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The effects of the forest fire on anatomical and ecophysiological resistance of tree species was investigated in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest, an area about 5000 ha, in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The forest was impacted seriously by forest fire in 1998. This forest land is dominated by Dipterocarpaceae species, especially Shorea spp., with some Dryobalanops, Cotylelobium and Anisoptera species . The investigation was conducted in a single plot of burned primary forest with scattered gaps. The gaps had mixed pioneer and non-pioneer species, such as Eusideroxylon zwageri, Macaranga hypoleuca, Shorea laevis, Macaranga gigantea, Palaquium rostratum and Polyalthia sumatrana.
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Fire Resistance of Tree Species
3 in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest,
East Kalimantan, Indonesia
A. Delmy1
Abstract
The ef ects of the forest fire on anatomical and ecophysiological resistance of tree species was
investigated in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest, an area about 5000 ha, in East Kalimantan,
Indonesia. The forest was impacted seriously by forest fire in 1998. This forest land is dominated
by Dipterocarpaceae species, especial y Shorea spp., with some Dryobalanops, Cotylelobium
and Anisoptera species. The investigation was conducted in a single plot of burned primary
forest with scat ered gaps. The gaps had mixed pioneer and non-pioneer species, such as
Eusideroxylon zwageri, Macaranga hypoleuca, Shorea laevis, Macaranga gigantea, Palaquium
rostratum and Polyalthia sumatrana. Tree density (>10 cm diameter) was 337 ha-1. After the
forest fire there were 147 dead trees ha-1 mainly Macaranga hypoleuca, Macaranga gigantea,
Shorea laevis, Palaquium rostatum, Polyalthis sumatrana and Hydnocarpus polypetala. There
were 41 sprouted tree species ha-1, mainly Eusideroxylon zwageri, Litsea sp., Durio carinatus,
Gironniera nervosa and Diospyros curaniopsis. There were 151 living, but unsprouted, trees ha-1
dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri, Shorea laevis, Shorea palembanica, Palaquium
macrophyl um and Shorea smithiana, The numbers of dead and sprouting trees were related to
the fire conditions and only some tree species had sprouts. Bark thickness was positively cor elated
with fire resistance and the healthiness of the trees in the canopy.
INTRODUCTION
This study aimed to (1) recognise tree
species surviving fire, (2) identify species
Mulawarman University Education Forest at Bukit remaining alive by producing sprouts, and (3)
Soeharto, East Kalimantan is protection forest and determine the dominance of tree species surviving
wel -reserved tropical rain forest dominated by by producing sprouts.
many Dipterocarpaceae species. For more than 8
months during 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 it was
exposed to extreme desiccation and a large area METHODS
was burnt. In 1982, 3.1 mil ion ha of forest was
burned in East Kalimantan and in 1998 fire damaged Site Description
5.5 mil ion ha. The pat ern of forest damage and The research area is in Mulawarman University
destruction is dif erent from place to place. Climate, Education Forest, which lies between 0
weather, and vegetation al influence the pat ern of
°50' -
1
burning. Forest fire has seriously reduced the quality °01' S latitude and between 115°36' - 116°54' E
longitude, 60 km south of Samarinda, East
of the forest from ecological and economical points Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Education Forest is
of view. One serious ef ect is that most trees in the part of Bukit Soeharto Protection Forest and has
early growing stages are burned. Tree species having an area of 5000 ha. The research sample plots
≥10 cm diameter at breast height have dif erent fire
resistance related to anatomical and 1
ecophysiological features.
Faculty of Forestry, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, East
Kalimantan, Indonesia.

