenhouse gas emissions
37. For what reason do some people attempt to maximize their consumption of locally grown foods?
a. so they can quantify what impact the food industry has on climate change
b. to ensure that all locavores have sufficient access to farmers’ markets
c. in order to curb global warming by reducing the distance food travels
38. Which percentage is associated with agricultural and industrial practices related to the growing and harvesting of food?
a. 11% of a family’s food emissions
b. 83% of a family’s food emissions
c. 13.5% of a family’s total emissions
39. According to Simon Richie, which of the following statements is true?
a. Being a locavore is the most efficient way to reduce food-based greenhouse emissions.
b. Our driving habits produce more greenhouse gas emissions than our food-related activities
c. Carbon dioxide has less impact on global warming than methane and nitrous oxide.
40. In Simon Richie’s view, what is the main strength of the Carnegie Mellon study?
a. It includes a better analysis of the impact of food miles.
b. It looks at many more aspects of the life cycle of food production
c. It excludes C0² and focuses on the impact of methane and nitrous oxide.
41. In what month of 2007 did park rangers discover that the lake had disappeared?
c. late May
42. Which of the following was NOT related to scientists’ theory that an earthquake had caused the lake’s disappearance?
a. evidence that global warming was shrinking nearby glaciers
b. the fact that a tremor had occurred the previous month
c. the sizable crack they found in the dry lake bed
43. What technical term does Margaret Wentworth use to describe a natural dam made of ice, rock, and sediment?
a. a fissure
b. a moraine
c. an avalanche
44. To what did scientists eventually attribute the lake’s disappearance?
a. water running out through the bottom of the lake
b. rising water levels causing the moraine to collapse
c. chunks of ice melting on the dry lake bed
45. Why does Margaret Wentworth mention the appearance of the lake at the end of the broadcast?
a. to point out how strange it is that no one knows exactly when it occurred
b. to underline that it’s natural for lakes to appear and disappear in Chile
c. to suggest that few people back then were talking about global warming
According to Colin Lyons, for what reason were narwhals so valued in the old days?
a. for their odd skin texture
b. for their unique tusks
c. for scientific purposes
Why are researchers so keen to learn about the narwhal’s wintering territory?
a. It plays a key role in regulating the climate of northern Europe.
b. No one has ever measured water temperature there before.
c. Narwhals have never been studied in their natural habitat before.
How do scientists plan on collecting data in this part of the ocean?
a. by enlisting dozens of narwhals to do the research for them
b. by sending oceanographers to track and observe the whales
c. by using satellite data provided by a limited number of whales
According to Colin Lyons, why is tagging narwhals so challenging?
a. The whales swim off when they see the researchers’ orange suits.
b. The whales do not react calmly to being netted and restrained.
c. The water is so icy that it makes it difficult to net the whales.
What point does Colin Lyons make at the end of the program?
a. The data will put oceanographers on equal footing with atmospheric scientists.
b. This is the first time that satellite-tag research has been done on narwhals.
c. Without the narwhals, scientists would have no way to access vital data.
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36. What astonished Marcia Trent when she began to read The Unnatural History of the Sea?
a. how little we still understand about the sea
b. how plentiful sea life used to be
c. how difficult it is to be a fisherman now
37. Which factor has NOT contributed to the dramatic rise in the global demand for fish?
a. increased prosperity in China
b. global health trends
c. the state of underwater ecosystems
38. Of the following, which does Marcia Trent say has provided the global fishing industry with the financial means
to bring world fisheries to the brink of collapse?
a. government subsidies
b. inadequate stock management
c. modern fishing technology
39. According to statistics mentioned in the passage, what percentage of fish stocks around the world are
40. Which of the following best sums up the idea that Marcia Trent leaves with her listeners?
a. Despite what scientists say, the riches of the seas are still inexhaustible.
b. Technology has allowed us to fish areas we never dreamed possible.
c. We have fished the seas to a point where fish stocks may never recover.