28
A. Delmy
have an area of 1.2 ha (100 m x 120 m) in primary Dipterocarpus cornutus, Palaquium gut a and
forest burnt in the 1998 fire. Soil type is mainly Diospyros curaniopsis.
red yel ow podsolic originating from sedimentary
rocks and non-volcanic sediments. It is 60-120 Field Survey
m above sea level with undulating topography Diameter was measured for al individuals having
and moderate to steep slopes ranging from 20° ≥10 cm diameter (bh), or at 20 cm above the
to 45
but ress line. Trees were identified in the
° (Anon. 1987). The climate is type A with
Q value 13.04% in the classification of Schmidt Dendrology Laboratory, Faculty of Forestry. Fire
and Ferguson (1951). Mean annual rainfal is effects were determined by the height and depth
2270 mm with the monthly mean 164 mm without of fire injuries on the trunk. Bark thickness was
any dry months. Daily average relative humidity measured on tree species with sprouts produced
is 83% with a range 81-86%. Daily average after the fire and Canopy condition was
temperature is 27.2
determined based on the amount of green leaves
°C. Wind direction varies
seasonal y and daily with the average velocity in in a whole canopy and expressed as a percentage.
the range 40-70 km hour-1.
The vegetation is typical Southeast Asian
tropical rain forest dominated by Dipterocarpaceae RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
species, especial y the genera Shorea,
Dipterocarpus, Anisoptera, Dryobalanops, and The main reasons that the Education Forest has
Cotylelobium. The Dipterocarpaceae family is not escaped fire damage are the long drought
period, it is adjacent to areas where vil agers
fol owed by Lauraceae, Euphorbiaceae, actively practise slash and burn agriculture, and
Sapotaceae, Myristicaceae, Ebenaceae, charcoal production within and sur ounding the
Burseraceae, Moraceae and Annonaceae in order forest. As a result, the Education Forest is not
of dominance (Okimori and Matius 1991). The primary virgin forest but seriously degraded
dominance order of species is: Eusideroxylon primary and/or secondary forest with many gaps
zwageri, Shorea laevis, Mal otus echinatus, (Table 1).
Table 1. Importance rating of the main species before the fire
Species
F1
N
BA (m2)
FR (%)
DR (%)
DoR (%)
IV (%)
Eusideroxylon zwageri
22
44
5.00
14.6
10.96
17.2
42.6
Macaranga hypoleuca
18
36
1.38
11.9
8.9
4.7
25.5
Shorea laevis
8
16
3.61
5.0
4.0
12.4
21.3
Macaranga gigantea
12
22
0.66
7.3
5.4
2.3
15.0
Palaquium rostratum
13
18
0.53
5.6
4.4
1.8
11.9
Polyalthia sumatrana
9
15
0.43
5.0
3.7
1.5
10.1
Shorea smithiana
4
5
2.15
1.3
1.3
7.4
10.0
Palaquium macrophyl um
7
11
0.60
3.3
2.7
2.1
8.1
Shorea ovalis
4
6
0.90
1.7
1.5
3.1
6.2
Eugenia sp.
5
8
0.45
2.7
2.0
1.6
6.2
Dacryodes rostrata
8
8
0.26
2.7
2.0
0.9
5.6
Litsea sp.
6
6
0.55
2.0
1.5
1.9
5.4
Dialium annuum
6
7
0.34
2.3
1.8
1.2
5.3
Hydnocarpus polypetala
6
8
0.15
2.7
2.0
0.5
5.1
Gluta wallichii
5
6
0.27
1.7
1.5
0.9
4.1
Shorea lamel ata
3
3
0.67
1.0
0.8
2.3
4.1
Diospyros curaniopsis
5
6
0.19
1.7
1.5
0.7
3.8
Shorea parvifolia
2
3
0.69
0.7
0.8
2.4
3.8
Shorea leprosula
4
4
0.43
1.3
1.0
1.5
3.8
Eugenia sibulaneensis
3
4
0.48
1.0
1.0
1.7
3.6
1 F (frequency); N (number of individuals); BA (basal area ); FR (relative frequency); DR (relative density);
DoR (relative dominance); IV (importance value)

Fire Resistance of Tree Species in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
29
Of the 20 dominant species before the forest once logged in the 1970s. This plot area seems to
was burnt in 1998 (Table 1), two pioneer species, have been left unlogged because of very steep
Macaranga hypoleuca and Macaranga gigantea, topography, so many emergent trees remain.
were very common after Eusideroxylon zwageri and
The forest fire kil ed most pioneer species,
Shorea laevis. Other non-pioneer species are very particularly Macaranga spp. (Table 2). Three
common in primary forest. Macaranga hypoleuca species, Macaranga hypoleuca, M. gigantea and
and Macaranga gigantea are often found M. triloba could not tolerate to heat of the fire
gregariously in gaps where they grow fast and form although their bark was not burnt. Their bark is
homogenous stands. In Kutai National Park, smooth and thin (2-3 mm) so heat can penetrate
Macaranga gigantea is a major species in secondary easily. Trunk bark thickness, fire heat intensity and
forest along the sides of logging roads (Tagawa 1988). exposure time are factors influencing the extent of
Bratawinata (1988) made a similar observation in damage. For example, trunk bark thickness of
Bukit Soeharto Forest Reserve and Whitmore (1975) primary species varied very widely, from 2-13 mm.
found stands of Macaranga gigantea in open areas Despite having bark thickness of 13 mm, Shorea
at Sungai Kroh, Malaysia. A high proportion of buried leprosula and Shorea parvifolia were kil ed and it
seeds are pioneer species, including Macaranga spp., may be assumed the fire was more severe or the
that remain dormant in the forest floor at a depth of exposure time longer. The structure of outer bark,
15 cm (Delmy 1996).
inner bark and cambium dif ers among species and
The non-pioneer tree species in Table 1 are varies with age (Bratawinata 1995). The relationship
commonly found in climax primary forest, some between diameter classes and death rates of
of them are emergents such as Shorea laevis, individual trees shows a lower death rate the higher
S.smithiana, S. ovalis, S. lamel ata, S. parvifolia the diameter class (Table 3). Tree with a bark
and Dialium annuum. According to the historical thickness ranging from 1-5 mm were more often
information, Bukit Soeharto Forest Reserve was kil ed than those with thicker bark (Table 4).
Table 2. Importance rating of dead tree species after the fire
Species
F1
N
BA (m2)
FR (%)
DR (%)
DoR (%) IV (%)
Macaranga hypoleuca
15
35
1.26
11.4
19.6
15.0
45.9
Macaranga gigantea
12
22
0.66
9.1
12.3
7.9
29.3
Shorea laevis
5
8
1.44
3.8
4.5
17.1
25.4
Palaquium rostratum
11
14
0.35
8.3
10.6
4.2
23.1
Polyalthia sumatrana
9
13
0.35
6.8
7.3
4.2
18.3
Hydnocarpus polypetala
6
7
0.14
4.6
3.9
1.6
10.1
Shorea parvifolia
1
1
0.68
0.8
0.6
8.1
9.4
Shorea smithiana
2
2
0.53
1.5
1.1
6.3
8.9
Shorea leprosula
3
3
0.36
2.3
1.7
4.3
8.2
Dialiun annuum
1
6
0.34
0.8
3.4
4.1
8.2
Dacryodes rostrata
5
5
0.09
3.8
2.8
1.1
7.7
Macaranga triloba
4
4
0.13
3.0
2.2
1.5
6.8
Artocarpus elasticus
2
3
0.17
1.5
1.7
2.1
5.3
Litsea sp.
3
3
0.09
2.3
1.7
1.1
5.0
Shorea ovalis
3
3
0.08
2.3
1.7
1.0
4.9
Pternandra azurea
3
3
0.06
2.3
1.7
0.7
4.6
Polyalthia glauca
3
3
0.05
2.3
1.7
0.7
4.6
Eugenia sp.
2
2
0.13
1.5
1.1
1.6
4.2
Hopea mengarawan
2
2
0.10
1.5
1.1
1.1
3.8
Aporusa sp.
2
2
0.09
1.5
1.1
1.0
3.7
1 F (frequency); N (number of individuals); BA (basal area ); FR (relative frequency); DR (relative density); DoR (relative
dominance); IV (importance value)