41. What does William Anderson say about students who do NOT ride buses to school?
a. They are less likely to suffer from childhood obesity.
b. A large majority of them each lunch at fast-food restaurants.
c. No one monitors where they go before and after school.
42. What problematic trend does the University of Illinois document?
a. that fast-food outlets in the USA continue to open at an alarming rate
b. that over 33% of secondary schools are close to fast-food outlets
c. that urban schools are seldom located near fast-food outlets
43. What sets the University of Illinois study apart from other recent studies?
a. It showed that 78% of all schools in Chicago are near fast-food outlets.
b. It showed that the problem existed in four separate communities in Atlanta.
c. It showed that the trend existed for secondary schools all over the USA.
44. According to the study, what should schools focus their efforts on to ensure that healthy food options are
available to students?
a. enhancing the food environment both on and off school grounds
b. improving school cafeterias and vending machine offerings
c. raising student awareness of the dangers of childhood obesity
45. What do the researchers think could be done to address the problem at the community level?
a. see that all secondary schools impose a “closed-campus” lunchtime policy
b. revise planning and zoning policies so fast-food outlets are not built near schools
c. keep track of all students’ eating habits inside and outside of school
According to Neil Reynolds, why are athletes who exercise outside significantly more at risk than
a. They breathe more deeply and more frequently.
b. They breathe in much higher levels of pollutants.
c. They fail to check air-quality forecasts before exercising outside.
Of the following three health problems, which does Neil Reynolds consider the least serious?
a. premature aging of the lungs caused by ground-level ozone
b. irritation and inflammation caused by fine particulates
c. damage to blood vessels caused by fine particulates
What is tPA?
a. a form of fine particulate found in diesel exhaust
b. a chemical that inhibits blood and oxygen from reaching muscles
c. a naturally occurring protein that helps dissolve blood clots
According to one expert, which condition would pose more risk to a runner?
a. repeated exposure to high levels of pollution over months or years
b. a large dose on a single occasion
What is the main gist of the message Neil Reynolds leaves with his listeners?
a. Running and cycling are healthy activities only when practiced indoors.
b. When caution is exercised, it’s beneficial and safe for us to run and cycle.
c. People who live in polluted areas should drastically limit their exercise.
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36. Why are officials at the World Health Organization so excited about the Safer Surgical Checklist?
a. It resembles the safety checklist used by airplane pilots.
b. It is simple, effective, and costs little or nothing to implement.
c. If it succeeds, it will make the stethoscope obsolete.
37. What point does Julia Framingham make when she cites statistics from studies done in the United Kingdom?
a. The public health establishment needs to set new priorities.
b. The situation in the United Kingdom is far from perfect.
c. The problem is not just limited to developing nations.
38. On average how many patients a year die in the United Kingdom due to treatment error?
a. eight million
b. one in eight
c. two thousand
39. Statistical y speaking, exactly how effective has the checklist been in reducing the number of deaths and complications
in the eight health centers that piloted the program?
a. It’s too early to quantify the results.
b. They’ve been reduced by at least 64 percent.
c. The rate of errors has dropped significantly.
40. How far-reaching are the World Health Organization’s plans for the checklist in the near future?
a. They hope to reach hospitals servicing 75% of the world’s total population.
b. The plan is to start small, by starting with hospitals in five countries.
c. They began by piloting the checklist in eight hospitals around the world.
41. At the start of the program, what American institution does Ted David say has become endangered?
a. the natural world
b. the two-week family vacation
c. the workplace
42. In the view of family psychologists that Ted David interviewed, what is it that helps brings families together?
b. their daily routine
c. shared adventure
43. What is it that 137 countries have that the United States lacks?
a. laws that guarantee minimum paid leave
b. pensions and health plans
c. a six-week vacation
44. From Ted David’s perspective, why is it that Americans who do have paid-vacation benefits often choose not to take the full
amount of time they are entitled to?
a. They are incurable workaholics.
b. They fear it will lead to their being fired.
c. They think their colleagues will resent them.