30
A. Delmy
Table 3. Relationship between diameter class and tree condition
Diameter class Tree condition
(cm)
Dead trees Sprouted trees Living trees, no sprouts Total number of trees
(%)
10-19
54.5
9.9
35.5
211
20-29
42.8
10.1
47.3
89
>30
21.9
18.1
60.0
105
Mean
43.5
12.1
44.4
405
Table 4. Number of dead trees in dif erent diameter and bark classes
Diameter class
Bark thickness classes (mm)
(cm)
1-<2
2-<3
3-< 4
4-<5
5-<6
6-<7
>7
Total
10 - 19
4
29
57
24
-
-
1
115
20 - 29
-
14
6
7
3
3
5
38
> 30
-
-
5
9
1
1
7
23
Total
4
43
68
40
4
4
13
176
Tree species that survived with and without and Litsea costalis, have sprouts mainly in >30 cm
sprouts are shown in Tables 5 and 6. A sprout is a diameter classes. Those with sprouts only in <20
new shoot which emerges lateral y from the trunk. cm diameter classes are: Diospyros borneensis,
Sprouts wil general y appear if the plant suffers Eugenia sp., Elatriospermum tapoz, Macaranga
severe disturbance its growth, e.g. damage by forest hypoleuca, Nephelium eriopetalum, Polyalthia
fire or logging operations. Only certain tree species sumatrana, Pentace laxiflora, Palaquium rostratum
can produce sprouts natural y, and it seems to and Scorodocarpus borneensis. This situation
depend on the degree of disturbance. Among 20 suggests that occur ence of sprouts is randomly
sprouted tree species, Eusideroxylon zwageri was af ected by diameter classes.
prominent fol owed by Litsea sp., Durio carinatus,
Sprouting trees cluster in the medium bark
Gironniera nervosa, and Diospyros curaniopsis. thickness (2-6 mm) class and few trees have very
Eusideroxylon zwageri produces sprouts easily and thick bark (Table 8). There are less sprouted trees
no dead trees were found. It can also produce about in diameter class (20-<30 cm) than in classes (10-
10-20 sprouts on each tree and these sprouts drop <20 cm) and (>30 cm). This indicates that there is
when stem diameter reaches 20 cm (Beekman no cor elation between diameter and bark thicknes
1949). As shown in Tables 6 and 7, Eusideroxylon (Table 9). It appears that many of non-sprouted tree
zwageri was also prominent among the tree species species survived in high bark thickness classes. It
that survived without sprouts. It is clear that only is therefore not possible to classify fire resistance
some tree species can produce sprouts and only on the basis of stem diameter and bark
sprouting is very dependent on environmental thickness. In burnt forest areas most of the canopy
factors such as degree of damage, humidity and was changed drastical y by drying out of some
temperature (Bratawinata 1995).
branches or the whole crown in dead trees. The
Eusideroxylon zwageri is present in al relationship between a healthy canopy condition
diameter classes with and without sprouts. Other and the number of individuals of sprouted and non-
tree species are not as consistent e.g. Diospyros sprouted trees is shown in Tables 10 and 11.
borneensis, D. curaniopsis, and Eugenia sp., are
The distribution of sprouted individuals
present in al diameter classes without sprouts and trees varies randomly among the three diameter
present with sprouts in <30 cm diameter classes. classes. Sprouted trees are found in relatively large
Other species, such as Artocarpus anisophyl us, numbers in poor canopy (80% of the total) whereas
Cryptocaria crassinervis. Dacryodes rostrata, non-sprouted tree species occur where there is a
Durio carinatus, Endiandra sp., Gironniera nervosa healthy canopy.

Fire Resistance of Tree Species in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
31
Table 5. Importance value of sprouted tree species after forest fire
Species
F1
N
BA (m2)
FR (%)
DR (%)
DoR (%) IV (%)
Eusideroxylon zwageri
13
20
2.71
31.7
41.7
63.4
136.8
Litsea sp.
2
2
0.28
4.9
4.2
6.6
15.7
Durio carinatus
2
1
0.19
4.9
2.1
4.5
11.5
Gironniera nervosa
2
2
0.10
4.9
4.2
2.4
11.5
Diospyros curaniopsis
2
2
0.03
4.9
4.2
0.81
9.9
Palaquium rostratum
2
2
0.03
4.9
4.2
0.78
9.8
Durio grif ithi
1
2
0.14
2.4
4.2
3.2
9.8
Dacryodes rostrata
1
1
0.11
2.4
2.1
2.7
7.2
Litsea costalis
1
1
0.10
2.4
2.1
2.3
6.8
Endiandra sp.
1
1
0.09
2.4
2.1
2.0
6.5
Artocarpus anisophyl us
1
1
0.08
2.4
2.1
1.9
6.4
Pometia pinnata
1
1
0.06
2.4
2.1
1.4
6.0
Sarcotheca sp.
1
1
0.05
2.4
2.1
1.2
5.8
Palaquium hexandrum
1
1
0.04
2.4
2.1
0.97
5.5
Diospyros borneensis
1
1
0.03
2.4
2.1
0.67
5.2
Elatriospermum tapoz
1
1
0.03
2.4
2.1
0.60
5.1
Cryptocaria crassinervis
1
1
0.02
2.4
2.1
0.53
5.1
Macaranga hypoleuca
1
1
0.02
2.4
2.1
0.47
5.0
Nephelium eriopetalum
1
1
0.02
2.4
2.1
0.47
5.0
Polyalthia sumatrana
1
1
0.02
2.4
2.1
0.47
5.0
1 F (frequency); N (number of individuals); BA (basal area ); FR (relative frequency); DR (relative density);
DoR (relative dominance); IV (importance value)
Table 6. Importance value of surviving tree species without sprouts after forest fire
Species
F1
N
BA (m2)
FR (%)
DR (%)
DoR (%) IV (%)
Eusideroxylon zwageri
16
24
2.28
10.6
13.9
13.1
37.6
Shorea laevis
3
7
2.42
2.0
4.1
13.9
19.9
Shorea palembanica
1
1
2.42
0.7
0.6
13.9
15.1
Palaquium macrophyl um
7
10
0.60
4.6
5.8
3.5
13.9
Shorea smithiana
2
2
1.60
1.3
1.2
9.2
11.7
Diospyros curaniopsis
5
5
0.19
3.3
2.9
1.1
7.3
Diospyros borneensis
4
5
0.25
2.7
2.9
1.4
7.0
Gluta walichi
4
4
0.23
2.7
2.3
1.4
6.3
Palaquium rostratum
4
4
0.18
2.7
2.3
1.0
6.0
Myristica sp.
4
4
0.11
2.7
2.3
0.6
5.6
Eugenia sp.
2
4
0.30
1.3
2.3
1.7
5.3
Shorea leptoclados
1
1
0.64
0.7
0.6
3.7
4.9
Eugenia surangarianum
3
3
0.12
2.0
1.7
0.7
4.4
Neesia sp.
2
3
0.23
1.3
1.7
1.3
4.4
Knema linifolia
3
3
0.11
2.0
1.7
0.6
4.4
Dil enia grandifolia
1
1
0.43
0.7
0.6
2.5
3.7
Garcinia macrophylla
2
2
0.19
1.3
1.2
1.1
3.6
Diospyros macrophyl a
2
3
0.09
1.3
1.7
0.5
3.6
Drypetes neglecta
2
2
0.16
1.3
1.2
0.9
3.4
Artocarpus elasticus
2
2
0.150
1.3
1.2
0.9
3.3
1 F (frequency); N (number of individuals); BA (basal area ); FR (relative frequency); DR (relative density);
DoR (relative dominance); IV (importance value)

32
A. Delmy
Table 7. Species with and without sprouts according to diameter classes
Species
1Species present with and without sprouts
according to diameter classes
(cm)
10-<20
20-<30
>30
Artocarpus anisophyl us
*
-
+
Cryptocaria crassinervis
*
-
+
Durio grif ithi
+
*
+
Dacryodes rostrata
*
-
+
Durio carinatus
-
-
+
Endiandra sp.
*
-
+
Gironniera nervosa
*
-
+
Litsea costalis
-
-
+
Diospros borneensis
+/*
*
*
Diospyros curaniopsis
*
+/*
*
Eusideroxylon zwageri
+/*
+/*
+/*
Litsea sp.
-
+
+/*
Knema linifolia
*
+/*
-
Pometia pinnata
-
+
-
Sarcotheca sp.
-
+
*
Palaquium hexandrum
-
+
-
Eugenia sp.
+/*
*
*
Elatriospermum tapoz
+/*
-
-
Macaranga hypoleuca
+
-
*
Nephelium eriopetalum
+
-
-
Poplyalthia sumatrana
+/*
*
-
Pentace laxiflora
+
-
-
Palaquium rostratum
+/*
-
*
Scorodocarpus borneensis
+/*
-
*
1 (+) present with sprouts (*) present without sprouts (-) absent
Table 8. Number of trees in dif erent diameter and bark thickness classes in sprouted trees
Diameter class
Bark thickness class
(cm) (mm)
1 - < 2
2 - <3
3 - < 4
4 - <5
5 - <6
6 - < 7
> 7
Total
10-< 20
-
4
11
3
1
-
2
21
20-< 30
-
1
2
2
3
-
1
9
> 30
-
-
3
4
7
-
5
19
Total
-
5
16
9
11
-
8
49
Table 9. Number of trees in dif erent diameter and bark thickness classes in trees surviving without sprouts
Diameter class
Bark thickness class
(cm) (mm)
1 - < 2
2 - <3
3 - < 4
4 - <5
5 - <6
6 - < 7
> 7
Total
10-<20
-
5
28
20
7
5
10
75
20-<30
-
1
5
5
9
9
13
42
>30
-
-
9
3
8
9
34
63
Total
-
6
42
28
24
23
57
180