45. Which of the fol owing best sums up the point that Ted David makes in the closing portion of the program?
a. More parents should support programs like No Child Left Inside.
b. The economy will flourish if Americans start taking vacations again.
c. We should not lose sight of the values that are important in life.
According to Barry Rivers, who are the unsung heroes of the natural world?
a. tigers and polar bears
b. plants and invertebrates
c. yew trees and rosy periwinkles
Which of the fol owing was the inspiration for an energy-efficient fan that is now starting to be used in computers and
a. the Namibian beetle
b. the spiral design of mollusk shells
c. super-sticky mussel proteins
What point does Barry Rivers make about extinctions?
a. There is nothing at all natural about them.
b. They are usually disastrous in the long term.
c. They often have undesirable short-term consequences.
What impact has the collapse of the mussel population had in the Chesapeake Bay area?
a. It’s led to a major decline in the area’s fresh- and salt-water habitats.
b. Filtrations plants in the bay area have been forced to shut down.
c. Fisheries have started to thrive in ways that were not anticipated.
Which of the fol owing best sums up Barry Rivers’ view of the Endangered Species Act?
a. It is flawed and should probably be repealed.
b. It has failed to protect both mammals and invertebrates.
c. It should be doing more to protect at-risk invertebrates.
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36. What problem related to bottled water does Jeremy Turnbull say he would rather NOT focus on in today’s broadcast?
a. the growth potential of the industry
b. the industry’s negative environmental impact
c. the industry’s misleading advertising practices
37. Worldwide, on average, how many tons of plastic go into the making of plastic water bottles each year?
a. 155 billion
b. 2.7 million
c. 1.5 million
38. What is the main point that Jeremy Turhbull makes about the overall process of producing and transporting
a. The process is not at all friendly to the environment.
b. The process is overly dependent on crude oil.
c. Something should be done to make the process less polluting.
39. Why does Jeremy mention the BIOTA company?
a. They have launched a unique recycling scheme.
b. Their bottles take longer than most to degrade.
c. They are trying to improve the situation.
40. According to Jeremy, what is it that most people don’t realize about bottles made from recycled plastic?
a. So few of these bottles are actually recycled.
b. There is much more new plastic in them than recycled plastic.
c. Huge amounts of energy are used to ship them back from China.
41. According to Ann Struthers, what piece of conventional wisdom has recently been verified by scientific evidence?
a. The word satiety means the feeling of being full.
b. Fullness is a feeling that comes from the the stomach.
c. Slow eaters need less food to feel full than fast eaters do.
42. At which meal during the 2004 study did subjects eat the most?
a. the meal where they ate at their normal pace
b. the meal that was partially controlled by beeps
c. the meal that was totally controlled by beeps
43. In the 2006 study, what happened when the subjects slowed down their eating rate by chewing each mouthful 20 times?
a. Their feeling of fullness was short-lived.
b. They ate more food in less time.
c. They ate less, and felt full for a longer time.
44. Approximately how long does it take the body to signal the brain that it has had enough food?
a. an average of 29 minutes
b. up to 20 minutes
c. about 60 minutes
45. According to the scientific explanation, what must happen before the body alerts the brain that it is full?
a. The eater must stop taking bites.
b. The stomach must be empty of food.
c. Food must reach the intestines.
What is the medical name for the crusty material that forms inside the walls of the arteries as a result of atherosclerosis?
a. pasty sludge
What may result if some of this crusty material breaks away from the walls of the artery?
b. blood clots
Which of the following is something that is not yet completely understood by the medical community?
a. why diabetes impairs the body’s ability to combat plaque-forming substances
b. the strong link between diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and death
c. the reason people with heart disease often develop type 2 diabetes
Why did researchers decide to focus on calcium build-up in the arteries of their diabetic subjects?
a. It is a better indicator of diabetes than a patient’s glucose level.
b. It is rarely present in the arteries of people with type 2 diabetes
c. It’s a main ingredient of plaque and is easily seen on CAT scans.
From what the results of the study showed, which group would be least likely to benefit from a program of intensive
a. diabetics with low levels of plaque in their arteries
b. diabetics with high levels of plaque in their arteries
c. diabetics who are diagnosed at a young age
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36. What is true regarding the sinking of the Explorer off the coast of Antarctica?
a. It took the Antarctic Treaty countries by surprise.
b. Observers had predicted the likelihood of such an event.
c. The incident was a disaster of tragic proportions.
37. What point does Ronald Dolan make about the growth of ship tourism to Antarctica?
a. It is roughly four times greater than in the early 1990s.
b. It has decreased since the sinking of the Explorer.
c. It has leveled off at about 28,000 visitors a year.
38. According to Ronald Dolan, what impact has the sinking of the Explorer had on Antarctica’s fragile ecosystem?
a. It was responsible for the loss of hundreds of lives.
b. It resulted in an oil spill of over 48,000 gallons.
c. It has had no impact as yet, but dangers exist.
39. What makes it particularly difficult to control tourism in Antarctica or make plans for rescue operations or environmental
clean-ups, should they become necessary?
a. There has not been a government in Antarctica since 1959.
b. Resolutions of the Antarctic Treaty nations are not legally binding.
c. Bad feelings exist between the Antarctic Treaty nations.
40. In the opinion of the observers that Ronald Dolan interviewed, which of the following could make the most impact in terms of
establishing strict guidelines for tourism in the area?
a. the Antarctic Treaty nations
b. the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators
c. the governments of countries who send tourists to the region
41. According to the often-quoted medical saying mentioned at the beginning of the program, what is the best way to reduce the length
of a common cold?
a. Symptoms should be treated aggressively.
b. Symptoms should be ignored completely.
c. Neither method is effective; the cold must simply run its course.
42. What did the two studies demonstrate about nasal sprays containing alpha-inteferon?
a. Cold sufferers should always use them at the first sign of a cold.
b. Families who use them suffer 40% fewer colds than those who don’t.
c. They are an extremely effective way of minimizing cold symptoms.
43. According to Dana Hodgkins, what is the major drawback of the treatment?
a. its affordability
b. its side effects
c. the time it will take to get approved
44. Which group is least likely to experience the benefits of alpha-interferon in the near future?
a. school children
b. asthma sufferers
c. cancer patients with low resistance
45. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea discussed in the last part of the program?
a. Colds are caused by a potentially dangerous form of bacteria.
b. Antibiotics should not be taken to combat the common cold.
c. More and more bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.
What technical-sounding name do experts give to the vast expanse of rubbish floating around in the Pacific Ocean?
a. the Great Pacific Garbage Patch
b. the trash vortex
c. plastic soup
What is one of the points that Tom Fields makes about the plastic in the vast expanse of garbage?
a. It never gets close enough to land to come on shore.
b. The swirling currents pull it to the bottom of the ocean floor.
c. The great majority of it comes from land-based activities.
According to oceanographer Charles Moore, what must happen to prevent the Great Pacific Garbage Patch from doubling in size
over the next decade?
a. People need to reduce their use of disposable plastic.
b. Boats should be banned from entering the Garbage Patch.
c. A massive clean-up effort needs to be organized.
What are nurdles?
a. a biodegradable form of plastic
b. tiny bits of fragmented plastic
c. plastic found in the stomachs of sea animals
Which of the fol owing best summarizes the main idea discussed in the last part of the program?
a. Nurdles have pushed marine animals to the edge of extinction.
b. Nurdles may contain deadly amounts of DDT and other toxins.
c. Nurdles are a threat to the entire food chain, including humans.