Fire Resistance of Tree Species in Bukit Soeharto Education Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
33
Table 10. Number of sprouted tree species and canopy health and stem diameter classes
Diameter class
Canopy health class
(cm)
(%)
0 - <25
25 - <50
50 - <75
75 - 100
Total
10-< 20
8
5
1
7
21
20-< 30
4
2
-
3
9
> 30
2
-
4
13
19
Total
14
7
5
23
49
Table 11. Number of non-sprouted tree species and canopy health and stem diameter classes
Diameter class
Canopy health class
(cm)
(%)
0 - <25
25 - <50
50 - <75
75 - 100
Total
10-< 20
2
6
10
57
75
20-< 30
1
4
2
35
42
> 30
3
4
4
52
63
Total
6
14
16
144
180
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Anonymous, 1987. Design Engineering Taman

Most of pioneer tree species, and some
primary tree species, with smal stem
Hutan Raya Bukit Soeharto.Departemen
diameters were kil ed by the 1998 fire.
Kehutanan, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan
Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam, Jakarta.

Only certain primary forest species,
especial y Eusideroxylon zwageri, produced
Beekman, 1949. Houtlet in Indonesia H Veenman
sprouts.
And Zonen Waginegen.Terjemahan
Wiratmoko Soekotjo. Fakultas Kehutanan

There was no apparent correlation between
stem diameter and sprouting, and bark
Institut Pertanian, Bogor.
thickness and sprouting so inherent
Bratawinata, A. A. 1995. Keberhasilan
characteristics are largely responsible for the
pertumbuhan Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri T
sprouting of certain species.
et B) di Bukit Soeharto, Fakultas Kehutanan,
Unmul, Samarinda, East Kalimantan.

Occur ence of dead, sprouted and non-
sprouted trees is correlated with the state of
Delmy, A. 1996. Populasi biji jenis pioneer pada
health of the tree canopy.
lantai hutan sekunder berbeda umur di Hutan
Pendidikan Bukit Soeharto, Samarinda, East

Occur ence of dead and sprouted trees
seemed closely related to fire conditions such
Kalimantan.
as intensity of the fire and/or period of
Okimori,Y. and Matius, P. 1991. Change of
exposure.
vegetation and structure of lowland dipterocarp
forest after forest fire, Bukit Soeharto, East

A single factor, such as stem diameter or stem
Kalimantan. The Tropical Rain Forest Research
bark thickness, cannot explain the fire
Project ( JICA).
resistance of tree species.

34
A. Delmy
Richards, P.W. 1964. The tropical rain forest: an
ecological study, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, Great Britain.
Schmidt, F.H. and Ferguson, J.H. 1951. Rainfal
types based on wet and dry periods for
Indonesia with western New Guinea.
Kementrian Perhubungan Djawatan
Meteorologi dan Geofisika Verhandelingen No
42. Djakarta.
Tagawa, H. 1988. Change of vegetation in Kutai
National Park, East Kalimantan. Kagosima
University Research Centre For the South
Pacific.
Whitmore, T.C. 1975. Tropical rain forests of the
Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 352p.

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